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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 Most powerful pattern so far. Gang of Four Definition: Decouple an abstraction from its implementation so that the two can vary independently. What does this really mean? Let’s dissect it. Decouple means to have things behave independently for each other. Abstraction is how different things are related to each other conceptually. I personally prefer Google’s definition: a concept or idea not associated with any specific instance Implementations ? – Build concrete abstractions? So what does it mean to separate the abstraction from the implementation?

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 Truly the best way to learn is by an example Suppose we are writing a program that will draw rectangles for either of two drawing programs (DP1 and DP2). We will know which we are using at the instantiation of the rectangle. A rectangle is defined as a pair of two points:

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 DP1:DP2: draw_a_line(x1, y1, x2, y2)drawline(x1,x2, y1, y2) draw_a_circle(x, y, r)drawcircle(x, y, r)

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 We do not want the code that draws the rectangles to worry about what type of drawing program it should use. Since the rectangles are told at the time of instantiation what drawing program they use, we could have two different kinds of Drawing objects, one that works of DP1 and one on DP2.

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 Use an abstract class to represent a Rectangle. The only difference between DP1 and DP2’s rectangles are the implementation of the drawline method. V1Rectangle is implemented by having a reference to a DP1 object that uses the draw_a_line method. V2Rectangle is implemented by having a reference to a DP2 object that uses the drawline method. Once a Rectangle is instantiated I no longer have to worry about which it uses.

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 abstract public class Rectangle { private double _x1, _y1, _x2, _y2; private double _x1, _y1, _x2, _y2; public Rectangle (double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) { public Rectangle (double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) { _x1 = x1; _y1 = y1; _x2 = x2; _y2 = y2; _x1 = x1; _y1 = y1; _x2 = x2; _y2 = y2;} public void draw() { drawLine(_x1, _y1, _x2, _y1); drawLine(_x1, _y1, _x2, _y1); drawLine(_x2, _y1, _x2, _y2); drawLine(_x2, _y1, _x2, _y2); drawLine(_x2, _y2, _x1, _y2); drawLine(_x2, _y2, _x1, _y2); drawLine(_x1, _y2, _x1, _y1); drawLine(_x1, _y2, _x1, _y1);} abstract protected void drawLine (double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2); }

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 As we add shapes it is intuitive to develop a class for each shape/drawing system combination that uses the appropriate drawing system.

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 abstract class Shape { abstract public void draw(); abstract public void draw();} abstract public class Circle extends Shape { protected double _x, _y, _r; protected double _x, _y, _r; public Circle (double x, double y, double r) { public Circle (double x, double y, double r) { _x = x; _y = y; _r = r; _x = x; _y = y; _r = r;} public void draw() { public void draw() { drawCircle(); drawCircle();} abstract protected void drawCircle(); public class V1Circle extends Circle{ public V1Circle(double x, double y, double r) { public V1Circle(double x, double y, double r) { super(x,y,r); super(x,y,r); } protected void drawCircle() { protected void drawCircle() { DP1.draw_a_circle(_x, _y, _r); DP1.draw_a_circle(_x, _y, _r); }}

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 public class V2Circle extends Circle{ public V2Circle(double x, double y, double r) { public V2Circle(double x, double y, double r) { super(x,y,r); super(x,y,r); } protected void drawCircle() { protected void drawCircle() { DP2.drawCircle(_x, _y, _r); DP2.drawCircle(_x, _y, _r); }}

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 Observe how a rectangle is drawn:

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 While intuitive, this method leads to a class explosion. The abstraction (Shape) and the implementation (drawing programs) are tightly coupled. Each type of shape must know what kind of drawing program it is using. We need to separate the variations in abstraction from the variation in implementation. Remember, this is the idea behind the Bridge Pattern, “to decouple the abstraction from the implementation, so the two can vary independently.” Abstraction 1Implementation A Abstraction 2Implementation B Abstraction 3Implementation C

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 Other problems exist: Does there appear to be redundancy? Does there appear to be redundancy? How cohesive is the proposed solution? How cohesive is the proposed solution? Are things tightly coupled? Are things tightly coupled?

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 Is the problem inheritance? Let’s try another form.

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 Let’s repeat our mantra Find what varies and encapsulate it Favor aggregation over inheritance. Let’s start by identify what is varying. Different types of shapes Different types of shapes Different types of drawing programs Different types of drawing programs

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 Shape is used to encapsulate the concept of the types of shapes Shapes are responsible to know hot to draw themselves Drawing objects are responsible to draw graphical primitives like lines and circles. Responsibilities are defined by methods in the classes

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 We also must represent the specific variations that are present. A shape has a rectangle and circle. A drawing program has a program based on DP1 and one based on DP2

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 How do these classes relate to one another? Two possibilities: Drawing Program uses Shape To accomplish this, drawing programs would need to know something about shapes in general. This violates fundamental principles of objects. Objects are responsible only for themselves. This violates encapsulation. Shape uses the Drawing Program Shapes do not need to know what type of drawing object they used, it would just refer to the Drawing class. Shapes are responsible for controlling the drawing.

