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**Introduction to shapes**

Week 1 Introduction to shapes

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**Coordinate System and Shapes**

Coordinates of a point in two dimension Draw a line between two points Draw rectangle Draw different shapes X

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**Cartesian coordinates**

Coordinates are used to identify locations on the earth’s surface Are based on measurements of displacement from a given location Two types: – Plane – global

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**Y p X o Cartesian coordinates are determined as follows:**

Locate an origin Set two axes through origin in fixed direction, at right angles to each other By convention these are usually: Identified as x (horizontal) and y (vertical) i.e., y is anti-clockwise from x X is east, y is north We write P(x1,y1). OP = sqrt(x12+ y12) Y p y1 X o x1

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**A Cartesian Plane This is a Cartesian plane**

It has an x-axis, a y-axis, and an origin The Cartesian plane is divided into 4 quadrants by the x and y axis

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Plotting Points Each point placed on the Cartesian plane consists of an ordered pair This ordered pair represents the x and y axis coordinates of the point For example, the point (3, 5) has an x-coordinate value of +3, and a y-coordinate value of +5

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**Plotting Points Examples**

Plot these points: (2, 5) (-2, 4) (4, -3) (-2, -5) (2, 0) (0, -4)

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**Identifying Coordinates Examples**

A) B) C) D) E) F)

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**Cartesian coordinates**

Line Rectangle Square Ellipse Triangle Quadrilateral

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**Plotting shapes What is needed to plot a line? (2 pts)**

What do we need to plot a triangle? what do we need to plot a rectangle?(1 pt,width, height) What do we need to plot and ellipse? (1 pt,width, height). Quadrilateral (4 pts)

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**Coordinates The coordinates of The point B are 4 and 5.**

The point A are 1 and 0.

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**Draw a line between A and B**

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**Draw a line between P1(x1,y1) and P2(x2,y2)**

line(x1, y1, x2, y2); Try this with different values of x of y.

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**Coordinates and computers**

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**Simple shapes point, line, rectangle and ellipse**

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point A point is easy to draw We only need an x and y coordinate.

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**A line() is not difficult**

We only need two points: (x1,y1) and (x2,y2):

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**Rectangle To draw a rectangle is bit complicated**

In Processing, a rectangle is specified by the coordinate for the top left corner of the rectangle, as well as its width and height.

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**Rectangle (Cont) CENTER Mode**

A different way to draw a rectangle is Specify the center-point, width and height. The mode here is ”CENTER".

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**Rectangle CORNERS Mode**

Another way to rectangle is: to specify two points (the top left corner and the bottom right corner). The mode here is "CORNERS".

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**Ellipse “CENTER” Mode ellipse() is identical to rect()**

The default mode for ellipse() is "CENTER", rather than "CORNER.” as in the case of rect().

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Ellipse “CORNER” Mode

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**Ellipse “CORNERS” Mode**

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Exercise Write a program to output the following:

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**Solution size(200,200); rectMode(CENTER); rect(100,100,20,100);**

ellipse(100,70,60,60); ellipse(81,70,16,32); ellipse(119,70,16,32); line(90,150,80,160); line(110,150,120,160);

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**Home Activity Install processing Ready chapter one from the book**

Learning processing Do online as many exercises from the book Redo online examples.

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