Presentation on theme: "BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS FOR SOCIETAL DEVELOPMENT Dr. Manju Sharma 23 rd April, 2007, Lucknow."— Presentation transcript:
BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS FOR SOCIETAL DEVELOPMENT Dr. Manju Sharma 23 rd April, 2007, Lucknow
Science and technology have been and would continue to be more vigorously and philosophically in the driving seat for a rapid, sustainable socio-economic development in the world. A new frontier of science i.e. Modern biology and biotechnology - the greatest intellectual enterprise of humankind.
The integration of natural resource and engineering, in order to achieve the application of micro-organisms as well as parts thereof, and molecular analogues for products and services have become the challenges for the scientific community. The business world defines it as “Making money with Biology”
TThe most important global challenges to be addressed with S&T interventions, specially Biotechnology are: - Alleviating poverty, improving food security and reducing malnutrition, especially among women and children. - Providing sufficient income for the rapidly increasing number of urban poor. - Using new technologies for environmentally sustainable socio-economic development.
BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR THE NEW MILLENIUM A FEW GLIMPSES Micropropagation Plant Genome Research Crop Biotechnology and Transgenics Brain Research Centre Immunology Cell Science Diagnostics Molecular probes Gene therapy and functional genomics Special Societal Programmes Human Resource Development Bioinformatics Aquaculture and Marine Resource Biodiversity Inventorisation, Characterisation, Conservation Patenting in Biotechnology and Biosafety Prospecting of Genes and Molecules Environmental Pollution abatemant Animal Biotechnology New Generation Vaccines Bioproduct Development Down Stream Processing
Agriculture Biotechnology holds the key to increasing the yield of staple crops by allowing farmers to reap rich harvests from currently cultivated land, while preserving the fertility of the land.
Knowledge based approaches including crop genomics can provide powerful tools to enhance the food security, by improving local agricultural productivity, minimizing the use of chemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, insulating crops against losses from diseases and pests, curtailing post harvest loses including food spoilage, improving food quality and nutrition, increasing crop tolerance to stress factors such as drought and salinity problems, and value addition to have nutritionally rich products.
A Mexican scientist Luis Herrera Estrella has shown that by using biotech tools, tropical crops can be modified to tolerate aluminum and acid soils to significantly increase the productivity of corn, rice and papaya.
The use of DNA markers provides new solutions for problems of crop productivity and sustainable agricultural practices. Biotech tools can really boost the ailing economy of rural populations engaged in farming.
Biotechnological methods may be used to decrease the time necessary to detect food borne pathogens, toxin and chemical contaminants as well as to increase detection sensitivity.
Transgenic plants may be developed to produce antigenic proteins (Vaccines) or other molecules. Global- Area in transgenic - 2006 - 102 mha (252 m. acre) India – 3.7 mha - Bt Cotton China – 3.5 mha
Agricultural and plant biotechnology are stated to be an important business in our country, as India is regarded as the largest producer of milk and the second largest for fruits and vegetables. Analysts predict that by 2010 India can become World’s largest exporter of agriculture.
Biotechnology delivers the added values primarily through the seed. It is a scale neutral technology.
Health Products for Farm Animals Profound impact on animal health has been seen in using accurate, fast and efficient diagnostic testing kits.
Ushering a New Human Health Care Regime Rapid and more accurate diagnostic tests, therapies with less or no side effects, vaccines as therapeutic and prophylactic measure, gene therapy and new molecular medicine has significantly transformed the health Scenario world over.
In the words of Nobel Laureate Crick: “It has impacted significantly and would have an overwhelming impact on human health in the coming years.”
Biotechnology has resulted in decreasing the cost of diagnostics. A new blood test has been developed to monitor Low Density Lypoprotein (LDL) in blood at a much faster rate and is less cumbersome for patients also.
Genomics With the completion of original goals of the Human Genome Project, the time is to translate genome-based knowledge into human health benefits by developing and applying large-scale genomic strategies.
GGenomics and proteomics will allow to expand current biotechnology-based approaches to develop: Quicker and more accurate diagnostic kits for plants, animals and human diseases & apply genome-based diagnostic methods for the: 1. Prediction of susceptibility to disease, 2. Prediction of drug response, 3. Early detection of illness and 4. Accurate molecular classification of disease.
