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Transmisión de Datos Multimedia – – Master IC 2007/2008 Tema 1: Tecnologías de red.  Estructura de Internet  Redes.

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Presentation on theme: "Transmisión de Datos Multimedia – – Master IC 2007/2008 Tema 1: Tecnologías de red.  Estructura de Internet  Redes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia – – Master IC 2007/2008 Tema 1: Tecnologías de red.  Estructura de Internet  Redes “core” SONET DWDM  Redes de acceso Redes cableadas: Ethernet et al. Redes inalámbricas: IEEE , UMTS et al.

2 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ What’s the Internet: “nuts and bolts” view  End systems Host computer Network applications  Access networks Local area networks communication links  Network core: routers network of networks local ISP company network regional ISP router workstation server mobile

3 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Internet structure: network of networks  roughly hierarchical  at center: “tier-1” ISPs (e.g., MCI, Sprint, AT&T, Cable and Wireless), national/international coverage treat each other as equals Tier 1 ISP Tier-1 providers interconnect (peer) privately NAP Tier-1 providers also interconnect at public network access points (NAPs)

4 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Tier-1 ISP: e.g., Sprint Sprint US backbone network Seattle Atlanta Chicago Roachdale Stockton San Jose Anaheim Fort Worth Orlando Kansas City Cheyenne New York Pennsauken Relay Wash. DC Tacoma DS3 (45 Mbps) OC3 (155 Mbps) OC12 (622 Mbps) OC48 (2.4 Gbps)

5 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Internet structure: network of networks  “Tier-2” ISPs: smaller (often regional) ISPs Connect to one or more tier-1 ISPs, possibly other tier-2 ISPs Tier 1 ISP NAP Tier-2 ISP Tier-2 ISP pays tier-1 ISP for connectivity to rest of Internet  tier-2 ISP is customer of tier-1 provider Tier-2 ISPs also peer privately with each other, interconnect at NAP

6 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Internet structure: network of networks  “Tier-3” ISPs and local ISPs last hop (“access”) network (closest to end systems) Tier 1 ISP NAP Tier-2 ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP Tier 3 ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP Local and tier- 3 ISPs are customers of higher tier ISPs connecting them to rest of Internet

7 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Internet structure: network of networks  a packet passes through many networks! Tier 1 ISP NAP Tier-2 ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP Tier 3 ISP local ISP local ISP local ISP

8 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Network Access Points (NAPs) Source: Boardwatch.com Note: Peers in this context are commercial backbones..droh

9 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Source: MCI/WorldCom/UUNET Global Backbone

10 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ The situation in Europe See:

11 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Standards  Mandatory vs. voluntary Allowed to use vs. likely to sell Example: health & safety standards  UL listing for electrical appliances, fire codes  Telecommunications and networking always focus of standardization 1865: International Telegraph Union (ITU) 1956: International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee (CCITT)  Five major organizations: ITU for lower layers, multimedia collaboration IEEE for LAN standards (802.x) IETF for network, transport & some applications W3C for web-related technology (XML, SOAP) ISO for media content (MPEG)

12 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Who makes the rules? - ITU  ITU = ITU-T (telecom standardization) + ITU-R (radio) + development 14 study groups produce Recommendations: E: overall network operation, telephone service (E.164) G: transmission system and media, digital systems and networks (G.711) H: audiovisual and multimedia systems (H.323) I: integrated services digital network (I.210); includes ATM V: data communications over the telephone network (V.24) X: Data networks and open system communications Y: Global information infrastructure and internet protocol aspects

13 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ ITU  Initially, national delegations  Members: state, sector, associate Membership fees (> 10,500 SFr)  Now, mostly industry groups doing work  Initially, mostly (international) telephone services  Now, transition from circuit-switched to packet-switched universe & lower network layers (optical)  Documents cost SFr, but can get three freebies for each address

14 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ IETF  IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) see RFC 3233 (“Defining the IETF”)  Formed 1986, but earlier predecessor organizations (1979-)  RFCs date back to 1969  Initially, largely research organizations and universities, now mostly R&D labs of equipment vendors and ISPs  International, but 2/3 United States meetings every four months about 300 companies participating in meetings but Cisco, Ericsson, Lucent, Nokia, etc. send large delegations

15 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ IETF  Supposed to be engineering, i.e., translation of well-understood technology  standards make choices, ensure interoperability reality: often not so well defined  Most development work gets done in working groups (WGs) specific task, then dissolved (but may last 10 years…) typically, small clusters of authors, with large peanut gallery open mailing list discussion for specific problems interim meetings (1-2 days) and IETF meetings (few hours) published as Internet Drafts (I-Ds) anybody can publish draft-somebody-my-new-protocol also official working group documents (draft-ietf-wg-*) versioned (e.g., draft-ietf-avt-rtp-10.txt) automatically disappear (expire) after 6 months

