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Academic Excellence and Support Services. AESS: ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE AND SUPPORT SERVICES The Learning Assistance Center Suite 2441, French Hall-West (513)

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Presentation on theme: "Academic Excellence and Support Services. AESS: ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE AND SUPPORT SERVICES The Learning Assistance Center Suite 2441, French Hall-West (513)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Academic Excellence and Support Services

2 AESS: ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE AND SUPPORT SERVICES The Learning Assistance Center Suite 2441, French Hall-West (513)

3 Presentation Topics Exercise identifying effective mentoring qualities Structure: What is Academic Coaching? –Goals –Staff –Size Content: How Coaching Addresses “At- Risk” needs Style: What Is MI and WHY MI? –Background –Basics –Coach Training ACADEMIC COACHING

4 Content, Style, and Retention Each element of the coaching program seeks to promote student success, self-sufficiency, and retention. The content and style are two, separate coaching components, each of which seeks to promote success. ACADEMIC COACHING

5 Academic Coaching Staff One Program Manager 10 Student Staff Members  3 Grad/Professional Students  7 Undergraduates Coach Majors  3 Pre-medical  1 Music Performance  2 Psychology  1 Business (finance)  1 Law student  1 Communication (grad)  1 Sociology (grad)

6 Program Structure  Student driven (online, flexible scheduling, etc)  Appointment-based  Individualized & Private  Peer-led  Coaching vs Mentoring  Academic, not personal, focus ACADEMIC COACHING

7 Coaching Numbers

8 ACADEMIC COACHING Coaching Numbers

9 Academic Coaching Impact Data show consistent ½ grade point improvements after 4 or more sessions, with many students achieving even more! ACADEMIC COACHING

10 Academic Coaching Content: At-Risk Students and Success Skills ACADEMIC COACHING

11 Year One to Year Two Retention for At-Risk Students

12 How do At-Risk Students Fair in College?  The retention gap is largest between the first and second years of enrollment.  Retention in later years is more consistent.  Retention rates are comparable between four-year public and four-year private institutions. ACADEMIC COACHING

13 Who are At-Risk Students? Typical Demographics of At-Risk Students  First-Generation  Low Socio-Economic backgrounds  Attend college close to home  Nontraditional/Non-matriculating ACADEMIC COACHING

14 Who are At-Risk Students? Typical Behaviors of At-Risk Students  Full-time Employment  Part-time Enrollment  Enrollment at Branch/Satellite Campus  Living at home (with family)  Involvement in activities away from campus ACADEMIC COACHING

15 Generally, at-risk students are those who, for reasons unrelated to the educational institution, enroll underprepared for the college curriculum. Most often, the disparities in preparation exist well before matriculation into the university. ACADEMIC COACHING

16 How Coaching Content Addresses These Challenges  Serves a large portion of first-generation college students and students who enter college underprepared for the university curriculum.  Addresses “Learning Skills” and practices that may be overlooked in traditional course content  Offers an on-campus location for accountability (campus connection) ACADEMIC COACHING

17 The Coaches’ Toolbox  Academic Coaches use a variety of tools and resources in their sessions to further promote student success.  Included are tools:  Developed by the Learning Assistance Center  Adapted from sources outside of the university  Designed by coaches themselves

18 The Coaches’ Toolbox  Time Management Resources  Effective Study Techniques  Efficient Examination Preparation  The Essentials of Note-taking  Goal Setting and Achievement  Campus Connection ACADEMIC COACHING

19 Toolkit: Note-taking Essentials Widely-used note- taking strategies, such as SQ4R and the Cornell Method, enable students to carefully organize their coursework. ACADEMIC COACHING

20 Toolkit: Time Management Easy-to-use weekly schedule allows students the opportunity to organize class times, regularly- scheduled co-curricular events, and other recurring meetings into one convenient tool. ACADEMIC COACHING

21 Academic Coaching Style: Why MI and What is MI? ACADEMIC COACHING

22 Motivation and Cognition “Modern expectancy value theories (e.g., Eccles [Parsons] et al., 1983; Feather, 1982; Heckhausen, 1977; Pekrun, 1993; Wigfield & Eccles, 2000, 2002) are based in Atkinson's (1957, 1964) original expectancy–value model in that they link achievement performance, persistence, and choice most directly to individuals' expectancy-related and task value beliefs.” Ask the Coaches to Translate…. (Wigfield, A., Eccles, J.S., Schiefele, U., Roeser, R.W., Davis-Kean, P. (2006). Development of achievement motivation. In N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol. 3: Social, Emotional, and Personality Development (6 th ed.). New York: John Wiley.

23 Expectancy-Value Theory ACADEMIC COACHING

24 So, what builds students’ self-efficacy? What helps establish task value for academic success? …Not a rhetorical question, what do you do? ACADEMIC COACHING

25 Experiencing MI  MI uses concrete skills to promote interpersonal understanding. This allows coaches to understand their students’ goals before offering advice.  MI focuses on listening, affirming, and collaborating, not “fixing” students’ problems. ACADEMIC COACHING

26 Experiencing MI  MI Activity  Break into groups of three  Select a “talker”  Talker tells the group a characteristic about themselves (i.e. I’m organized…I’m quiet).  The group can only ask “yes/no” questions to learn more; talker can only ask yes/no… ACADEMIC COACHING

27 Coaching Style Motivational Interviewing (Review Handout)  Counseling approach developed by clinical psychologists Professor William R Miller, Ph.D. and Professor Stephen Rollnick, Ph.D.  Attention to language and intrinsic motivations of patients/clients  Seeks to encourage positive change among clients addressing  Addiction  Chronic disease management  Medication programs  Fitness and Healthy Eating ACADEMIC COACHING