New and safer vaccines System to detect microbial contaminants in food products or donated blood New drug targets New therapeutic compounds & better pharmaceuticals for therapies of human beings with fewer side effects.
Recent research jointly done by National Institute of Agro Biological Sciences in Tokyo and a private industry in Japan have developed rice strains which contain high level of another hormone the GLP-1 which promotes the pancreas release Insulin. They say that consumption of one bowl of this rice can keep the diabetes away – a disease which is affecting more than 150 million people world wide. The work is being actively pursued.
Stem Cell Research Stem Cell Biology has been identified as a potential area of new research. Embryonic stem cells could be the most powerful tools
TThe ability to grow human tissue of all kinds may make it possible to cure numerous cell-based diseases like: Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, Spinal cord injury Stroke, burns, Heart diseases, Type 1 diabetes, Osteoarthritis & rheumatoid arthritis Leukemia & other blood diseases Certain immune and genetic disorders
Industrial Applications The biotech industry, although nascent at the present time and accounting for a mere 2 percent of the global biotechnology market, is poised for exponential growth over the next five years with an expected global market share of 10 percent. Indigenous biotech products and services presently account for approximately $150 million.
An emerging segment is Agri-biotech, which is expected to realize rapid growth over the next five years and will account for at least 15 percent of the total indigenous biotech market.
SSome of the industrial applications cover 1. Development of green plastics from renewable crops such as corn and soybean. I2. Improve manufacturing processes including the use of enzymes and less toxic byproducts from pulp. R3. Reduce the level of toxins evaluating fabric process. I4. Improve baking process, fermentation derived preservatives and techniques for food safety analysis.
Marine Biotechnology Biotech tools have been used to increase the productively or food value of the cultured species, drugs and vaccines to enhance immunity to diseases or other stresses; genetic improvement of strains and identification of deleterious or desirable genes within stocks.
Farming of seaweeds has resulted in production of biopolymers with many industrial applications. For instance carrageena is widely used in food and cosmetic industries. This is a million dollar industry since India has a large coastline of 7000 km and nearly 770 species have been reported from India.
Of late, some Indian companies also have started seaweed cultivation, which eventually would create nearly 50,000 jobs in coastal states, especially for women.
Biodiversity Increased economic growth spurred by genetically improved crops will provide much-needed resources in the efforts to conserve biodiversity. Improved tools such as cryopreservation for ex-situ conservation Gene shuffling to create more biodiversity, even re- create extinct crop traits Use of DNA markers to provide insight into the dynamics of biodiversity in crop plants Restoration ecology
To Conclude The DNA is, in a beautifully written article ‘The Eternal Molecule’ as described by the editor of NATURE: “Few molecules captivate like DNA. It enthralls scientists, inspires artists, and challenges society. It is, in every sense, a modern icon. A defining moment for DNA research was the discovery of its structure half a century ago.”
Genomics and Proteomics will allow us to expand current biotechnology based approaches to health care, agriculture and ecology. Therapeutic uses of endogenous proteins and antibodies, discovery of new therapeutics, microbe-free vaccines, quick and accurate diagnostics, regenerative medicine and gene therapy to treat certain diseases are all important facets of modern medicine.
TThe knowledge base is the foundation of: P 1. Predictive tests of impending diseases that can be prevented with targeted interventions F2. Fundamental changes in the ways drugs are discovered, tested and developed T3. Therapies that are tailored to the specific genetic make up of the patient
T4. Therapies that address and possibly correct the biochemical causes of a diseases rather than only alleviating the symptoms. 5. Develop nutritious crops with right proportion of all the important dietary constituents produce foods with edible vaccines. E6. Ensure bioindustrial development with eco- friendly technologies.
When James Watson was asked about cancer (Newsweek, February 2003) which is very close to his heart, how quickly can we find a cure? I quote his answer: “A decade. Most people would say that’s much too optimistic. If I owned a big drug company, I’d give myself two years, with a good cash flow. At least we’d be testing in two years. We might be wrong, but it would be worth testing.”
I quote from Gitanjali: “Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high; Where knowledge is free; Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by narrow domestic walls; Where words come out from the depth of truth; Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection; Where the clear stream or reason has not lost its way into the desert sand of dead habit; Where the mind is led forward by thee into ever- widening thought and action- Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake”.