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Revision 6. Multiple choice 1 Which of the following statements about pesticide resistance can be concluded correctly from the graph? a) The rate of increase.

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Presentation on theme: "Revision 6. Multiple choice 1 Which of the following statements about pesticide resistance can be concluded correctly from the graph? a) The rate of increase."— Presentation transcript:

1 Revision 6

2 Multiple choice 1 Which of the following statements about pesticide resistance can be concluded correctly from the graph? a) The rate of increase in the number of resistant species declined after 1975. b) Each pest species was gradually becoming more resistant. c) Individual pests were becoming more resistant during their lives. d) Use of DDT increased sharply after 1955. Which of the following is a fault in the graph as presented? a) Years should be on the vertical axis and resistant species on the horizontal axis. b) There are no units indicated on the vertical axis. c) There is no legend or key. d) The title does not mention both the dependent and independent variables.

3 Multiple choice 1 Which of the following statements about pesticide resistance can be concluded correctly from the graph? a) The rate of increase in the number of resistant species declined after 1975. b) Each pest species was gradually becoming more resistant. c) Individual pests were becoming more resistant during their lives. d) Use of DDT increased sharply after 1955. Which of the following is a fault in the graph as presented? a) Years should be on the vertical axis and resistant species on the horizontal axis. b) There are no units indicated on the vertical axis. c) There is no legend or key. d) The title does not mention both the dependent and independent variables.

4 Multiple choice 2 Which of the following explanations for the development of pesticide resistance is most likely? a) The pesticide causes mutations in pest species. b) After pesticide spraying, some resistant pest organisms survive and reproduce. c) Individual pest organisms develop resistance after repeated exposure to pesticides. d) Pesticides decay very rapidly in the environment. Conservation of natural ecosystems depends heavily on the setting aside of national parks and nature reserves. In desert areas these reserves need to be very large to be effective. In areas of higher rainfall smaller reserves can still be effective as a conservation strategy. What is the main reason for this difference? a) Desert ecosystems have lower productivity and, therefore, lower population densities. b) Deserts have greater biodiversity. c) Desert organisms tend to move around much more. d) There are more introduced pests in desert areas so larger reserves are needed to reduce their effect.

5 Multiple choice 2 Which of the following explanations for the development of pesticide resistance is most likely? a) The pesticide causes mutations in pest species. b) After pesticide spraying, some resistant pest organisms survive and reproduce. c) Individual pest organisms develop resistance after repeated exposure to pesticides. d) Pesticides decay very rapidly in the environment. Conservation of natural ecosystems depends heavily on the setting aside of national parks and nature reserves. In desert areas these reserves need to be very large to be effective. In areas of higher rainfall smaller reserves can still be effective as a conservation strategy. What is the main reason for this difference? a) Desert ecosystems have lower productivity and, therefore, lower population densities. b) Deserts have greater biodiversity. c) Desert organisms tend to move around much more. d) There are more introduced pests in desert areas so larger reserves are needed to reduce their effect.

6 Multiple choice 3 Sex (male or female) in horses is inherited in the same way as humans. Therefore, which one of the following statements is true? a) Individual III4 must have inherited a Y chromosome from I2 b) Individual III1 must have inherited an X chromosome from I4 c) Individuals III1 and III3 must have identical genes on their X chromosomes d) Individuals II2 and II3 must have different genes on their Y chromosomes From this pedigree it can be concluded that chestnut coat colour in horses is inherited as which of the following? a) A dominant autosomal gene. b) A recessive sex-linked gene. c) A recessive autosomal gene. d) A dominant sex-linked gene.

7 Multiple choice 3 Sex (male or female) in horses is inherited in the same way as humans. Therefore, which one of the following statements is true? a) Individual III4 must have inherited a Y chromosome from I2 b) Individual III1 must have inherited an X chromosome from I4 c) Individuals III1 and III3 must have identical genes on their X chromosomes d) Individuals II2 and II3 must have different genes on their Y chromosomes From this pedigree it can be concluded that chestnut coat colour in horses is inherited as which of the following? a) A dominant autosomal gene. b) A recessive sex-linked gene. c) A recessive autosomal gene. d) A dominant sex-linked gene.