16 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ IETF process  WG develops  WG last call  IETF last call  approval (or not) by IESG  publication as RFC  IESG (Internet Engineering Steering Group) consists of area directors – they vote on proposals areas = applications, general, Internet, operations and management, routing, security, sub-IP, transport  Also, Internet Architecture Board (IAB) provides architectural guidance approves new working groups process appeals

17 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ IETF activities  general (3): ipr, nomcom, problem  applications (25): crisp, geopriv, impp, ldapbis, lemonade, opes, provreg, simple, tn3270e, usefor, vpim, webdav, xmpp  internet (18) = IPv4, IPv6, DNS, DHCP: dhc, dnsext, ipoib, itrace, mip4, nemo, pana, zeroconf  oam (22) = SNMP, RADIUS, DIAMETER: aaa, v6ops, netconf, …  routing (13): forces, ospf, ssm, udlr, …  security (18): idwg, ipsec, openpgp, sasl, smime, syslog, tls, xmldsig, …  subip (5) = “layer 2.5”: ccamp, ipo, mpls, tewg  transport (26): avt (RTP), dccp, enum, ieprep, iptel, megaco, mmusic (RTSP), nsis, rohc, sip, sipping (SIP), spirits, tsvwg

18 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ RFCs  Originally, “Request for Comment”  now, mostly standards documents that are well settled  published RFCs never change  always ASCII (plain text), sometimes PostScript  anybody can submit RFC, but may be delayed by review (“end run avoidance”)  see April 1 RFCs (RFC 1149, 3251, 3252)  accessible at and editor.org/http://www.ietf.org/rfc/

19 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ IETF process issues  Can take several years to publish a standard see draft-ietf-problem-issue-statement  Relies on authors and editors to keep moving often, busy people with “day jobs”  spurts three times a year  Lots of opportunities for small groups to delay things  Original idea of RFC standards-track progression: Proposed Standard (PS) = kind of works Draft Standard (DS) = solid, interoperability tested (2 interoperable implementations for each feature), but not necessarily widely used Standard (S) = well tested, widely deployed

20 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ IETF process issues  Reality: very few protocols progress beyond PS and some widely-used protocols are only I-Ds  In addition: Informational, Best Current Practice (BCP), Experimental, Historic  Early IETF: simple protocols, stand-alone TCP, HTTP, DNS, BGP, …  Now: systems of protocols, with security, management, configuration and scaling lots of dependencies  wait for others to do their job

21 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Other Internet standards organizations  ISOC (Internet Society) legal umbrella for IETF, development work  IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) assigns protocol constants  NANOG (North American Network Operators Group) (http://www.nanog.org)http://www.nanog.org operational issues holds nice workshop with measurement and “real world” papers  RIPE, ARIN, APNIC regional IP address registries  dole out chunks of address space to ISPs routing table management

22 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ ICANN  Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers manages IP address space (at top level) DNS top-level domains (TLD) ccTLD: country codes (.us,.uk, …) gTLDs (.com,.edu,.gov,.int,.mil,.net, and.org) uTLD (unsponsored):.biz,.info,.name, and.pro sTLD (sponsored):.aero,.coop, and.museum  actual domains handled by registrars

23 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia – – Master IC 2007/2008 Tema 1: Tecnologías de red.  Estructura de Internet  Redes “core” SONET DWDM  Redes de acceso Redes cableadas: Ethernet et al. Redes inalámbricas: IEEE , UMTS et al.

24 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ IP and Traditional Transport  In the 80’s, software based routers were interconnected via relatively slow links 56K (early 80’s), to fractional T1, to full T1, to T3  This was layered over core TDM infrastructure Which was intended for voice and circuits  Generally, data folks ignored TDM folks, and vice versa

25 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Time Division Multiplexing Multiplexed Bit Stream Sum of sources = Total MUX’d bit stream MUX Time Slot1 Time Slot2 Time Slot4 Time Slot3 TimeS lot6 Time Slot1 TimeS lot5 Time Slot2 SyncB it Source 1 Source 2 Source 3 Source 4 Source 5 Source 6

26 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ SONET & SDH  SONET - Synchronous Optical NETwork ANSI/Bellcore standard  SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierarchy ITU (European) standard  Both standards are practically identical  Standards for a synchronous digital transmission system of TDM traffic over fiber networks.  Standards based system for data rates above a T3.

27 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ SONET/SDH Hierarchy  STS - Synchronous Transport Signals 51.84Mbps - base level of SONET hierarchy  STM - Synchronous Transport Module Mbps - base level of SDH hierarchy Exactly equal to STS-3

28 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ STS/OC/STM  STS-n and OC-n are identical - OC-n names are used for optical interconnects STS-n names are used for electrical interconnects  OC-n is exactly n times the rate of an OC-1 signal.  STM-1 signal is exactly 3 times the rate of an STS-1 signal  STM-n is exactly n times the rate of an STM-1 signal

29 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ ADM, Terminal, Repeater  SONET/SDH terminal - a mux/demux that creates a SONET signal and terminates paths.  SONET/SDH ADM (Add/Drop Multiplexer) - a mux/demux that can separate individual STS-n signals from a higher level signal.  SONET/SDH repeater- a physical level regenerator that also terminates section level overhead to allow section level management.

