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1 EMT 101 – Engineering Programming Dr. Farzad Ismail School of Aerospace Engineering Universiti Sains Malaysia Nibong Tebal 14300 Pulau Pinang Week 10

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2 What is Matlab? C++ is a programming language but Matlab is software which are used for many engineering applications Matlab also has its own programming language Matlab has its own interpreter, no need to compile or link source codes Data types are not declared–MATLAB: automatically assigns the appropriate type when you initialize a variable

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3 Matrix Laboratory? MATrix LABoratory MATLAB performs matrix (or vector) manipulations and computations Output to screens are automatic (no need cout) Input to code-use input Type help input to learn more

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4 Vectors and Matrices Elements in an array can be assessed using indices Example: b = [ 2 5 6 9 10 12 15 22] Type b(2) in MATLAB will give you 5 b(4) gives you 9 Type b(2:4) is an array [ 5 6 9] b(3:end) gives you [6 9 10 12 15 22]

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5 Matrices (2D Array) Given a 3 x 3 matrix A = [ 3 4 5; 8 6 2; 8 6 2; 7 9 11] 7 9 11] A(1,1) is 3 A(1,3) is 5 A(2,:) is a 1D (1 by 3) array of [8 6 2] A(:,2) is a 1D (3 by 1) array of [4; 6; 9]

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6 Operators sum(x); max(x), min(x), mean(x) sum of matrices or vectors vector multiplication:dot product vs. vector product always be careful with the operators * and.* a*b is totally different than a.*b matrix multiplication; matrix products transpose of a matrix: use ’

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7 Linear Algebra Example Solving a system of linear equations: Ax = b matrix vector multiplications two ways of solving a system of equations: (i) x=inv(A)*b or (i) x=inv(A)*b or (ii) x=A\b (ii) x=A\b See Tutorial exercise 2

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8 Control Structures If-else statements (similar to C++) The format for switch case: Note that cannot be a range like in the if branch. This is a limitation of case switch switch case case statement statement...... case case statement statement...... otherwise otherwise statement statement end end

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9 For Loop in Matlab Example with the dot product operations of vectors a and b of sizes n = 1000 sum = 0 sum = 0 for i = 1:1:1000 for i = 1:1:1000 sum = sum + a(i)*b(i) sum = sum + a(i)*b(i) end end

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10Tutorial Construct a vector of with range with increment of 0.1. Solution: In Matlab, this can be done by setting X= [-1:0.1:1] Do-It-Yourself-Exercise 1. Determine another array 2. Next, determine the derivative 3. Plot the functions using plot(X,Y1,XY2)

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11 %There is no initial Declaration or any include required for Matlab programing. Any variables used will be automatically declared by Matlab X=[-1:0.1:1]; %by including a “semicolon”, the output will %not be shown in the Command Window Y1=X.^2; %notice the used of “.^” instead of only “^” Y2=gradient(Y1); %command to find the gradient plot(X,Y1,X,Y2) %command to plot a graph legend('Y1','Y2') %command for the graph’s label

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12 Exercise 1 Find the slope of a function F=cos x * exp(2x)* x^3 and plot the slope between [0, 3]. Plot both the slope and the function F on the same plot.

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13 Exercise 2 Using subroutines, write a MATLAB program to solve (i) an arbitrary matrix problem A= M*N where M and N are matrices in which you need to input the numbers on your screen. Note M and N has a size mxm. (ii) Finding an inverse of the matrix

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14 clc; %Clear the Command Window clear; %Clear all the previous saved data m=input('Enter number of rows : '); n=input('Enter number of colums : '); fprintf('\nEnter the element values for Matrix A\n'); %output the text, same as cout for i = 1:m %using 'for' loop, for j = 1:n fprintf('Enter element for A[%d,%d] : ',i,j); A(i,j) = input(''); end %to end the 'for' loop end A %to display back the Matric A, just put its name %WITHOUT SEMICOLON at the end fprintf('\n\nEnter the element values for Matrix B\n'); for i = 1:m for j = 1:n fprintf('Enter element for B[%d,%d] : ',i,j); B(i,j) = input(''); end B

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