8 Multiple choice 4 These questions refer to the following food web occurring in a woodland community in eastern Australia. Which of the following animal species from the food web would have the lowest biomass in the community? a) Cat b) Mite c) Echidna d) Skink Which of these organisms from the community is autotrophic? a) Mite b) Termite c) Currawong d) Eucalypt tree It is intended to introduce koalas to this community. They feed exclusively on eucalypt leaves. Which ONE of the following is a likely consequence of such an introduction? a) Numbers of currawongs would increase because they don't eat eucalypt leaves. b) Echidnas would eat more ants because there would be fewer termites. c) The total biomass of the community would be unaffected by the introduction of the koala. d) The introduction of the koalas would fail because ringtail possums are already established.

9 Multiple choice 4 These questions refer to the following food web occurring in a woodland community in eastern Australia. Which of the following animal species from the food web would have the lowest biomass in the community? a) Cat b) Mite c) Echidna d) Skink Which of these organisms from the community is autotrophic? a) Mite b) Termite c) Currawong d) Eucalypt tree It is intended to introduce koalas to this community. They feed exclusively on eucalypt leaves. Which ONE of the following is a likely consequence of such an introduction? a) Numbers of currawongs would increase because they don't eat eucalypt leaves. b) Echidnas would eat more ants because there would be fewer termites. c) The total biomass of the community would be unaffected by the introduction of the koala. d) The introduction of the koalas would fail because ringtail possums are already established.

10 WATP short answers 4 CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHERE FOSSIL FUELS PLANTS AND ANIMALS PLANTSDECOMPOSERS A B C D The diagram above shows sections of the carbon cycle. Write words that represent the process occurring at each of the arrows. A B C D

11 WATP short answers 4 CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHERE FOSSIL FUELS PLANTS AND ANIMALS PLANTSDECOMPOSERS A B C D The diagram above shows sections of the carbon cycle. Write words that represent the process occurring at each of the arrows. A Combustion B Respiration C Photosynthesis D Respiration

12 Draw the water cycle

13 Water cycle Precipitation Transpiration Run off Evaporation Condensation Water uptake Surface water Ground water

14 Draw the nitrogen cycle

15 Nitrogen cycle Atmospheric Nitrogen Animal protein Plant protein Denitrifying bacteria Nitrifying bacteria Fertilisers and lightning Dead organisms & wastes Nitrogen fixers Ammonia Nitrates Root nodule bacteria

16 Extended answer 2003 36c Tiger snakes can be found on many offshore islands around Australia. Most of these island populations are distinctive subspecies with unique characteristics of colour, pattern and size. Describe how these island populations could have evolved from a common mainland ancestor.

17 Extended answer 2003 36c Tiger snakes can be found on many offshore islands around Australia. Most of these island populations are distinctive subspecies with unique characteristics of colour, pattern and size. Describe how these island populations could have evolved from a common mainland ancestor. variation exists in the original population explain the sources of the variation islands originally connected at a time of lower sea level tiger snake populations interbred rising sea levels separated the islands, isolating the populations no interbreeding possible between populations each population faced different selection pressures examples of different selection pressures competition for survival individuals with favourable characters survived to breed, others died favourable characters inherited by offspring genetic drift may have been involved with small populations over time, the characteristics of each island population became different/gene frequencies changed as sub-species they can still interbreed founder effect may occur in small original populations identify situation as divergent evolution/adaptive radiation

18 Extended answer 2004 37c All living organisms on earth are composed of one or more cells. All cells have certain characteristics in common while other characteristics show enormous variety. Identify and describe briefly: i) cellular features that reflect the common evolutionary origin of cells; ii) cellular features that reflect the specialisations of cells.