30 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ SONET/SDH - Path/Section/Line  In Sonet/SDH systems a strong designation of levels of overhead are kept.  Section is lowest level Repeater to repeater  Line is middle layer  Path is top/longest layer from entrance to SONET system to exit of SONET system Repeater Add/Drop Multiplexer Add/Drop Multiplexer Terminal Multiplexer Terminal Multiplexer Repeater Section Line Path T3 OC-n

31 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ SONET/SDH - Section & Line Overhead  The section overhead is the first 3 rows of the first 3 columns (9 bytes) per frame.  The line overhead is the lower 6 rows of the first 3 columns (18 bytes) per frame.  An STS-1 frame consists of 810 bytes (octets) sent in 125µs. 810 * 8 * 8000 = 51.84Mbps  The 810 bytes are arranged as 90 columns x 9 rows 3 columns are overhead 87 columns are actual data STS-1 Payload 87 columns A1 A2C1 B1 E1F1 D1D2D3 H1 H2H3 B2 K1K2 D4D5D6 D7D8D9 D10D11D12 Z1Z2Z3 Section Overhead Line Overhead

32 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ STS concatenated signals  Multiple STS-1s can be grouped together into a single higher bit rate facility.  Extra overhead bytes are ignored.  Technically, any number of STS-1s can be grouped, but the only groupings normally supported are: STS-3C, STS-12C, STS-48C  Generally a grouping must fall on a boundary of the same size inside of the OC-n carrier A STS-3C must fall on a boundary of 3 STS-12C must fall on a boundary of 12  Typically used for situations where ATM or Packets are sent over a SONET network.

33 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Traditional View of Routers and Links

34 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Terminal Multiplexer SONET/SDH ADM SONET/SDH ADM SONET/SDH ADM SONET/SDH ADM SONET/SDH DCS SONET/SDH DCS SONET/SDH DCS Terminal Multiplexer SONET/SDH ADM SONET/SDH ADM Reality has always been more complex

35 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Optical Fiber Evolution  Fiber is better than copper wire Purity – low attenuation and distortion Longer distances, lower bit error rates Higher frequency signals – massive bandwidth Different wavelengths – massive bandwidth Immunity to noise Security – difficult to tap Small size and weight Easier installation Bundles of fibers in same space as copper wire  Multimode fiber  Low cost – LEDs, not lasers  Many wavelengths (modes)  Dispersion – limits bandwidth and distance  Light pulses spread out  Intramodal – different delay per mode  Typically 2 km maximum distance  Large diameter cores – for multiple modes  Initially flat profile  Stepped end improves performance  Single-mode fiber  One wavelength – small core  Less interference and loss  Greater distance (up to 100 km)  More expensive components – lasers  Minimized dispersion point at 1310 nm  Not suitable for EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber-optic Amplifier)  Non-zero dispersion shifted fiber  Optimized for longer distances  Optimized for higher bandwidth  Minimized dispersion point shifted to 1550 nm  Suitable for Erbium-based optical amplifiers  Silica-based fibers have lowest attenuation at 1550 nm, not 1310

36 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ SONET/SDH ADM WDM Node From One Wavelength Per Fiber to Many ADM Single Fiber SONET/SDH ADM Single Fiber Wave Division Multiplexing OT = Optical Transponder OT ADM OT

37 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ WDM System Elements SONET/S DH ADM = Regenerato rs

38 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ TDM and WDM Relationship 1 … n TDM generates output from sum of inputs into a single bit stream Laser Output n 1 WDM changes TDM bit stream into wavelengths between 1532 nm and 1560 nm OT

39 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ EDFA = Erbium Doped Fiber-optic Amplifier Dense and Ultra Dense WDM 8 WDM 8 Lambdas 2.5 Gbps per lambda EDFA = Erbium Doped Fiber-optic Amplifier 2 2

40 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Dense and Ultra Dense WDM DWDM 40 Lambdas Gbps per lambda EDFA = Erbium Doped Fiber-optic Amplifier

41 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ UDWDM 192 Lambdas Gbps per lambda Dense and Ultra Dense WDM EDFA = Erbium Doped Fiber-optic Amplifier

42 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia – – Master IC 2007/2008 Tema 1: Tecnologías de red.  Estructura de Internet  Redes “core” SONET DWDM  Redes de acceso Redes cableadas: Ethernet et al. Redes inalámbricas: IEEE , UMTS et al.

