Presentation on theme: "GEN/200 Week 5 John Butler. Questions? Learning Objectives Examine ethics issues. Identify personal bias and emotion. Determine the relationship between."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Objectives Examine ethics issues. Identify personal bias and emotion. Determine the relationship between higher education and professional competence.
Ethics Issues Questions based on the Ethical Lens Assessment? Topics we wish to further discuss? Other examples?
Identify Personal Bias and Emotion. Personal Bias – REMEMBER not everyone sees things the way you see things. –Your life experiences have made you who you are, and shaped the way you see things. Emotion – –What steps do you take when you get emotionally attached to an idea others don’t like? –How do you step back. Do you have a key to let you step back? –When is it OK to step forward?
Determine the Relationship Between Higher Education and Professional Competence.
Critical Thinking …In my opinion : The key to success in business, education and life… The Book says: LOGIC IS A branch of philosophy that seeks to distinguish between effective and ineffective reasoning. Students of logic look for valid steps in an argument, or a series of statements. The opening statements of the argument are the premises, and the final statement is the conclusion. Effective reasoning is not just an idle pastime for unemployed philosophers.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 15. Sliding a Slippery Slope. The fallacy of sliding a slippery slope implies that if one undesired event occurs, then other, far more serious events will follow: If we restrict our right to own guns, then all of our rights will soon be taken away. I notice that more independent bookstores are closing; it’s just a matter of time before people stop reading.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 14. Distracting from the REAL Issue. The most recent recession was caused by people who borrowed too much money and bankers who loaned too much money. Therefore, you should never borrow money to go to school. This argument ignores the fact that a primary source of the recession was loans to finance housing—not loans to finance education.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 13. Appealing to “the people.” Consider this statement: Millions of people use Wikipedia as their main source of factual information. Wikipedia must be the best reference work in the world. This is a perfect example of the ad populum fallacy. (In Latin, that phrase means “to the people.”) The essential error is assuming that popularity, quality, and accuracy are the same.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 12. Appealing to Tradition Arguments based on an appeal to tradition take a classic form: Our current beliefs and behaviors have a long history; therefore, they are correct. This argument has been used to justify the divine right of kings, feudalism, witch burnings, slavery, child labor, and a host of other traditions that are now rejected in most parts of the world. Appeals to tradition ignore the fact that unsound ideas can survive for centuries before human beings realize that they are being fooled.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 11. Creating a Red Herring When hunters want to throw a dog off a trail, they can drag a smoked red herring (or some other food with a strong odor) over the ground in the opposite direction. This distracts the dog, who is fooled into following a false trail. Likewise, people can send our thinking on false trails by raising irrelevant issues. I call this the SHINY…… What did you say?
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 10. Confusing Fact and Opinion Facts are statements verified by direct observation or compelling evidence that creates widespread agreement. In recent years, some politicians argued for tax cuts on the grounds that the American economy needed to create more jobs. However, it’s not a fact that tax cuts automatically create more jobs. This statement is almost impossible to verify by direct observation, and there’s actually evidence against it.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 10…. If you don't learn the difference between fact and fiction, you'll get stuck reading and watching things that only reinforce beliefs and assumptions you already own. And that is the opposite of learning!
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 10…. Try to determine whether each statement sounds like a fact or an opinion –My mom is the best mom on earth. –My dad is taller than your dad. –My telephone number is difficult to memorize. –The deepest part of the ocean is 35,813 feet deep.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 10…. Try to determine whether each statement sounds like a fact or an opinion –My mom is the best mom on earth.My mom is the best mom on earth. –My dad is taller than your dad.My dad is taller than your dad. –My telephone number is difficult to memorize.My telephone number is difficult to memorize. –The deepest part of the ocean is 35,813 feet deep.The deepest part of the ocean is 35,813 feet deep. –Dogs make better pets than turtles.Dogs make better pets than turtles.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 10…. Try to determine whether each statement sounds like a fact or an opinion –Smoking is bad for your health.Smoking is bad for your health. –Eighty-five percent of all cases of lung cancer in the U.S. are caused by smoking.Eighty-five percent of all cases of lung cancer in the U.S. are caused by smoking. –If you flatten and stretch out a Slinky toy it will be 87 feet long.If you flatten and stretch out a Slinky toy it will be 87 feet long. –Slinky toys are fun.Slinky toys are fun. –One out of every hundred American citizens is color blind.One out of every hundred American citizens is color blind. –Two out of ten American citizens are boring.Two out of ten American citizens are boring.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 9. Begging the Question. Speakers and writers beg the question when their colorful language glosses over an idea that is unclear or unproven. Consider this statement: Support the American tradition of individual liberty and oppose mandatory seat belt laws! Anyone who makes such a statement “begs” (fails to answer) a key question: Are laws that require drivers to use seat belts actually a violation of individual liberty?
