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Charles Petzold www.charlespetzold.com Application Lifecycle and State Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Charles Petzold www.charlespetzold.com Application Lifecycle and State Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Charles Petzold www.charlespetzold.com Application Lifecycle and State Management

2 Agenda Launching and closing Isolated storage Activation and deactivation Tombstoning Page state and application state Obscuration Idle detection

3 Phones run one app at a time –Apps not in foreground are closed or deactivated –Either way, process is terminated (usually) PhoneApplicationService fires lifecycle events –Launching and Closing –Activated and Deactivated State is not maintained when app is closed or deactivated unless you take steps to maintain it –Except in certain situations (more later) Application Lifecycle

4 Application is closed when: –Application's first page is displayed, and… –User presses the phone's Back button The only way to close an application! Process is terminated; all state is lost –One exception: if Back button is pressed quickly, WP7 may reconnect to still-running process –But don't count on it Launching and Closing

5 Launching and Closing Events // App.xaml // App.xaml.cs void Application_Launching(object sender, LaunchingEventArgs e) { } void Application_Closing(object sender, ClosingEventArgs e) { }

6 Every Windows phone has a Back button Page fires BackKeyPress events when the Back button is pressed From the UI Design and Interaction Guide for Windows Phone 7: Back Button Developers should only implement Back Button behaviors that navigate back or dismiss context menus or modal dialog boxes. All other implementations are prohibited.  

7 Prompting Before Exiting BackKeyPress += new EventHandler (OnBackKeyPress);. private void OnBackKeyPress(object sender, CancelEventArgs e) { MessageBoxResult result = MessageBox.Show("Are you sure?", "Confirm", MessageBoxButton.OKCancel); e.Cancel = !(result == MessageBoxResult.OK); }

8 demo Launching and Closing

9 System.IO.IsolatedStorage namespace contains classes that provide access to virtual file system –IsolatedStorageFile –IsolatedStorageException –IsolatedStorageSettings Stored in memory on the phone Permanently deleted if app is uninstalled Not subject to quotas Isolated Storage

10 Provides methods for: –Opening and closing isolated storage stores Also known as "isostores" –Creating, opening, copying, enumerating, moving, renaming, and deleting isolated storage files –Creating, opening, enumerating, moving, renaming, and deleting isolated storage folders AvailableFreeSpace property provides information about free space IsolatedStorageFile

11 IsolatedStorageFile method for accessing per- application stores GetUserStoreForApplication App 1 Store App 1 Store App 2 Store App 2 Store Marketplace App 1 App 2 Phone

12 Writing to Isolated Storage using (IsolatedStorageFile store = IsolatedStorageFile.GetUserStoreForApplication()) { using (IsolatedStorageFileStream stream = new IsolatedStorageFileStream("Settings.xml", FileMode.Create, store)) { using (StreamWriter writer = new StreamWriter(stream)) { // TODO: Write to stream with StreamWriter }

13 Reading from Isolated Storage using (IsolatedStorageFile store = IsolatedStorageFile.GetUserStoreForApplication()) { if (store.FileExists("Settings.xml")) { using (IsolatedStorageFileStream stream = new IsolatedStorageFileStream("Settings.xml", FileMode.Open, store)) { using (StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(stream)) { // TODO: Read from stream with StreamReader }

14 Deleting an Isolated Storage File using (IsolatedStorageFile store = IsolatedStorageFile.GetUserStoreForApplication()) { if (store.FileExists("Settings.xml")) store.DeleteFile("Settings.xml"); }

15 Dictionary stored in isolated storage –Application scope –Accessed through IsolatedStorageSettings.ApplicationSettings property Simplifies task of storing user preferences and other simple settings –For example, language preferences Private to each application Application Settings

16 Using ApplicationSettings // Write to the ApplicationSettings dictionary IsolatedStorageSettings settings = IsolatedStorageSettings.ApplicationSettings; settings["Culture"] = "fr-fr"; // Read from the ApplicationSettings dictionary string culture; IsolatedStorageSettings settings = IsolatedStorageSettings.ApplicationSettings; if (settings.TryGetValue ("Culture", out culture)) HtmlPage.Window.Alert(culture);