43 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Los estándares de IEEE suplementoañodescripción 802.3a 1985 Original 802.3: 10BASE-5 10BASE-2 10BROAD c 1986 Especificaciones de repetidores 802.3d 1987 FOIRL (enlace de fibra) 802.3i Base-T Ethernet sobre par trenzado de cobre 802.3j Base-F Ethernet sobre fibra 802.3u Mbps Ethernet 802.3x e 802.3y 1997 operación full duplex 802.3z Base-X (Gigabit Ethernet) 802.3ab Base-T (GE sobre par trenzado) 802.3ac 1998 Extensiones de trama (hasta 1522 bytes) para VLANs 802.3ad 2000 link aggregation 802.3ae GE 802.3af 2003 PoE (Power over Ethernet). Hasta 15W 802.3ah 2004 Ethernet in First Mile 802.3an 10 Gbase-T (en draft) Bridging en 802.1D 802.1w Cambios y mejoras en el spanning tree 802.1s Múltiples spanning trees

44 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ IEEE 802 standard

45 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Estándares de ethernet sobre optico  ITU-T G.7041 Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)  ITU-T X.86 Link Access Protocol (LAPS)  ITU-T H.707 Virtual Concatenation (VCAT)  ITU-T G.7042 Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS)  Otros:  IEEE 802.1X Port Based Network Access Control  IEEE 802.1D Ethernet switching  IEEE 802.1Q Virtual LAN (VLAN)  IEEE 802.1P Priorización de tráfico a nivel 2  IETF: MPLS Multi-Protocol Label Switching  IEEE Resilient Packet Ring (RPR)  Ver:

46 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Trama ethernet  Los datos trasmitidos se encapsulan en un contenedor, que se llama trama  Este formato de trama DEFINE Ethernet Históricamente, existen dos tipos de tramas: »802.3 Framing usa en campo de longitud de trama (Length) despues del campo de Source Address »Ethernet II (DIX) Framing usa(ba) el campo de tipo de trama (type) despues del campo Source Address Ambos tipos de tramas están definidos y soportados dentro de IEEE 802.3

47 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Trama ethernet  El tamaño de trama varía desde 64 a 1518 Bytes, excepto cuando se usa el identificador (tag) de VLAN

48 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Q/P  User Priority- Defines user priority, giving eight (2^3) priority levels. IEEE 802.1P defines the operation for these 3 user priority bits.  CFI- Canonical Format Indicator is always set to zero for Ethernet switches. CFI is used for compatibility reason between Ethernet type network and Token Ring type network. If a frame received at an Ethernet port has a CFI set to 1, then that frame should not be forwarded as it is to an untagged port.  VID- VLAN ID is the identification of the VLAN, which is basically used by the standard 802.1Q. It has 12 bits and allow the identification of 4096 (2^12) VLANs. Of the 4096 possible VIDs, a VID of 0 is used to identify priority frames and value 4095 (FFF) is reserved, so the maximum possible VLAN configurations are 4,094.  Length/Type- 2 bytes. This field indicates either the number of MAC-client data bytes that are contained in the data field of the frame, or the frame type ID if the frame is assembled using an optional format.  Data- Is a sequence of nbytes (48=< n =<1500) of any value. The total frame minimum is 64bytes.  Frame check sequence (FCS)- 4 bytes. This sequence contains a 32-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) value, which is created by the sending MAC and is recalculated by the receiving MAC to check for damaged frames. User Priority CFI Bits of VLAN ID (VIDI) to identify possible VLANs

49 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Servicios Metropolitanos  Algunos servicios son: Conectividad Internet Transparent LAN service (punto a punto LAN to LAN) L2VPN (punto a punto o multipunto a multipunto LAN to LAN) Extranet LAN a Frame Relay/ATM VPN Conectividad a centro de backup Storage area networks (SANs) Metro transport (backhaul) VoIP  Algunos se están ofreciendo desde hace años. La diferencia está en que ahora se ofrecen usando conectividad Ethernet !!

50 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Evoluci ó n de Ethernet Optical Ethernet EoMPLS VPLS EoRPR NG-SONET(EoS) Metro DWDM Optical Ethernet EoMPLS VPLS RPR NG-SONET(EoS) Metro DWDM IP ADSL IP VDSL EPON EFM Optical Ethernet EoRPR NG-SONET(EoS) Acceso Distribución MetroMetro Core Global Internet ATM SONET/SDH ATM SONET/SDH ATM ADSL T1/E1 FR ATM Global Internet Casa MDU STU MTU Residencial Empresa

51 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Servicio Ethernet – Modelo de referencia  Customer Equipment (CE) se conecta a través de UNI  CE puede ser un router Bridge IEEE 802.1Q (switch)  UNI (User Network Interface) Standard IEEE Ethernet PHY and MAC 10Mbps, 100Mbps, 1Gbps or 10Gbps Soporte de varias clases de servicio (QoS)  Metro Ethernet Network (MEN) Puede usar distintas tecnologías de transporte y de provisión de servicio SONET/SDH, WDM, PON, RPR, MAC-in-MAC, QiQ (VLAN stack), MPLS CE UNI Metro Ethernet Network (MEN) UNI