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 8. Creating a Straw Man A scarecrow works because it looks like a man. Likewise, a person can attack ideas that sound like his opponent’s ideas but are actually absurd. For example, some legislators attacked the Equal Rights Amendment by describing it as a measure to abolish separate bathrooms for men and women. In fact, supporters of this amendment proposed no such thing.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 7. Using a faulty analogy. An analogy states a similarity between two things or events. Some arguments rest on analogies that hide significant differences. On June 25, 1987, the Associated Press reported an example: U.S. representative Tom DeLay opposed a bill to ban chlordane, a pesticide that causes cancer in laboratory animals. Supporting this bill, he argued, would be like banning cars because they kill people.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 6. Basing Argument on Emotion The politician who ends every campaign speech with flag waving and slides of his mother eating apple pie is staking his future on appeals to emotion. So is the candidate who paints a grim scenario of the disaster and ruination that will transpire unless she is elected. Get past the fluff and histrionics to see if you can uncover any worthwhile ideas.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 5. Thinking in All or NOTHING terms. Consider these statements: –Doctors are greedy. –You can’t trust politicians. –Students these days are in school just to get high- paying jobs; they lack idealism. –Homeless people don’t want to work. These opinions imply the word all. They gloss over individual differences, claiming that all members of a group are exactly alike.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 4. Pointing to a False Cause The fact that one event follows another does not necessarily mean that the two events have a cause-and-effect relationship. All we can actually say is that the events might be correlated. For example, as children’s vocabularies improve, they can get more cavities. This does not mean that cavities are the result of an improved vocabulary. Instead, the increase in cavities is due to other factors, such as physical maturation and changes in diet or personal care.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 3. Appealing to Authority A professional athlete endorses a brand of breakfast cereal. A famous musician features a soft drink company’s product in a rock video. The promotional brochure for an advertising agency lists all of the large companies that have used its services. In each case, the people involved are trying to win your confidence—and your dollars—by citing authorities. The underlying assumption is usually this: Famous people and organizations buy our product. Therefore, you should buy it too.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 2. Attacking the Person The mistake of attacking the person is common at election time. An example is the candidate who claims that her opponent has failed to attend church regularly during the campaign. People who indulge in personal attacks are attempting an intellectual sleight of hand to divert our attention away from the truly relevant issues. Instructor note: A shame this works so well.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 1. Jumping to Conclusions Jumping to conclusions is the only exercise that some lazy thinkers get. This fallacy involves drawing conclusions without sufficient evidence. Take the bank officer who hears about a student’s failing to pay back an education loan. After that, the officer turns down all loan applications from students. This person has formed a rigid opinion on the basis of hearsay. Jumping to conclusions—also called hasty generalization—is at work here.
Critical Thinking Top 15 Mistakes 1. Jumping to Conclusions …. Examples When I went to Mexico for spring break, I felt sick the whole time. Mexican food makes people sick. Google’s mission is to“organize the world’s information.” Their employees must be on a real power trip. During a recession,more people go to the movies. People just want to sit in the dark and forget about their money problems. Each item in the above list includes two statements, and the second statement does not necessarily follow from the first. More evidence is needed to make any possible connection.
Critical Thinking Exercises: Write a quick statement about what this picture means to you. Spend 5 minutes thinking and writing.
Critical Thinking Exercises: Did you write about, thinking outside the box, achievement, leap of faith, animal behavior, the story of fish, requirements for life, stress of competition, niche, and the beat of a different drum.
Critical Thinking Exercises: Describe how critical thinking determines the validity of original research. Discuss the ways critical thought can be used to invalidate research found on the internet.
Socratic Questioning The overall purpose of Socratic questioning, is to challenge accuracy and completeness of thinking in a way that acts to move people towards their ultimate goal.