17 Determining Available Space using (IsolatedStorageFile store = IsolatedStorageFile.GetUserStoreForApplication()) { Int64 available = store.AvailableFreeSpace;... }

18 Performance of CreateFile, OpenFile, and other methods degrades with large numbers of files Rule of thumb: Segregate files into folders, with no more than 128 files per folder –"How Many Files are Too Many Files?" http://appangles.com/blogs/mickn/wp7/?p=6 Block reads and writes are more performant than lots of little reads and writes Isolated Storage Performance

19 Creating an Isolated Storage Folder using (IsolatedStorageFile store = IsolatedStorageFile.GetUserStoreForApplication()) { store.CreateDirectory("\XML Stuff"); using (IsolatedStorageFileStream stream = new IsolatedStorageFileStream("\XML Stuff\Settings.xml", FileMode.Create, store)) {... }

20 demo Isolated Storage

21 Application is deactivated when: –User presses the phone's Start button –App launches a launcher or chooser –Device time-out locks the screen Unless you specify otherwise Deactivation usually means process is terminated –Notable exception: When certain choosers such as PhotoChooserTask are launched Termination means all state is lost Activation and Deactivation

22 Activated and Deactivated Events // App.xaml // App.xaml.cs void Application_Activated(object sender, ActivatedEventArgs e) { } void Application_Deactivated(object sender, DeactivatedEventArgs e) { }

23 demo Activation and Deactivation

24 Occurs when app is deactivated and terminated To restore app to same state when reactivated, persist state in application state or page state –Or use isolated storage if volume of data exceeds limits on application state and page state –Isolated storage is 30% to 50% slower Use page's OnNavigatedFrom and OnNavigatedTo methods to save and restore state App is allowed 10 seconds to tombstone data Tombstoning

25 Data store for tombstoning global data –Limited to approx. 1.5 MB per app Dictionary accessed through PhoneApplicationService.State property Available between Activated and Deactivated events, inclusive Data must be serializable Application State

26 Saving Application State void Application_Deactivated(object sender, DeactivatedEventArgs e) { PhoneApplicationService.Current.State["x1"] = x1; PhoneApplicationService.Current.State["y1"] = y1; PhoneApplicationService.Current.State["x2"] = x2; PhoneApplicationService.Current.State["y2"] = y2; }

27 Restoring Application State void Application_Activated(object sender, ActivatedEventArgs e) { if (PhoneApplicationService.Current.State.ContainsKey("x1")) x1 = (double)PhoneApplicationService.Current.State["x1"]; if (PhoneApplicationService.Current.State.ContainsKey("y1")) y1 = (double)PhoneApplicationService.Current.State["y1"]; if (PhoneApplicationService.Current.State.ContainsKey("x2")) x2 = (double)PhoneApplicationService.Current.State["x2"]; if (PhoneApplicationService.Current.State.ContainsKey("y2")) y2 = (double)PhoneApplicationService.Current.State["y2"]; }

28 Data store for tombstoning per-page data –Limited to 2 MB per page and 4 MB per app Dictionary accessed through PhoneApplicationPage.State property Available between OnNavigatedTo and OnNavigatedFrom methods, inclusive Data must be serializable Page State

29 Saving Page State protected override void OnNavigatedFrom(NavigationEventArgs e) { this.State["x1"] = x1; this.State["y1"] = y1; this.State["x2"] = x2; this.State["y2"] = y2; }

30 Restoring Page State protected override void OnNavigatedTo(NavigationEventArgs e) { if (this.State.ContainsKey("x1")) x1 = (double)this.State["x1"]; if (this.State.ContainsKey("y1")) y1 = (double)this.State["y1"]; if (this.State.ContainsKey("x2")) x2 = (double)this.State["x2"]; if (this.State.ContainsKey("y2")) y2 = (double)this.State["y2"]; }

31 demo Tombstoning

32 Tombstoning a ListBox Control protected override void OnNavigatedFrom(NavigationEventArgs e) { // Save the ListBox control's SelectedIndex in page state this.State["Index"] = ListBoxControl.SelectedIndex; } protected override void OnNavigatedTo(NavigationEventArgs e) { // Restore the ListBox control's SelectedIndex if (this.State.ContainsKey("Index")) ListBoxControl.SelectedIndex = (int)this.State["Index"]; }