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 Tie the classes together

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 Figure with the missing relationship to the actual drawing programs

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 We now have a separation of the abstraction from the implementation Also have One Rule One Place

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 Remember there are only three objects at any given time to consider: A Shape is either a Circle or Rectangle, but the client can’t tell which, since they both look the same. A Drawing object is either a V1Drawing or V2Drawing, but the shape can’t tell the difference since they both look the same. DP1 or DP2 must be the correct one, but the Drawing object that uses it will know which it is.

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 public class Client { static public void main() { static public void main() { Shape myShapes[]; Shape myShapes[]; Factory myFactory = new Factory(); Factory myFactory = new Factory(); //get rectangles from some other source //get rectangles from some other source myShapes = myFactory.getShapes(); myShapes = myFactory.getShapes(); for (int i = 0; i < myShapes.length; i++) { for (int i = 0; i < myShapes.length; i++) { myShapes[i].draw(); myShapes[i].draw(); } }} abstract public class Shape { protected Drawing myDrawing; protected Drawing myDrawing; abstract public void draw(); abstract public void draw(); Shape (Drawing drawing) { Shape (Drawing drawing) { myDrawing = drawing; myDrawing = drawing;}

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 protected void drawLine( double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) { double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) { myDrawing.drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2); myDrawing.drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2);} protected void drawCircle( double x, double y, double r) { double x, double y, double r) { myDrawing.drawCircle(x,y,r); myDrawing.drawCircle(x,y,r); }} public class Rectangle extends Shape { private double _x1, _y1, _x2, _y2; private double _x1, _y1, _x2, _y2; public Rectangle (Drawing dp, double x1, public Rectangle (Drawing dp, double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) { double y1, double x2, double y2) { super(dp); super(dp); _x1=x1; _y1=y1; _x2=x2; _y2 = y2;//Typo in book _x1=x1; _y1=y1; _x2=x2; _y2 = y2;//Typo in book} public void draw() { drawLine( _x1, _y1, _x2, _y1); drawLine( _x1, _y1, _x2, _y1); drawLine( _x2, _y1, _x2, _y2); drawLine( _x2, _y1, _x2, _y2); drawLine( _x2, _y2, _x2, _y2); drawLine( _x2, _y2, _x2, _y2); drawLine( _x1, _y2, _x1, _y1); drawLine( _x1, _y2, _x1, _y1);}

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 protected void drawLine(double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) { myDrawing.DrawLine(x1 y1, x2, y2); myDrawing.DrawLine(x1 y1, x2, y2); }} public class Circle extends Shape { private double _x, _y, _r; private double _x, _y, _r; public Circle (Drawing dp, double x, double, y, double r) { public Circle (Drawing dp, double x, double, y, double r) { super(dp); super(dp); _x = x; _y = y; _r = r; //Typo in book _x = x; _y = y; _r = r; //Typo in book } public void draw() { public void draw() { myDrawing.drawCircle(_x, _y, _r); myDrawing.drawCircle(_x, _y, _r); }} abstract public class Drawing { abstract public void drawLine(double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2); abstract public void drawLine(double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2); abstract public void drawCircle(double x, double y, double r); abstract public void drawCircle(double x, double y, double r);}

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 public class V1Drawing extends Drawing { public void drawLine(double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) { public void drawLine(double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) { DP1.draw_a_line(x1,y1,x2,y2);} DP1.draw_a_line(x1,y1,x2,y2);} public void drawCircle(double x, double y, double r) { public void drawCircle(double x, double y, double r) { DP1.draw_a_circle(x,y,r); DP1.draw_a_circle(x,y,r); }} public class V2Drawing extends Drawing { public void drawLine(double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) { public void drawLine(double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) { DP2.drawLine(x1,x2,y1,y2);} DP2.drawLine(x1,x2,y1,y2);} public void drawCircle(double x, double y, double r) { public void drawCircle(double x, double y, double r) { DP2.drawCircle(x,y,r); DP2.drawCircle(x,y,r); }}

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CS 350 – Software Design The Bridge Pattern – Chapter 10 Intent: Decouple a set of implementations from the set of objects using them. Problem: The derivations of an abstract class must use multiple implementations without cause an explosion in the number of classes. Solution: Design an interface for all implementations to use and have the derivations of the abstract class use that. Implementation: Encapsulate the implementations in an abstract class. Contain a handle to it in the base class of the abstraction being implemented.

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