52 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Servicio Ethernet – Modelo (2)  Sobre el anterior modelo, se añade un cuarto ingrediente: una Ethernet Virtual Connection (EVC)  EVC: es una asociación entre dos o más UNI Es creada por el proveedor del servicio para un cliente Una trama enviada en un EVC puede ser enviada a uno o más UNIs del EVC: Nunca será enviada de vuelta al UNI de entrada. Nunca será enviada a un UNI que no pertenezca al EVC.  Las EVC´s pueden ser: Punto a punto (E-Line) Multipunto a multipunto (E-LAN)  Cada tipo de servicio ethernet tiene un conjunto de atributos de servicio y sus correspondientes parámetros que definen las capacidades del servicio.

53 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Atributos de un servicio en particular Ethernet  Multiplexación de servicios Asocia una UNI con varias EVC. Puede ser: Hay varios clientes en una sóla puerta (ej. En un POP UNI) Hay varias conexiones de servicios distintos para un solo cliente  Transparencia de VLAN Significa que proveedor del servico no cambia el identificador de la VLAN ( el MEN aparece como un gran switch) En el servicio de acceso a Internet tiene poco importancia  “Bundling” Más de una VLAN de cliente está asociada al EVC en una UNI  Etc.

54 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Atributos  Atributos de UNI: identificador, tipo de medio, velocidad, duplex, etc Atributo de soporte de VLAN tag Atributo de multiplexación de servicio Bundling attribute Security filters attribute etc  Atributos de EVC: Parámetros de tráfico (CIR, PIR, in, out, etc) Parámetros de prestaciones (delay, jitter, etc) Parámetros de Clase de Servicio (VLAN-ID, valor de.1p, etc) Atributo de Service frame delivery Unicast frame delivery Multicast frame delivery etc

55 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Servicio Ethernet Line (E-Line) Data UNI CE Point-to-Point Ethernet Virtual Circuits (EVC) Metro Ethernet Network 1 or more UNIs UNI Video IP PBX Servers Data IP Voice

56 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Servicio Ethernet Line (E-Line)  Una E-Line puede operar con ancho de banda dedicado ó con un ancho de banda compartido.  EPL: Ethernet Private Line Es un servicio EVC punto a punto con un ancho de banda dedicado El cliente siempre dispone del CIR Normalmente en canales SDH (en NGN) ó en redes MPLS Es como una línea en TDM, pero con una interfaz ethernet  EVPL:Ethernet Virtual Private Line En este caso hay un CIR y un EIR y una métrica para el soporte de SLA´s Es similar al FR Se suele implementar con canales TDM compartidos ó con redes de conmutación de paquetes usando SW´s y/o routers

57 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Servicio Ethernet LAN (E-LAN) CE Metro Ethernet Network CE Multipoint-to-Multipoint Ethernet Virtual Circuit (EVC) UNI IP PBX Servers Data IP Voice

58 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Servicio Ethernet LAN (E-LAN)  Una E-LAN puede operar con ancho de banda dedicado ó con un ancho de banda compartido.  EPLan: Ethernet Private LAN Suministra una conectividad multipunto entre dos o más UNI´s, con un ancho de banda dedicado.  EVPLan: Ethernet Virtual Private LAN Otros nombres: VPLS: Virtual Private Lan Service TLS: Transparent Lan Service VPSN: Virtual Private Switched Network La separación de clientes vía encapsulación: las etiquetas de VLAN´s del proveedor no son suficientes (4096) Es el servicio más rentable desde el punto de vista del proveedor.

59 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Metro tecnologías...  Los servicios Metro Ethernet services no necesitan que toda la red de nivel 2 sea ethernet; tambien puede ser:  Ethernet over SONET/SDH (EOS)  Resilient Packet Ring (RPR)  Ethernet Transport  Ethernet sobre MPLS

60 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Implementaciones de los EVC ( Ethernet Virtual Conn. )  Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) Es un tipo de VPN de nivel 2 La red del proveedor emula la función de un conmutador de LAN ó bridge, para conectar todos los UNI del cliente, para formar una única VLAN Los requerimientos en el CE son distintos a los de antes Cada PE debe actuar como un bridge de ethernet Se puede implementar poniendo ethernet en MPLS ó bien, haciendo stack de VLAN usando Q-in-Q Ver

61 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia – – Master IC 2007/2008 Tema 1: Tecnologías de red.  Estructura de Internet  Redes “core” SONET DWDM  Redes de acceso Redes cableadas: Ethernet et al. Redes inalámbricas: IEEE , UMTS et al.