33 Tombstoning a Pivot Control // This doesn't work protected override void OnNavigatedFrom(NavigationEventArgs e) { // Save the Pivot control's SelectedIndex in page state this.State["Index"] = PivotControl.SelectedIndex; } protected override void OnNavigatedTo(NavigationEventArgs e) { // Restore the Pivot control's SelectedIndex if (this.State.ContainsKey("Index")) PivotControl.SelectedIndex = (int)this.State["Index"]; }

34 Tombstoning a Pivot Control, Cont. // This works protected override void OnNavigatedFrom(NavigationEventArgs e) { // Save the Pivot control's SelectedIndex in page state this.State["Index"] = PivotControl.SelectedIndex; } // Handler for Pivot.Loaded event void OnPivotControlLoaded(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e) { // Restore the Pivot control's SelectedIndex if (this.State.ContainsKey("Index")) _index = (int)this.State["Index"]; }

35 Tombstoning a Panorama Control // This doesn't work protected override void OnNavigatedFrom(NavigationEventArgs e) { // Save the Panorama control's SelectedIndex in page state this.State["Index"] = PanoramaControl.SelectedIndex; } protected override void OnNavigatedTo(NavigationEventArgs e) { // Restore the Panorama control's SelectedIndex if (this.State.ContainsKey("Index")) PanoramaControl.SelectedIndex = (int)this.State["Index"]; }

36 Tombstoning a Panorama, Cont. // This works protected override void OnNavigatedFrom(NavigationEventArgs e) { // Save the Panorama control's SelectedIndex in page state this.State["Index"] = PanoramaControl.SelectedIndex; } protected override void OnNavigatedTo(NavigationEventArgs e) { // Restore the Panorama control's SelectedIndex if (this.State.ContainsKey("Index")) PanoramaControl.DefaultItem = PanoramaControl.Items[(int)State["Index"]]; }

37 demo Tombstoning Pivot Controls

38 Fired by PhoneApplicationFrame –Obscured – Shell comes to the foreground –Unobscured – App returns to the foreground Common causes: –Phone receives an incoming call –Screen times out and lock screen appears If app has disabled idle detection Some apps must handle these events to pass certification requirements Obscured and Unobscured Events

39 Handling Obscuration Events (Application.Current as App).RootFrame.Obscured += OnObscured; (Application.Current as App).RootFrame.Unobscured += OnUnobscured;. private void OnObscured(object sender, ObscuredEventArgs e) { // Application is obscured by shell (possibly an incoming call) VibrateController.Default.Stop(); // Sample action } private void OnUnobscured(object sender, EventArgs e) { // Application has returned to the foreground }

40 By default, apps are deactivated when screen locks Apps can continue running when screen locks by disabling ApplicationIdleDetectionMode –Primarily for apps that are slow to reactivate –Also for apps that need to run under lock (e.g., audio) –Obscured and Obscured events replace Activated and Deactivated events Apps can also disable UserIdleDetectionMode to prevent screen from locking automatically Idle Detection

41 Disabling Application Idle Detection // Allow the app to run when screen is locked. Once disabled, // ApplicationIdleDetectionMode cannot be reenabled while the // app is running. PhoneApplicationService.Current.ApplicationIdleDetectionMode = IdleDetectionMode.Disabled;

42 Disabling User Idle Detection // Prevent screen from locking while this app runs PhoneApplicationService.Current.UserIdleDetectionMode = IdleDetectionMode.Disabled;

43 Detecting a Locked Screen (Application.Current as App).RootFrame.Obscured += OnObscured; (Application.Current as App).RootFrame.Unobscured += OnUnobscured;. private void OnObscured(object sender, ObscuredEventArgs e) { if (e.IsLocked) { // Screen is locked } private void OnUnobscured(object sender, EventArgs e) { // Screen is no longer locked }

44 demo Running Under a Locked Screen

45 Charles Petzold www.charlespetzold.com Questions?


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