19 Extended answer 2004 37c All living organisms on earth are composed of one or more cells. All cells have certain characteristics in common while other characteristics show enormous variety. Identify and describe briefly: i) cellular features that reflect the common evolutionary origin of cells: cell membrane DNA to regulate cell all cells have the same genetic code ribosomes to make proteins, especially enzymes other eukaryotic organelles (except chloroplast or centrioles) – 1 mark for each organelle with function/structure Maximum 6 marks ii) cellular features that reflect the specialisations of cells. the structure/function fully described for a mark of the following features centrioles in animal cells chloroplasts in plant cells flagella or cilia absence of nuclei (e.g., human red blood cells, sieve tube cells in plants) cell walls in plants variations in size and shape (e.g., gametes, nerve cells) varying numbers of organelles depending on function (e.g., many mitochondria in muscle cells) contractile vacuoles various plastids, storage, colour Maximum 6 marks

20 Extended answers 2002 37d It is now known that the first cells appeared on Earth at least 3.5 billion years ago, only a few hundred million years after the Earth itself formed in the primitive solar system. The earliest forms of life were called 'protobionts' and fed on organic molecules existing in limited supply in the oceans. Using your knowledge of the processes of photosynthesis, respiration and energy transfer in living systems, explain why it became necessary for the evolution of autotrophic cells before the earliest ecosystems could develop.

21 Extended answers 2002 37d It is now known that the first cells appeared on Earth at least 3.5 billion years ago, only a few hundred million years after the Earth itself formed in the primitive solar system. The earliest forms of life were called 'protobionts' and fed on organic molecules existing in limited supply in the oceans. Using your knowledge of the processes of photosynthesis, respiration and energy transfer in living systems, explain why it became necessary for the evolution of autotrophic cells before the earliest ecosystems could develop. Photosynthesis utilizes external energy source to trap energy in living systems and produce organic compounds. Oxygen produced as a waste. Without photosynthesis organic matter is much more limited. Respiration must degrade organic molecules to produce ATP. This is more efficient with oxygen. Light is converted to chemical energy. Chemical energy is transferred along food chains. Energy is lost as heat so efficient primary productivity is needed to support consumers and set limits on the number of trophic levels.

22 Extended answer 2003 37a A recent mission to Europa, a satellite of the planet Jupiter, has found liquid water. Using a specially designed probe, the spacecraft has collected samples of the water and of the sediment. Some of the samples are sent to your laboratory to test if they hold life. Describe procedures you would use to determine if living organisms are present in the samples and, if so, if they are autotrophic or heterotrophic.

23 Extended answer 2003 37a A recent mission to Europa, a satellite of the planet Jupiter, has found liquid water. Using a specially designed probe, the spacecraft has collected samples of the water and of the sediment. Some of the samples are sent to your laboratory to test if they hold life. Describe procedures you would use to determine if living organisms are present in the samples and, if so, if they are autotrophic or heterotrophic. Living/non-living oxygen production/use explain in terms of photosynthesis/respiration carbon dioxide production/use explain in terms of respiration/photosynthesis organic compounds – presence of/intake of (each one mark) Monitor temperature changes – from respiration Macroscopic examination – movement Microscopic examination – cell structure Microscopic examination for organelles Growth Reproduction Maximum 6 marks Heterotrophic/Autotrophic Heterotrophic - Use oxygen Produce carbon dioxide Take in organic material Autotrophic - Produce oxygen (in light) Use carbon dioxide Produce organic material Elaborate chemo/photosynthesis Maximum 4 marks Students can be given credit for describing ‘procedures’ used (at markers’ discretion)

24 Genetics problem 1 This pedigree shows the inheritance of a rare characteristic in guinea pigs a) Identify the type of inheritance shown. b) Identify the genotypes of i) I2ii) II1 iii) III3iv) III7 c) What is the probability that the next offspring of individuals II1 and II2 will have this characteristic? d) What is the probability that the next offspring of individuals II5 and II6 will have this characteristic?

25 Genetics problem This pedigree shows the inheritance of a rare characteristic in guinea pigs a) Identify the type of inheritance shown. Autosomal recessive b) Identify the genotypes of i) I2nnii) II1 Nn iii) III3 N_iv) III7 Nn c) What is the probability that the next offspring of individuals II1 and II2 will have this characteristic? Nn x Nn  ¼ NN, ½ Nn, ¼ nn, so 25% d) What is the probability that the next offspring of individuals II5 and II6 will have this characteristic? Nn x nn  ½ Nn, ½ nn, so 50%


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