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Presentation on theme: "E NABLING PROGRAMMATIC - LANDSCAPE LEVEL INTERVENTIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE W ORLD B ANK C ARBON F INANCE U NIT Presenting author: Neeta Hooda, Senior Carbon."— Presentation transcript:

1 E NABLING PROGRAMMATIC - LANDSCAPE LEVEL INTERVENTIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE W ORLD B ANK C ARBON F INANCE U NIT Presenting author: Neeta Hooda, Senior Carbon Finance Specialist, World Bank Co-authors: Andre Aquino, Senior Natural Resource Specialist, World Bank Donna Lee, Independent Consultant Land and Poverty Conference March 25, 2014

2 2 Two of the greatest challenges of the 21 st Century are: 1.Rising Global Food Demands o The food crises of 2008, 2010, and 2012, as well as continuing food price volatility, underscore the vulnerability of the world’s food system to climate events o FAO estimates that by 2050 the world population will exceed 9 billion, requiring increasing overall food production by some 70% - (FAO, 2009) 2.Climate Change o Expected impacts from climate change are also significant, for example in Africa where key staple crops (e.g. maize, sorghum, millet, groundnut, cassava) are expected to be negatively affected, losing between 8 to 22 percent of productivity by mid-century - (Schlenker and Lobell, 2010) Land use (including forestry and agriculture) is estimated to be between 27 to 34% of global GHG mitigation potential to 2020, and plays a key role in ensuring future food security. -(UNEP – Emissions Gap Report, 2013) & (World Bank,2012) A ‘Landscape Approach’ aims to manage natural capital in an integrated manner to meet needs of present and future generation. – More recently landscapes have been linked to efforts to increase climate change resilience while mitigating the effects of climate change itself : T HE N EED FOR A ‘L ANDSCAPE A PPROACH ’ TO C LIMATE C HANGE

3 3 The term ‘Integrated Landscape Management’ (ILM) is used by a number of communities of practice, each with its own focus and objectives Common to the literature on ILM are several key elements: 1.Multiple, agreed objectives about land uses and its benefits 2.Cooperative management at multiple scales-national, jurisdictional and local 3.A scale of intervention that encompasses a landscape, or an area of land where multiple uses are occurring (e.g. farming, conservation/protected areas, extractive activities, urban development, etc.) 4.A multi-stakeholder, participatory process that together are planning, taking decisions, implementing, and monitoring A N E MERGING O PPORTUNITY : I NTEGRATED L ANDSCAPE M ANAGEMENT

4 4 F OR E XAMPLE : Participatory Forest Management Increased agricultural productivity Improved cooking stoves / biogas Intensified livestock management Integrated Landscape Management

5 5 Institutional Challenges National Level: Many countries do not have the institutional capacity to host multi-stakeholder dialogue and negotiations International Level: institutions support initiatives that narrowly target single issues within the landscape Policy Challenges National Level: climate change policy is rarely consistent (and often in direct conflict) with other sectoral policies Policies that support conventional agriculture typically prevail over those that support sustainable, climate-smart practices Development planning is short term compared to land use dynamics Financing Challenges National Level: incentives are created through policies and as well as fiscal measures (e.g. agricultural subsidies, concessional loans by development banks, etc.) International Level: focus is placed on particular aid priorities, such as agriculture, energy, forestry, industry etc. Private Sector: investments tend to focus on supply chains from specific commodity markets down to farm level production and not on a holistic approach to land management, which are seen as a government responsibility C HALLENGES WITH L ANDSCAPE A PPROACHES

6 6 RBF involves testing mechanisms whereby the country (or actors within the countries) would receive payments against demonstrating results towards sustainable landscapes These results could be: 1.Proxies to emissions reductions, such as policy reforms that create an enabling environment to reducing deforestation or investments towards law enforcement or towards creating incentives for agriculture expansion into degraded areas (as opposed to expanding into primary forests); 2.GHG emissions reduction from deforestation verified by a third party P OTENTIAL C ATALYST : R ESULTS -B ASED F INANCING (RBF) Intermediary Indicators XX HAs under community management YY HAs under conservation agriculture Land use plan adopted … Emissions Reductions Measured against an agreed baseline and verified by a third party Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 … Y30 ILM sustainability and scale up ILM sustainability and scale up

7 7 FCPF & B IO CF: W ORLD B ANK F INANCING I NSTRUMENTS FOR REDD+ Two global funds managed by the World Bank that aim to pilot results based financing for REDD+ by making payments for emission reductions: Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) The FCPF’s Carbon Fund is designed to pilot performance-based payments for emission reductions from REDD+ programs in a small number of FCPF countries (around 6) The BioCarbon Fund (BioCF) Through the Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL) the BioCF promotes and rewards GHG emissions reductions from the land sector, including REDD+

8 8 C ASE S TUDY : E THIOPIA Name of Jurisdiction:Oromia Region Duration:20 Yrs. ( ) Name of Managing Entity: National co-ordination: National Level framework to foster integrated interventions: Oromia Forest and Wildlife Enterprise (OFWE), Oromia President’s office National REDD+ Secretariat; CRGE Ethiopia Strategic Investment Framework; Climate Resilient Green Economy Main Driver of Deforestation:Agricultural expansion, Fuelwood consumption Estimated GHG Mitigation Potential:261 million tCO2e (over a 20 year period) Objective:This program uses an integrated landscape approach to address deforestation in the Oromia region of Ethiopia while improving agricultural production and access to rural energy Key Interventions & Activities :  Participatory forest management (PFM)  Fuel efficient cookstove program  Improved regulatory framework (land tenure and land use planning)  Climate-smart agriculture  Assisted natural regeneration  Integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems  Promotion of alternative livelihoods

9 9 C ASE S TUDY : Z AMBIA Name of Jurisdiction:Luangwa Valley - Eastern and Muchinga Provinces Duration:10+ Yrs. Name of Managing Entity: National Coordinating Entity Luangwa Valley Ecosystem Partnership Management Initiative National Climate Change Secretariat, Ministry of Finance, which will also house REDD Targeted Deforestation Commodities: National Level framework to foster integrated interventions: Maize; legumes (such as groundnuts and soybeans), oilseeds, sweet potato, cassava, and horticulture National Climate change Response Strategy Other Drivers of Deforestation:Fuel wood consumption, Charcoal production Objective:This program will promote integrated solutions for conservation and rural livelihoods. Key Interventions & Activities :  Climate Smart Agriculture and “intensified” agricultural productivity and diversification that improves soil conditions and decreases pressure on land and forests  Land use planning specially around national Parks and public forests  Access to solar energy  REDD+ pilot demonstration  Improved wildlife management  Tourism sector development  Private sector engagement for sustainably produced commodities

10 10 Landscape approaches need to meet dual objectives: – Natural resource management – Sustainable economic development Need for strong Institutional arrangements to coordinate multiple stakeholders to foster decision making, and delivery of services across sectors Need for technical support on land use planning and adoption of new land management technologies Enabling environment and policy framework so communities can benefit from land based ecosystem services, and conditions are created for private sector investment Results based climate finance offers an opportunity to structure interventions, and incentives to ensure sustainability of landscapes C ONCLUSIONS :

11 11 Thank you! Neeta Hooda


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