# Computer Science 111 Fundamentals of Programming I

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Computer Science 111 Fundamentals of Programming I
Advanced Turtle Graphics Recursive Patterns in Art and Nature

Recursive Patterns in Art
The 20th century Dutch artist Piet Mondrian painted a series of pictures that displayed abstract, rectangular patterns of color Start with a single colored rectangle Subdivide the rectangle into two unequal parts (say, 1/3 and 2/3) and paint these in different colors Repeat this process until an aesthetically appropriate “moment” is reached

Level 1: A Single Filled Rectangle

Level 2: Split at the Aesthetically Appropriate Spot

Level 3: Continue the Same Process with Each Part

Level 4

Level 5

Level 6

Level 7

Level 8

Level 9

Design a Recursive Function
The function expects a Turtle object, the corner points of a rectangle, and the current level as arguments If the level is greater than 0 Draw a filled rectangle with the given corner points Calculate the corner points of two new rectangles within the current one and decrement the level by 1 Call the function recursively to draw these two rectangles

Program Structure from turtle import Turtle import random
def drawRectangle(t, x1, y1, x2, y2): red = random.randint(0, 255) green = random.randint(0, 255) blue = random.randint(0, 255) t.pencolor(red, green, blue) # Code for drawing goes here # Definition of the recursive mondrian function goes here def main(level = 1): t = Turtle() t.speed(0) t.hideturtle() x = 50 y = 50 mondrian(t, -x, y, x, -y, level)

The mondrian Function def mondrian(t, x1, y1, x2, y2, level):
if level > 0: drawRectangle(t, x1, y1, x2, y2) vertical = random.randint(1, 2) if vertical == 1: # Vertical split mondrian(t, x1, y1, (x2 - x1) // 3 + x1, y2, level - 1) mondrian(t, (x2 - x1) // 3 + x1, y1, x2, y2, else: # Horizontal split mondrian(t, x1, y1, x2, (y2 - y1) // 3 + y1, mondrian(t, x1, (y2 - y1) // 3 + y1, x2, y2,

Recursive Patterns in Nature
A fractal is a mathematical object that exhibits the same pattern when it is examined in greater detail Many natural phenomena, such as coastlines and mountain ranges, exhibit fractal patterns

The C-curve A C-curve is a fractal pattern
A level 0 C-curve is a vertical line segment A level 1 C-curve is obtained by bisecting a level 0 C-curve and joining the sections at right angles A level N C-curve is obtained by joining two level N - 1 C-curves at right angles

Level 0 and Level 1 (50,50) (50,50) (0,0) (50,-50) (50,-50)
drawLine(50, -50, 50, 50) drawLine(50, -50, 0, 0) drawLine(0, 0, 50, 50)

Bisecting and Joining (50,50) (50,50) (0,0) (50,-50) (50,-50)
drawLine(50, -50, 50, 50) 0 = ( ) // 2 0 = ( ) // 2 drawLine(50, -50, 0, 0) drawLine(0, 0, 50, 50)

Generalizing (50,50) (50,50) (0,0) (50,-50) (50,-50)
drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2) xm = (x1 + x2 + y1 - y2) // 2 ym = (x2 + y1 + y2 - x1) // 2 drawLine(x1, y1, xm, ym) drawLine(xm, ym, x2, y2)

Recursing Base case Recursive step (50,50) (50,50) (0,0) (50,-50)
drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2) xm = (x1 + x2 + y1 - y2) // 2 ym = (x2 + y1 + y2 - x1) // 2 cCurve(x1, y1, xm, ym) CCurve(xm, ym, x2, y2) Base case Recursive step

The cCurve Function def cCurve(t, x1, y1, x2, y2, level): if level == 0: drawLine(t, x1, y1, x2, y2) else: xm = (x1 + x2 + y1 - y2) // 2 ym = (x2 + y1 + y2 - x1) // 2 cCurve(t, x1, y1, xm, ym, level - 1) cCurve(t, xm, ym, x2, y2, level - 1) Note that recursive calls occur before any C-curve is drawn when level > 0

Program Structure from turtle import Turtle
def drawLine(t, x1, y1, x2, y2): """Draws a line segment between the endpoints.""" t.up() t.goto(x1, y1) t.down() t.goto(x2, y2) # Definition of the recursive cCurve function goes here def main(level = 1): t = Turtle() t.speed(0) t.hideturtle() cCurve(t, 50, -50, 50, 50, level)

Call Tree for ccurve(0) A call tree diagram shows the number of calls of a function for a given argument value ccurve ccurve(0) uses one call, the top-level one

Call Tree for ccurve(1) ccurve ccurve ccurve
ccurve(1) uses three calls, a top-level one and two recursive calls

Call Tree for ccurve(2) ccurve(2) uses 7 calls, a top-level one and 6 recursive calls ccurve ccurve ccurve ccurve ccurve ccurve ccurve

Call Tree for ccurve(n)
ccurve(n) uses 2n calls, a top-level one and 2n recursive calls ccurve ccurve ccurve ccurve ccurve ccurve ccurve

Call Tree for ccurve(2) The number of line segments drawn equals the number of calls on the frontier of the tree (2n) ccurve ccurve ccurve ccurve ccurve ccurve ccurve

Summary A recursive algorithm passes the buck repeatedly to the same function Recursive algorithms are well-suited for solving problems in domains that exhibit recursive patterns Recursive strategies can be used to simplify complex solutions to difficult problems

For Next Week Finish Chapter 7