62 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Taxonomy Wireless Networking Multi-hop Infrastructure-less (ad-hoc) Infrastructure-based (Hybrid) Infrastructure-less (MANET) Single Hop Cellular Networks Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless Mesh Networks Car-to-car Networks (VANETs) Infrastructure-based (hub&spoke) Bluetooth802.11

63 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ WLANs, El estándar IEEE  En el 1997 nace el: IEEE Working Group for WLAN Standards:  Se define el MAC y tres diferentes niveles físicos, que operan a 1Mbps y 2Mbps: Infrarrojos (IR) en banda base Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS), banda de 2,4 GHz Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), banda de 2,4 GHz  IEEE Std a (diciembre 1999): Otro estándar de nivel físico: Orthogonal frequency domain multiplexing (OFDM) Hasta 54 Mbps  IEEE Std b (enero 2000): Extensión de DSSS; hasta 11 Mbps  IEEE Std g (Junio 2003)  Etc. Data Link Network IEEE LLC ISO IEEE ISO Network Data Link Physical LLCLLC MACMAC Ethernet v2.0 IEEE ISO

64 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Arquitectura  Estructura descentralizada  Flexible: Redes pequeñas y grandes, Redes transitorias y permanentes  Control del consumo de potencia Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) Componentes:  Estación (STA)  Access Point (AP)  Basic Service Set (BSS)  Extended Service Set (ESS) infrastructure Basic Service Set (BSS)

65 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ El MAC: entrega de datos fiable  CSMA/CA con binary exponential backoff  El protocolo mínimo consiste de dos tramas: DATOS+ACK  El standard propone RTS-CTS- DATOS-ACK Point Coordination Function (PCF) Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) MAC Servicios sin contienda Servicios con contienda DIFS PIFS SIFS ventana de contienda defer access busy medium slot Los 5 valores de timing: Slot time SIFS: short interframe space PIFS: PCF interframe space (=SIFS+1slot) DIFS: DCF interframe space (=SIFS+2slots) EIFS: extended interframe space Los 5 valores de timing: Slot time SIFS: short interframe space PIFS: PCF interframe space (=SIFS+1slot) DIFS: DCF interframe space (=SIFS+2slots) EIFS: extended interframe space

66 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Mecanismo de detección de portadora  Se basa en el network allocation vector (NAV) RTS DIFS CTS SIFS data ACK SIFS DIFS NAV (RTS) NAV (CTS) fuente destino otro STA defer access ventana de contienda

67 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ QoS: e and WMM™  QoS needed for audio, voice, video  Original Wi-Fi® didn’t have QoS  IEEE e is new QoS standard Still in process after more than 4 years Both “prioritized” and “guaranteed” QoS  WMM (Wi-Fi Multimedia) Prioritized QoS subset of e draft Widely accepted by e members Added to Wi-Fi certification in September 2004 Already included in some products

68 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ WMM™ for Video Source: Wi-Fi Alliance

69 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Bluetooth Specifications  Bluetooth is a system solution comprising hardware, software and interoperability requirements. The Bluetooth specifications specify the complete system.  De facto standard - open specifications.  Two part document - Volume 1:Core and Volume 2:Profiles.  Bluetooth specs developed by Bluetooth SIG. February 1998: The Bluetooth SIG is formed promoter company group: Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia, Toshiba May 1998: The Bluetooth SIG goes “public” July 1999: 1.0A spec (>1,500 pages) is published December 1999: ver. 1.0B is released December 1999: The promoter group increases to 9  3Com, Lucent, Microsoft, Motorola February 2000: There are 1,500+ adopters  > > 1.0A ---> 1.0B ---> >  November 2003: release 1.2  Currently (November 2004), release 2.0 (aka EDR or Extended Data Rate) triples the data rate up to about 2 Mb/s

70 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ release 2.0: the new partitioning

71 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Bluetooth usage  Low-cost, low-power, short range radio  a cable replacement technology Common (File transfer, synchronisation, internet bridge, conference table) Hidden computing (background synchronisation, audio/video player) Future (PC login, remote control)  Why not use Wireless LANs? power cost

72 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Bluetooth RF  1 Mb/s symbol rate  Normal range10m (0dBm)  Optional range100m (+20dBm)  Normal transmission power0dBm (1mW)  Optional transmission power-30 to +20dBm (100mW)  Receiver sensitivity-70dBm  Frequency band2.4Ghz ISM band  Gross data rate1Mbit/s  Max data transfer721+56kbps/3 voice channels  Power consumption 30uA(max), 300uA(standby), ~50uA(hold/park)  Packet switching protocol based on frequency hop scheme with 1600 hops/s

73 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Bluetooth Power Class Table 30m10m0dBm1mWClass 3 50m16m4dBm2.5mWClass 2 300m42m20dBm100mWClass 1 Range in Free Space Expected RangeMax Output Power Power Class

