Presentation on theme: "Functional benefits for heat exchangers cleaned with I 2 Air Infusion. Click to continue."— Presentation transcript:
Functional benefits for heat exchangers cleaned with I 2 Air Infusion. Click to continue
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The efficiency of plate heat exchangers is diminished by fouling. Inorganic and/or biological deposits on the plate surface reduce heat transfer and increase the pressure drop of the system. Fouling increases energy demand as well as operation and maintenance costs of industrial processes. According to Muller-Steinhagen et al. (2005), “the total annual cost due to fouling for highly industrialized countries are about 0.25% of the countries’ Gross National Product (GNP)”. Fouling plate surfaces cause; Reduced flow through. Reduced heat transfer. Increased well pump demand. Reduced efficiency and system integrity. Corrosive deposits that can damage plate surfaces. Gate valve and pipe restrictions. Increased mechanical wear.
From the Environmental Security and Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) Project ER-0429. “Due to fluid shear in the aquifer, attached biomass can be dislodged from the bio-film and transported by the water phase to another location, where it can re- attach. This sloughing/reattachment can substantially redistribute biomass in porous media (Taylor and Jaffe, 1991).Eventually, the bio-film becomes sufficiently enlarged that it occupies a significant fraction of the void volume of the well screen, filter pack, and/or aquifer, and occlusion or fouling occurs (Cullimore, 1999), resulting in decreased well performance and reduced EISB effectiveness.” Where bio-films are the fouling agent there is concern for occlusion in the recipient well. Sloughed off bio-film from heat exchangers, pumps and valves move downstream to occlude diffusion well screens. In essence, the heat transfer device becomes a biomass incubator.
The main energy consumers in a water cooled system are the chillers and pumps. Deposits on heat exchange surfaces reduce transfer and result in higher energy costs. Some fouling agents have a greater insulation factor than others and thus have a greater energy requirement impact. Iron Oxide and Calcium Carbonate have a Thermal conductivity of 2.9 (watt/m/K) Bio-film has a Thermal conductivity of.6 (watt/m/K), almost 4 times less conductivity! What does this mean in dollars? Effect of condenser deposit thickness (in inches) of scale with 1.0 thermal conductivity on annual increased electrical cost (assuming a.07 per KWH US dollars): Deposit thickness Fouling factor % Efficiency loss Increased annual electric cost.01.0008 9 $19,790.03.0025 27 $59,365.05.0042 45 $98,945 This does not reflect the costs associated with bio-slime (with a thermal conductivity of.6) nor increased pump demand to move water through reduced interior flow passages.
Why waste energy dollars waiting for an exchanger to foul? Traditional methods of heat exchanger cleaning are costly, time consuming, necessitate exchanger breakdown, disrupt facility use and potentially expose the environment and staff to caustic chemicals. This is why most facilities treated fouling acutely, allowing the system to get badly fouled before addressing. During this period ever increasing deposit film extract dollars from the energy budget. In addition, the angst of dealing with a poorly functioning system and staff complaints falls on the shoulders of the facility management team. The simplicity and low cost of the i2 method allows for treating system fouling as a chronic condition. Rather than allow a deposit to increase, the i2 method eliminates it early when it is fragile and then prevents it from reforming. All the while heat transfer is at an optimum. This is all possible due to the multi-phased, eco-friendly, in-situ i2 method that takes about 90 minutes per month.
How does it work? Without exchanger breakdown, the i2 method uses matched eco-safe cleaners that are specific for the fouling agent. Used in combination with i2 infusion, these chemicals dissolve minerals and biologicals for release into a sanitary drain. The i2 method imparts these cleaners during a process called Phase Cleaning that employs hydro-shearing, pressurization, reverse pressurization, reverse turbulent flow and cavitations to break up existing fouling films all within 90 minutes and all within the exchanger. No chemical cleaner is allowed to enter the eco-system. Once clean, the system is brought back on line and the results are immediately seen in reduced pressure drop and increased heat transfer. Where fouling is rapid, a one hour i2 application will prevent any substantial formation of foulant between monthly cleanings. The i2 imparted is less than.2 ppm and total quantity is less than 12 grams of i2 per month. This inactivates any biological foulant and chemically converts some of the mineral foulants while helping to disrupt sedimentation, Brownian motions and inverse solubility.
Waterborne bacteria Reducing bacterial counts in water. Iodine is a very effective broad based biocide. The problem is aqueous use necessitates long contact times and metering devices to dispense. Additionally, under flow conditions iodine is rapidly diluted. Use of iodine resin beds, although effective, are susceptible to fouling by turbidity and mineral content within the water as well as temperature and pH. Plus, it is difficult to control and maintain iodine release. The i2 method uniquely disinfects quickly and without unnecessary iodine exposure.
SMSC Bacterial fouling within the heat exchanger and diffusion wells. A geothermal system consisting of 2 source wells and two diffusion wells with one 96 plate heat exchanger. Shortly after start of operation at this electronics testing facility on Long Island, NY, both wells and exchanger exhibited rapid bio-fouling. The diffusion well would back up constantly and exhibit back pressure of 25 psi or more. Hyper-chlorination of the entire system was recommended. After completion and well remediation, the problem occurred again necessitating multiple exchanger breakdowns. Yearly costs were in the tens of thousands to maintain the system. Prior to considering changeover to an air cooled system, SMSC tried the i2 method. After 27 months the exchangers have never been opened and are functioning better than ever.
