# Space-Time The ESRI Time Project – Comments by Steve Kopp

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Space-Time The ESRI Time Project – Comments by Steve Kopp
Time series and ArcGIS: What can I use now? Tracking Analyst Plotting graphs of Attribute Series using CRWR TS Plotter A true Temporal GIS: What does ArcGIS need? Hydrologic Flux calculations: Florida Example A new file type?: NetCDF

Tracking Analyst Simple Events Complex Event
1 feature class that describes What, When, Where Complex Event 1 feature class and 1 table that describe What, When, Where Arc Hydro

Simple Event ID Time Geometry Value 1 T1 X1,Y1 0.1 2 T2 X2,Y2 0.3 T3
0.7 T4 X4,Y4 0.4 3 T5 X5,Y5 0.5 T6 X6,Y6 0.2 4 T7 X7,Y7 T8 X8,Y8 0.8 T9 X9,Y9 Unique Identifier for objects being tracked through time Observation Time of observation (in order) Geometry of observation

Complex Event (stationary version)
ID Time Value 1 T1 0.1 2 T2 0.3 T3 0.7 T4 0.4 3 T5 0.5 T6 0.2 4 T7 T8 0.8 T9 ID Geometry 1 X1,Y1 2 X2,Y2 3 X3,Y3 4 X4,Y4 Cases 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 The object maintains its geometry (i.e. it is stationary)

Complex Event (dynamic version)
ID Geometry Time Value 1 X1,Y1 T1 0.1 2 X2,Y2 T2 0.3 X3,Y3 T3 0.7 X4,Y4 T4 0.4 3 X5,Y5 T5 0.5 X6,Y6 T6 0.2 4 X7,Y7 T7 X8,Y8 T8 0.8 X9,Y9 T9 ID Gage Number 1 1001 2 1002 3 1003 4 1004 Cases 6 and 7 The object’s geometry can vary with time (i.e. it is dynamic)

Fecal Coliform in Galveston Bay, Texas

Tracking Analyst Demo Show the Galveston Bay Monitoring Point feature class and Time Series Table Show the temporal layer Show the tracking analyst time “Playback Manager” Animate bacteria concentrations

Time and Space in GIS Time Series Feature Series Attribute Series
Variable t3 Value t2 t1 Time Attribute Series Raster Series Value t3 t1 t2 t2 t1 t3 y x

Time Series and Temporal Geoprocessing
DHI Time Series Manager Time Series Feature Series Time Variable t3 Value t2 t1 Time Attribute Series Raster Series Value t3 t3 t2 t1 t2 t1 y x ArcGIS Temporal Geoprocessing Adobe picture

Arc Hydro Attribute Series
TSDateTime Feature Class (point, line, area) TSValue FeatureID TSType TSType Table

Arc Hydro Attribute Series
Feature Class (HydroID) Attribute Series Table (FeatureID)

Attribute Series Typing
TSType Attribute Series 1 * Type Units Regular …. FeatureID Type Time Value Map time series e.g. Nexrad Collections of values recorded at various locations and times e.g. water quality samples This is current Arc Hydro time series structure

Plotting Attribute Series
One feature with a time-dependent Attribute Observed or Modeled Complications Regular or Irregular in time Many Types (rainfall, streamflow, dissolved oxygen, etc.) Instantaneous, cumulative, averaged, min, max, etc. Different units (cfs, m3/d, gpd, etc.) Plot the data in ArcMap

TS Plotter Demo Show TSType Table
Plot time series for a few MonitoringPoint features Summarize data into yearly averages Export data and chart to Excel Show exported data and chart in Excel

South Florida Water Management Project
Prototype region includes 24 water management basins, More than 70 water control structures managed by the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) Includes natural and managed waterways Prototype Area Lake Kissimmee Lake Istokpoga Lake Okeechobee

How much water is there? Where is the water in the District? How much water will enter the canal system? How can water be routed from one basin to another?

DBHydro TimeSeries Achieve of Water Related Time Series Data currently used by SFWMD Example of Flow Data: Daily Average Flow [cfs] at Structure S65 (spillway) Spatial Information About point of measurement Unique 5-digit alphanumeric code called DBKEY Date/Time Value DBHydro can be accessed at:

Coupling Table: Linking Control Volume to Features
Water Balance performed over a Control Volume (i.e.: Basin) Coupling Table links the Control Volume (basin) to all features that transfer water into and out of the Control Volume Horizontal (structures) Vertical (rainfall, ETp) Qin Qrain Qevap Qout S65BC Basin

Water Balancing in ArcHydro
QS65A +QRAIN - QETp –QS65C = Storage

Coupling Table Design HydroID of Inflow or Outflow Feature that contains Time Series Information If Inflow/Outflow is a flux, include an area over which the flux acts HydroID of Control Volume Direction of Flow 1 = IN, 2 = OUT ObjectID

Demo of Flow and Flux Calculations using TSViewer
Links Control Volume Feature with Inflow and Outflows

Multidimensional Data Representation for the Geosciences
Atmospheric Science Hydrology Ocean Science Earth Science

Weather and Hydrology Weather Information Hydrologic Information
Continuous in space and time Combines data and simulation models Delivered in real time Hydrologic Information Static spatial info, time series at points Data and models are not connected Mostly historical data Challenges for Hydrologic Information Systems How to better connect space and time? How to connect space, time and models? How to connect weather and hydrology?

Arc Hydro Attribute Series
TSDateTime Feature Class (point, line, area) TSValue FeatureID TSType TSType Table

NetCDF Data Model (developed at Unidata for distributing weather data)
Time Dimensions and Coordinates Value Space (x,y,z) NetCDF describes a collection of variables stored in a dimension space that may represent coordinate points in the (x,y,z,t) dimensions Variables Attributes

NetCDF File for Weather Model Output of Relative Humidity (Rh)
dimensions: lat = 5, long = 10, time = unlimited; variables: lat:units = “degrees_north”; long:units = “degrees_east”; time:units = “hours since ”; data: lat = 20, 30, 40, 50, 60; long = -160, -140, -118, -96, -84, -52, -45, -35, -25, -15; time = 12; rh = .5,.2,.4,.2,.3,.2,.4,.5,.6,.7, .1,.3,.1,.1,.1.,.1,.5,.7,.8,.8, .1,.2,.2,.2,.2,.5,.7,.8,.9,.9, .1,.2,.3,.3,.3,.3,.7,.8,.9,.9 .0,.1,.2,.4,.4,.4,.4,.7,.8,.9; rh (time, lat, lon);

Relative Humidity Points

Interpolate to Raster GeoTiff format, cell size = 0.5º

Zoom in to the United States

Average Rh in each State
Determined using Spatial Analyst function Zonal Statistics with Rh as underlying raster and States as zones

Integrated Data Viewer (Developed by Unidata)
Data Probe Vertical Profile Time/Height display Vertical cross-section Plan view Isosurface Note: IDV = Integrated Data Viewer

RUC20 – Output Samples Precipitable water in the atmosphere
Cross-section of relative humidity Wind vectors and wind speed (shading) Images created from Unidata’s Integrated Data Viewer (IDV)

IDV Demo For RUC20 predicted temperature (4D dataset) show:
Plan view changes over time Cross-section changes over time Vertical Profile changes over time Data Probe changes over time

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