74 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Bluetooth Network Topology  Bluetooth devices have the ability to work as a slave or a master in an ad hoc network. The types of network configurations for Bluetooth devices can be three. Single point-to-point (Piconet): In this topology the network consists of one master and one slave device. Multipoint (Piconet): Such a topology combines one master device and up to seven slave devices in an ad hoc network. o Scatternet: A Scatternet is a group of Piconets linked via a slave device in one Piconet which plays master role in other Piconet. M S i) Piconet (Point- to-Point) M S S S S ii) Piconet (Multipoint) M SSS M SS Master/Slave iii) Scatternet The Bluetooth standard does not describe any routing protocol for scatternets and most of the hardware available today has no capability of forming scatternets. Some even lack the ability to communicate between slaves of one piconet or to be a member of two piconets at the same time.

75 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Bluetooth stack: short version RF Baseband Link Manager L2CAP SDP RFCOMM Applications HCI

76 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Transport Protocol Group (contd.)  Radio Frequency (RF) Sending and receiving modulated bit streams  Baseband Defines the timing, framing Flow control on the link.  Link Manager Managing the connection states. Enforcing Fairness among slaves. Power Management  Logical Link Control & Adaptation Protocol Handles multiplexing of higher level protocols Segmentation & reassembly of large packets Device discovery & QoS  The Radio, Baseband and Link Manager are on firmware.  The higher layers could be in software.  The interface is then through the Host Controller (firmware and driver).  The HCI interfaces defined for Bluetooth are UART, RS232 and USB. Source: Farinaz Edalat, Ganesh Gopal, Saswat Misra, Deepti Rao BLUETOOTH SPECIFICATION, Core Version 1.1 page 543

77 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Physical Link Definition  Synchronous Connection-Oriented (SCO) Link circuit switching symmetric, synchronous services slot reservation at fixed intervals  Asynchronous Connection-Less (ACL) Link packet switching (a)symmetric, asynchronous services polling access scheme

78 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ ACL data rates

79 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Single slot Three slot Five slot f n f n+1 f n+2 f n+3 f n+4 f n+5 Multi-slot packets

80 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ f n f n+1 f n+2 f n+3 f n+4 f n+5 f n+6 f n+7 f n+8 f n+9 f n+10 f n+11 f n+12 Master Slave Symmetric single slot

81 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ MASTER SLAVE 1 SLAVE 2 SLAVE 3 ACL SCO ACL Mixed Link Example

82 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Bluetooth Connection States  There are four Connection states on Bluetooth Radio:  Active: Both master and slave participate actively on the channel by transmitting or receiving the packets (A,B,E,F,H)  Sniff: In this mode slave rather than listening on every slot for master's message for that slave, sniffs on specified time slots for its messages. Hence the slave can go to sleep in the free slots thus saving power (C)  Hold: In this mode, a device can temporarily not support ACL packets and go to low power sleep mode to make the channel available for things like paging, scanning etc (G)  Park: Slave stays synchronized but not participating in the Piconet, then the device is given a Parking Member Address (PMA) and it loses its Active Member Address (AMA) (D,I) E A G H C D I H C B F Master Bluetooth Connection States

83 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Bluetooth Forming a Piconet  Inquiry: Inquiry is used to find the identity of the Bluetooth devices in the close range.  Inquiry Scan: In this state, devices are listening for inquiries from other devices.  Inquiry Response: The slave responds with a packet that contains the slave's device access code, native clock and some other slave information.  Page: Master sends page messages by transmitting slave's device access code (DAC) in different hop channels.  Page Scan: The slave listens at a single hop frequency (derived from its page hopping sequence) in this scan window.  Slave Response: Slave responds to master's page message  Master Response: Master reaches this substate after it receives slave's response to its page message for it. Master Inquiry Inquiry Scan Inquiry Response Page Page Scan Slave Response Master Response Connection Slave Forming a Piconet Procedures

84 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia – – Master IC 2007/2008 Tema 1: Tecnologías de red.  Estructura de Internet  Redes “core” SONET DWDM  Redes de acceso Redes cableadas: Ethernet et al. Redes inalámbricas: IEEE , UMTS et al.

