Presentation on theme: "Bacterial reduction in water and surfaces using the I 2 Air Infusion method. Click to continue."— Presentation transcript:
Bacterial reduction in water and surfaces using the I 2 Air Infusion method. Click to continue
CONFIDENTIALITY STATEMENT: This presentation, including all attachments, is confidential and/or may include proprietary content or intellectual property. This presentation is intended for the sole use of the individual(s) or entity being presented to. If you have received this presentation by mistake, please notify the sender by immediately and delete this message from your system. If you are not the intended recipient, be aware that any disclosure, copying, distribution or use of the contents of this information is strictly prohibited. CONFIDENTIALITY STATEMENT: This presentation, including all attachments, is confidential and/or may include proprietary content or intellectual property. This presentation is intended for the sole use of the individual(s) or entity being presented to. If you have received this presentation by mistake, please notify the sender by immediately and delete this message from your system. If you are not the intended recipient, be aware that any disclosure, copying, distribution or use of the contents of this information is strictly prohibited. Protocol and application is based upon the art and science of U.S. Patent No. 7,329,385 and is the intellectual property of the inventor(s). Click to continue
The I 2 method of disinfection was developed to reduce bacteria in fluids and objects held within the fluid while eliminating many of the contraindications and the problems associated with iodine use as a disinfectant. Why does iodine kill micro-organisms? Iodine is a potent broad-spectrum biocide. Iodine (I 2 ) accepts an electron (e-) from the molecule it is reacting with through a process called oxidation that turns the iodine molecule into the non- biocidal iodide (I-) ion. When in contact with micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa, iodine is able to rapidly penetrate the cell wall and oxidise a number of critical components within the cell’s respiratory chain. Trace quantities (e.g., a few ppm) of elemental iodine (I 2 ) is sufficient to cross the lipid bi-layer of cells and kill micro-organisms. Extensive studies have also shown that microorganisms are incapable of developing resistance against elemental iodine. Iodine has also been found to be effective against nematodes and various larvae as well. Although there are many forms of iodine, elemental iodine (I 2 ) has been shown to have the greatest antimicrobial action of all the iodine species. It has been used by NASA onboard space shuttle missions for water disinfection with success. Iodine is typically introduced to water in an aqueous form or through contact with an iodinated resin bed as used on the shuttle. Water quality; turbidity, pH, temperature and other conditions can reduce anti-microbial action or increase concentration or contact time needed for inactivation. Additionally, high residual iodine can present systemic problems in certain individuals.
The I 2 method uses gaseous iodine to improve anti-microbial action, reduce contact time and concentration through rapid penetration of the cell wall by elemental iodine due to increased permeability. Iodine introduction is done via elution of gaseous I 2 off the surface of an iodinated resin bead into an air stream which creates a bubble containing I 2 gas within a fluid. As the bubble rises to the surface it scavenges bacteria during its upward path. The bubble increases contact through ionic attraction, surface tension and mechanical displacement. As the bacteria contacts the surface of the bubble, I 2 gases permeates the cell wall and disrupts the respiratory chain. The I 2 vapor is of very low concentration but repeated interaction ensures bacterial inactivation. Additionally, some of the I 2 gas sublimates into the fluid providing for a varied entry mode and residual low dose dietary iodine. After interaction with the bacteria the I 2 is converted into iodide. This method allows for rapid bacterial reduction without undue iodine concentration and without lengthy exposure times. Thousands of gallons of water can be treated with only grams per month in iodine use. The protocol requires only an air source, iodine resin cartridge, bubbling medium and receiving vessel. Concentration is controlled by resin volume and exposure time as well as air flow. The additional benefit is that the container and all its components are sanitized by the released I 2 vapor. This vapor can be used to sanitize items within the fluid such as wounds, fruits, vegetables, or dressings. This vapor can be captured by a simple carbon filter prior to release into the atmosphere if needed.
Some iodine within the bubble sublimates into the water providing for a varied entry mode. As planktonic bacteria are captured on the surface of the bubble, the gaseous I 2 within, permeates the cell wall where key amino acids in the respiratory chain are broken down. The I 2 infused air molecule eliminates free floating bacteria through a biocidal vapor/cell wall interaction. After protein interaction, the I 2 converts to Eco-friendly iodide. As I 2 infused bubbles perfuse the water, bacterial counts are reduced. Vessel and components held within are sanitized as well. Most of the I 2 is imparted into the air, reducing iodine residue. Click to continue