28 Coaching Style Motivational Interviewing Skills OARS:  O: Open-Ended Questions (process, rather than goal oriented)  A: Affirmations (avoiding “I” statements”)  R: Reflective Listening (2:1 with reference to Questions)  S: Summarizing (collecting, linking, transitional) ACADEMIC COACHING

29 Coaching Style These are common skill foci in client-centered counseling practice.  The fifth skill—Eliciting Change Talk—defines MI and envelopes all of the above skills.  DARN CAT  DARN; Desire, Ability, Reasons, Needs  CAT; Commitment language, Activation (willingness to change statements), Taking Steps.  In other words, the above four skills are used to explore ideas and elicit change talk, walking the client through the items above… ACADEMIC COACHING

30 Coaching Style Motivational Interviewing Principles  Express empathy  Affirmations, reflective listening, clarifying questions  Develop discrepancy  Two-sided Reflections: “So, on the one hand, I hear you saying that you want a 4.0, but on the other hand, you also want your freedom and ability to see your friends. Can you tell me how you balance those two interests?”  Roll with resistance  Avoid the “righting-reflex”  Support self-efficacy  Affirmations, looking backward, change-planning, information with permission… ACADEMIC COACHING

31 MI and Cultural Sensitivity  How does MI reflect culturally sensitive practices?  Motivational interviewing requires consultants to demonstrate  Empathy on behalf of the consultant  Positive regard on behalf of the consultant, creating an atmosphere of acceptance  Does not assume homogeneity among clients from the same cultural background  Considerations:  It’s important to remember that the term “culture” does not specifically refer to ethnic background, but things such as socioeconomic status, religion, political beliefs, and other personal characteristics ACADEMIC COACHING

32 MI Addresses Diverse Target Behaviors  MI has been found to be effective in:  reducing maladaptive behaviors, such as problem drinking, gambling, and HIV risk behaviors  promoting adaptive health behavior change, such as exercise, diet, and medication adherence  MI seems to represent a generalizable technique that can effectively address multiple target behaviors, such as (Hettema et al. 2005):  Alcohol/Smoking  HIV/AIDS  Treatment compliance  Gambling  Intimate relationships  Water purification/safety  Eating disorders  Diet and exercise  EDUCATION? ACADEMIC COACHING

33 MI Addresses Diverse Target Behaviors  Furthermore, MI has been demonstrated to become more effective with other treatment methods  Can be effectively combined with other evidence-based “styles” or content areas to address specific issues  Suggests MI could be useful in addressing target behaviors in individuals from diverse backgrounds ACADEMIC COACHING

34 MI in Diverse Populations  MI has been used to encourage behavior change in individuals from diverse backgrounds  Recent meta-analysis found greater results for minority groups  Examples available for discussion during the question section. ACADEMIC COACHING

35 Future Research Directions  MI has been found effective in encouraging behavior change in a diverse variety of target behaviors.  Initial results across multiple groups are promising.  Educational Research is currently limited to small or case studies.  Researchers need to  Complete additional population studies.  Transition into educational settings. ACADEMIC COACHING

36 References Hettema, J., Steele, J., & Miller, W.R. (2005). Motivational interviewing. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1: Manthey, T. (2011). Using motivational interviewing to increase retention in supported education. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 14: Martino, S., Ball, S.A., Gallon, S.L., Hall, D., Garcia, M., Ceperich, S., Farentinos, C., Hamilton, J., and Hausotter, W. (2006). Motivational Interviewing Assessment: Supervisory Tools for Enhancing Proficiency. Salem, OR: Northwest Frontier Addiction Technology Transfer Center, Oregon Health and Science University. Miller, W.R. (2009). Toward a theory of motivational interviewing. American Psychologist, 64(6): Resnicow, K., Soler, R, Braithwaite, R. L., Ahluwalia, J.S., Butler, J. (2000). Cultural sensitivity in substance use prevention. Journal of Community Psychology, 28(3): Resnicow, K., Jackson, A., Wang, T., De, A. K., McCarty, F., Dudley, W. M., Baranowski, T. (2001). A motivational interviewing intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake through black churches: Results of the eat for life trial. American Journal of Public Health, 91(10): Steinberg, Jacques. (2011). Study Finds Academic ‘Coaching’ Boosts Graduation Rates. New York Times Online. Retrieved from Sue, D. W., Arrendondo, P., McDacis, R. J. (1992). Multicultural competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, The Chronicle of Higher Education. (2010). College Completion [Data set]. Retrieved from The Chronicle of Higher Education. (2010). College Completion [Data set]. Retrieved from ACADEMIC COACHING

37 Using MI to Increase Healthy Eating Habits in African Americans  Target behaviors  Fruit and vegetable consumption  Participants/setting  Three treatment groups: -Control Group (4 churches) -Self-help intervention with 1 telephone cue call (4 churches) -Self-help intervention with 1 cue call and three additional counseling calls, which employed MI techniques (6 churches) ACADEMIC COACHING

38 Using MI to Increase Healthy Eating Habits in African Americans  Results -Change in fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly greater in MI group than in other two groups -There was no difference in fruit and vegetable intake between the comparison and 1 st treatment groups.  Implications -MI can be an effective strategy used to promote healthy eating in African American individuals -NON-Clinical Settings (like Churches) may be effective settings for interventions -Combined education and systemic changes ACADEMIC COACHING

39 Using MI to Increase the Retention of Students with Psychiatric Disabilities in Post-Secondary Programs: A Case Study  Past EMPLOYMENT studies found that MI  increased retention,  reduced dropout rates,  increased first-time employment,  increased confidence in finding successful employment and pursuing academics  Manthey (2011) expanded to educational retention within Supported Education settings  SE was developed to offer continuous support towards academic success  Found anecdotal success ACADEMIC COACHING


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