85 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ G: Technology Summary  TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access Standardized in 1990 as IS-54 Provides 3-6 times capacity increase over AMPS (1G) Peak data rate of 14.4kpbs (can bundle up to 8 channels) Introduced authentication and encryption for security  GSM: Global System of Mobile communications Standardized in 1992, based on TMDA technology Improved battery life over TDMA GPRS peak data rates of 140 kbps; EDGE data rates of 180kbps  CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access Standardized in 1993 as IS-95 Provides times capacity increase over TDMA Peak data rate of 14.4kpbs (can bundle up to 8 channels)

86 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ G: Winners & Losers  TDMA Marginally better capacity than GSM, marginally worse battery life No evolution path beyond 2G – DEAD END !!  CDMA Lots of hype on capacity, delivered on upwards of 2x capacity improvement over TDMA/GSM Clear evolution to 3G  GSM International Roaming and Compatibility Clear evolution to 3G Defacto Global Standard

87 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Evolution to 3G Drivers: Capacity, Data Speed, Cost cdmaOne GSM TDMA 2G PDC CDMA2000 1x First Step into 3G GPRS 90% 10% EDGE WCDMA WCDMA 3G phase 1Evolved 3G 3GPP Core Network CDMA2000 1x EV/DO HSDPA/HSUPA HSDPA/HSUPA Expected market share EDGE Evolution EDGE Evolution CDMA2000 EV/DO Rev A

88 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Mobile Networks Evolution GPRS EDGE UMTS HSDPA 2G 3G G 2005 Download Speed 1-10 Mbps kbps kbps 40 kbps

89 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ GSM HLR GSM/GPRS Radio network BSC 2G MSC External voice network GMSC Packet switched Core network External IP network GGSN PCU 2G SGSN GPRS 3G = new network UMTS/HSDPA Radio network RNC UMTS/ HSDPA 3G MSC 3G SGSN Circuit switched Core network

90 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ G Network = The Future  New network No voice overload Increased capacity by Spectrum efficiency  Better performances Higher throughput  Faster download (Max 384kbps) Lower latency  Faster browsing  Better Services Seamless hand-over to GPRS (service continuity) New way to design applications Video  Future proof technology : HSDPA

91 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ G/HSDPA for business innovation Text messaging Voice Push Photo & Picture Messaging Customized infotainment High speed internet access High speed LAN access 3G / HSDPA Video Telephony Mobile TV Full track music Enhanced 2G/EDGE SPEED text  picture  video

92 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ …and Beyond  Technology Convergence on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)  WIMAX Standardized by IEEE , evolution of (Wi-Fi) Improved bandwidth, encryption and coverage over WiFi Theoretical peak data rates of 70Mbps (practical peak ~2Mbps) Improved QoS better enables applications such as VoIP or IPTV Ideal application is for “last mile” connectivity to the home or business Intel plans to embed WiMAX chips as part of ‘Intel Inside’  L3GTE/HSOPA Early standardization work starts in 3GPP R8 Improved bandwidth, latency over UMTS/HSxPA Radio technology based on MIMO-OFDM, peak data rates of up to 70Mbps Network simplification

93 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Market Segments Cordless WiMAX 16e HSDPA to OFDM EV-DO to OFDM WiFi Local Fixed Voice Broadband Cellular WiMAX 16d DSL / Cable POTS a/b/g n MIMO Mesh Dialup 2.5G Mobile

94 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Service Control Presence / GLMS Applications R4 CDMA PSTN Media Resources TDM & Packet Interworking PDF HSS/ AAA Peer IP Network Access Network IP/MPLS Core Multimedia Services Messaging Services Web / WAP Services Streaming Services MG15000 MGCF (CS2000) Call Session Controller MRF Audio/ Video PDG WLAN ASN CSN ASN WiMAX GGSN GPRS UMTS EASGW ASG HSOPA OFDM/MIMO BRAS PDGGGSN ASN CSN ASGW Network Convergence - IMS Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) and the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) -- two standard architectures under the 3GPP umbrella -- both support fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). But their approaches to FMC have little in common. UMA is a highly constrained approach to a single service -- dual-mode access to GSM networks -- while IMS is an open platform for all types of services and all types of networks. UMA offers mobile network operators (MNOs) a quick fix, but IMS promises profitable new services and sustainable growth for all service providers.

95 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Market Trends  Media Convergence – Multiple Play Dual Play: High-Speed Internet & Fixed Line Triple Play: Dual Play + TV Quadruple Play: Triple Play + Wireless Challenge: Consolidated Invoice and Price Points  Fixed Mobile Convergence Dual Mode connectivity Cellular / Cordless (DECT, ADSL/Bluetooth) WLAN / WWAN Challenge: Technology standardization  MVNO – Mobile Virtual Network Operator Wireless Service Reseller, wholesales access from wireless operators Discount & Lifestyle MVNO’s Segment, Product, Utilization Driven Challenge: Market Saturation & Service Differentiation

96 Transmisión de Datos Multimedia - Master IC 2007/ Market Trends (continued)  Multimedia – use of several media types to convey information Effective information delivery across many disciplines: art, education, telecommunications, medicine IMS enables multimedia services for mobile users VoIP Challenge: User Interface, Form Factor, lack of “killer app”  Presence – Always on, always connected Combine Mobility & Reachability Effectively bring Popularity of IM to mobile phones (AOL, Yahoo!, MSN, Skype) Opportunity for standardization & interworking based on SIP/SIMPLE Challenge: Standardization & always on connectivity


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