What about the diffusion well screens? By preventing bio-film formation and slough off, the diffusion well screens have remained clear. “Mike, We have been running one 300 GPM supply well. We have left all 3 diffusion wells open. Each diffusion well has a capacity of 300 GPM. In order to determine if all 3 diffusion wells are working properly, we turned two off at a time so that we tested each diffusion well by itself to ensure that it was taking 300 GPM. We have been running one 300 GPM supply well. We have left all 3 diffusion wells open. Each diffusion well has a capacity of 300 GPM. In order to determine if all 3 diffusion wells are working properly, we turned two off at a time so that we tested each diffusion well by itself to ensure that it was taking 300 GPM. All 3 took the 300 GPM of water without increases in incoming or outgoing pressure at the heat exchanger. I took that to mean that all 3 diffusion wells are working properly.” Don Sundin, SMSC Facility Manager Director
March 9, 2009 To Whom it May Concern – Mike Radicone of I2 Air Fluid Innovation, Inc. has been working with us since 2005. We contacted him to develop a practical solution for eliminating biologic slime created by iron bacteria that had been causing problems in the heat exchanger plates and diffusion screens of our geothermal closed loop cooling water system at our Hauppauge, NY facility. We had contacted several filtering companies whose solutions were too costly and required too much equipment space to be of practical use. Mike helped identify the problem, developed experimental procedures to determine the best methods of treatment and helped us get our treatment procedures established. This included working with the NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation to get our well permits modified to allow the treatment. I2 Air Fluid Innovation, Inc. has been providing monthly treatments since we received approval by the NYSDEC. This allows us to continue to use our water cooled centrifugal chillers instead of having to upgrade to a cooling tower or air cooled chiller system. Prior to the treatment implementation, it was becoming necessary to perform costly and time consuming cleaning and sterilization procedures of our diffusion well screens to keep up with the increasing slime problem. The treatments have helped to keep our Test operations in Hauppauge profitable. I am pleased to provide references if requested. Please contact me if required. Don Sundin, Director – Corporate Facilities Tel. – 631 434-4649 e-mail – Don.Sundin@smsc.com
Prior phase cleaning After one 90 minute cleaning Exchanger was opened only for observation after phase cleaning.
Prior i2 application. Six months after i2 application.
The true test of any protocol is performance and sustainability. Outlet valve from heat exchanger 22 months after start of procedure indicating diffusion well function. SMSC 7/20/09. VACUUM! What is really exciting, is when both outlet and INLET gauges register VACUUM!
Queens Botanical Garden Fouling Ultraviolet Purifiers A geothermal system consisting of a source well and two diffusion wells with eight heat pumps. The heat pumps and diffusion wells would show back pressure from ferric and bio-slime fouling. This prompted the addition of four UV water purifiers to inactivate fouling bacteria. Unfortunately, the sleeves would foul within weeks negating irradiation. Traditional cleaning methods would involve disassembly of the purifier and cleaning or replacement of quartz sleeves. The i2 method took only 45 minutes a month, required no disassembly, and improved UV output from 6 to 100 at the power meter.
Maple Grove Cemetery Iron Oxide fouling in the exchanger of a small facility trying to go Green. A geothermal system consisting of 2 source wells and two diffusion wells with one 24 plate heat exchanger. Maple Grove, a small non- sectarian cemetery, wanted to make their new state of the art Welcome Center a LEEDS building but, shortly after start of operation, both wells and exchanger exhibited rapid iron fouling. Hyper-chlorination and multiple well remediations failed to solve the problem. High levels of iron were constantly presented into the heat exchanger. Prior to considering changeover to an air cooling system, Maple Grove contracted i2 to maintain exchanger function. Performed once a month the exchanger is routinely cleaned in about 70 minutes and heat transfer improves. Unfortunately, a poorly functioning supply well continues to occlude the exchanger with iron sediment necessitating the monthly cleaning.
Water condition from Maple Grove exchanger core during phase cleaning. Initial water from core prior phase cleaning. Exchanger almost completely fouled. W ater from core after phase one approximately 20 minutes after start. W ater from core after phase two approximately 40 minutes after start. After a 2 minute aggressive agitation only, very little foulant was removed and expressed in the core water. After phase one there is considerable ferric dissolution. After phase two there is considerable disruption of the sedimentary ferric foulant bed.
Quaker Friends Center Bacterial fouling within the heat exchanger of the first major Geothermal Building in Philadelphia, Pa. A geothermal system consisting of 6 source/return wells and one 196 plate heat exchanger. Shortly after start of operation, the heat exchanger exhibited rapid bio-fouling and increased pressure drop. Well remediation was recommended but the cost to this new LEEDS Green building, the first major building to employ geothermal, would be close to $60,000.00. Prior to well remediation, the Friends Center contacted i2 through their engineering firm. After only one application, pressure dropped improved considerably and heat transfer improved dramatically. They are not considering well remediation and in fact, show the heat exchanger as part of their eco-green tour.
The i2 method In each of the applications shown, i2 was only contacted after the client was told by their engineers that the situation was impossible to resolve. In most cases, i2 was the last hope before expensive remediation or even more expensive system conversion. Also consider the applications in product side fouling for dairy, petrochemicals, etc. Let us be your first choice, not your last. i2, making the impossible…possible.