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Volcanology for muographers --- Case studies on Usu volcano, Hokkaido --- July 26, 2013 Izumi YOKOYAMA
Modern Volcanology Krakatau 1883 Bandai 1888 Tarumae 1909 Lava dome Usu 1910 “Mound” Seismometric observ. Sakurajima 1914 AVO (Omori, Minakami) Paricutin 1944 Scoria cone Showa-Shinzan 1944 Lava dome Leveling Izu-Ooshima 1950 Gravimetry Mt. S. Helens Pinatubo Unzen 1993 Lava dome, Pyroclastic flows Drilling Asama Satsuma-Iwo-shima --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Eye observ. ▶ Drilling ▶ Prospecting ▶ Muon radiography Magma 〜 Lava
Usu volcano, Hokkaido A) Upheaval without eruptions in 1944 (YH) B ) Mound (so called cryptodome) formation with eruptions in 1910 (MS: Meiji-Shinzan) C) Dome formation in 1944 (SS: Showa-Shinzan)
(A) YH mound
(B) MS mound
Three types of dome intrusion on Usu volcano
Volcanic structures as targets of muography Main cones : small, large --------------- not always suitable Parasites : explosion craters, ] cinder cones, ] viscosity of magma lava domes and spines, ] mounds ] Parasites are all monogenetic.
Tilt of the summit part (NM) in 1977
The 1944 lava dome (SS) Secular changes of fumarole temp. and dme height
A definition of lava domes
A model of parasite formation
Three examples of twin parasitic vents on Sakurajima volcano, Kyushu
Twin parasitic vents formed in the 1973 eruption of Tyatya volcano, Kunashir (Nakagawa et al., 2002)
One of the next targets of muography beneath volcanoes
Thank you very much for your attention.
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