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**Lecture 2 Part a: Numerical Measures**

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GOALS Calculate the arithmetic mean, weighted mean, median, mode, and geometric mean. Explain the characteristics, uses, advantages, and disadvantages of each measure of location. Compute and interpret the range, mean deviation, variance, and standard deviation. Understand the characteristics, uses, advantages, and disadvantages of each measure of dispersion. Understand Chebyshev’s theorem and the Empirical Rule as they relate to a set of observations.

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**Characteristics of the Mean**

The arithmetic mean is the most widely used measure of location. It requires the interval scale. Its major characteristics are: All values are used. It is unique. The sum of the deviations from the mean is 0. It is calculated by summing the values and dividing by the number of values.

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**Arithmetic Mean The most common measure of central tendency**

(continued) The most common measure of central tendency Mean = sum of values divided by the number of values Affected by extreme values (outliers) Mean = 3 Mean = 4

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**Population Mean Population mean ,**

For ungrouped data, the population mean is the sum of all the population values divided by the total number of population values: Population mean , μ represents the population mean. It is the Greek letter “mu.” N is the number of items in the population. X is any particular value. Σ indicates the operation of adding all the values. It is the Greek letter “sigma.” ΣX is the sum of the X values.

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Sample Mean For ungrouped data, the sample mean is the sum of all the sample values divided by the number of sample values: Sample Mean, is the sample mean; it is read as “X bar”. n is the number of values in the sample. X is a particular value. Σ indicates the operation of adding all the values. ΣX is the sum of the X values.

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Weighted Mean The weighted mean of a set of numbers X1, X2, ..., Xn, with corresponding weights w1, w2, ...,wn, is computed from the following formula:

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**EXAMPLE – Weighted Mean**

The hawker pays its hourly employees $16.50, $19.00, or $26.00 per hour. There are 26 hourly employees, 14 of which are paid at the $16.50 rate, 10 at the $19.00 rate, and 2 at the $26.00 rate. What is the mean hourly rate paid the 26 employees?

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The Median The Median is the midpoint of the values after they have been ordered from the smallest to the largest. There are as many values above the median as below it in the data array. For an even set of values, the median will be the arithmetic average of the two middle numbers.

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Median In an ordered array, the median is the “middle” number (50% above, 50% below) Not affected by extreme values If the number of values is odd, the median is the middle number If the number of values is even, the median is the average of the two middle numbers Median = 3 Median = 3

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EXAMPLES - Median The heights of four basketball players, in inches, are: 76, 73, 80, 75 Arranging the data in ascending order gives: 73, 75, 76, 80. Thus the median is 75.5 The ages for a sample of five college students are: 21, 25, 19, 20, 22 Arranging the data in ascending order gives: 19, 20, 21, 22, 25. Thus the median is 21.

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The Mode The mode is the value of the observation that appears most frequently. Mode = 9

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The Geometric Mean Useful in finding the average change of percentages, ratios, indexes, or growth rates over time. It has a wide application in business and economics in finding the percentage changes in figures, such as the GDP. The geometric mean will always be less than or equal to the arithmetic mean. The geometric mean of a set of n positive numbers is defined as the nth root of the product of n values. The formula for the geometric mean is written:

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**EXAMPLE – Geometric Mean**

Suppose you receive a 5 percent increase in salary this year and a 15 percent increase next year. The average annual percent increase is 9.886, not Why is this so? We begin by calculating the geometric mean.

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**EXAMPLE – Geometric Mean (2)**

The return on investment earned by Atkins construction Company for four successive years was: 30 percent increase, 20 percent increase, 40 percent loss followed by 200 percent increase. What is the geometric mean rate of return on investment?

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**Dispersion Why Study Dispersion?**

A measure of location, such as the mean or the median, only describes the center of the data. It is valuable from that standpoint, but it does not tell us anything about the spread of the data. For example, if your nature guide told you that the river ahead averaged 3 feet in depth, would you want to wade across on foot without additional information? Probably not. You would want to know something about the variation in the depth. A second reason for studying the dispersion in a set of data is to compare the spread in two or more distributions.

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**Measures of Dispersion**

Measures of variation give information on the spread or variability of the data values. Same center, different variation

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**Measures of Dispersion**

Range Mean Deviation Variance and Standard Deviation

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**Range = Xlargest – Xsmallest**

EXAMPLE – Range Simplest measure of variation Difference between the largest and the smallest observations: Range = Xlargest – Xsmallest The number of cappuccinos sold at the Starbucks location in the Orange Country Airport between 4 and 7 p.m. for a sample of 5 days last year were 20, 40, 50, 60, and 80. Determine the range. Range= 80 – 20 = 60

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**EXAMPLE – Mean Deviation**

For the same example with a sample date of 20, 40, 50, 60, and 80. Determine the mean deviation for the number of cappuccinos sold. First find mean: ( )/5=50

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**EXAMPLE – Population Variance and S.D.**

The number of traffic citations issued during the last five months in Beaufort County, South Carolina, is 38, 26, 13, 41, and 22. What is the population variance? Population Standard Deviation is

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**EXAMPLE – Sample Variance and S.D.**

The hourly wages for a sample of part-time employees at Home Depot are: $12, $20, $16, $18, and $19. What is the sample variance? Sample Standard Deviation is

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Chebyshev’s Theorem The arithmetic mean biweekly amount contributed by the ABC company employees to the company’s profit-sharing plan is $51.54, and the standard deviation is $7.51. At least what percent of the contributions lie within plus 3.5 standard deviations and minus 3.5 standard deviations of the mean?

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The Empirical Rule If a sample of observations has a mound- shaped distribution, the interval

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**Mean of ungrouped vs. grouped data**

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**Standard deviation for ungrouped vs. grouped data**

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Questions?

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