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Data Mining Association rules and frequent itemsets mining

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Data Mining concepts Is the computational process of discovering patterns in very large datasets (rules, correlations, clusters) Untrained process: no previous knowledge is provided. Rules are learned from available data Will see two methods: rule learning and clustering

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3 Association Rule Mining Finding frequent patterns, associations, correlations, or causal structures among sets of items or objects in transaction databases, relational databases, and other information repositories. Applications Basket data analysis, cross-marketing, catalog design, clustering user profiles (e.g. Twitter Friends), etc. Examples – Rule form: “ Body Head [support, confidence] ”. buys(x, “ diapers ” ) buys(x, “ beers ” ) [0.5%, 60%] follows(x,”KatyPerry”)^follows(x,”LadyGaga”) >follows(x,” BritneySpears”) [0.7%,70%]

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4 Overview Basic Concepts of Association Rule Mining The Apriori Algorithm (Mining single dimensional boolean association rules) Methods to Improve Apriori ’ s Efficiency Frequent-Pattern Growth (FP-Growth) Method From Association Analysis to Correlation Analysis Summary

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5 Association Model: Problem Statement I ={i 1, i 2,...., i n } a set of items J = P( I )= {j 1, j 2,...., j N } (powerset) set of all possible subsets of the set of items, N=2 n (e.g: j l ={i k i n i m } ) Elements of J are called itemsets (e.g: j l ={i k i n i m } ) Transaction T: tid is a transaction identifier, j is an element of P(I) Data Base: D = set of transactions An association rule is an implication of the form : X-> Y, where X, Y are disjoint subsets of I (elements of J )

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6 Transactions Example Transaction ID Items Itemset

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7 Another Transactions Example Transaction ID Items Itemset

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8 Transaction database: Example (neutral)

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9 Transaction database: binary representation Attributes converted to binary flags

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Simpler ways to express rules follows(x,”KatyPerry”)^follows(x,”LadyG aga”) >follows(x,”BritneySpears”) KatyPerry,LadyGaga BritneySpears X Y

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11 Rule Measures: Support & Confidence Simple Formulas: – Confidence (X Y) = #tuples containing both X & Y / #tuples containing X = Pr(Y|X) = Pr(X U Y ) / Pr (X) – Support (X Y) = #tuples containing both X & Y/ total number of tuples = Pr(X U Y)

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Support & Confidence What do they actually mean ? Find all the rules X Y with confidence and support >= threshold – support, s, probability that a transaction contains {X, Y} – confidence, c, conditional probability that a transaction having {X} also contains Z – Rules with support and confidence over a given threshold are called strong rules

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13 Association Rules: finding “strong” rules Q: Given a set of transactions, what association rules have min_sup = 2 and min_conf= 50% ? There are 4 transactions (support) with A and B (1,4,8,9), of which two also include E (1,8) A, B => E : conf=2/4 = 50%

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14 Association Rules Example, 2 Q: Given items {A,B,E}, what association rules have minsup = 2 and minconf= 50% ? There are several rules that can be derived from {A,B,E}, but only few have the minconf=50% A, B => E : conf=2/2 = 50% (A,B: 1,4,8,9) A, E => B : conf=2/2 = 100% (A,E:1,8) B, E => A : conf=2/2 = 100% (B,E:1,8) E => A, B : conf=2/2 = 100% (E:1,8) Don’t qualify A =>B, E : conf=2/6 =33%< 50% (A:1,4,5,7,8,9) B => A, E : conf=2/7 = 28% < 50% (B:1,2,3,4,6,8,9) => A,B,E : conf: 2/9 = 22% < 50% ( {} :1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)

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Generating association rules Usually consists of two subproblems : 1)Finding frequent itemsets whose occurences exceed a predefined minimum support threshold 2)Deriving association rules from those frequent itemsets (with the constrains of minimum confidence threshold) These two subproblems are soleved iteratively until new rules no more emerge The second subproblem is quite straight- forward and most of the research focus is on the first subproblem

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16 Overview Basic Concepts of Association Rule Mining The Apriori Algorithm (Mining single dimensional boolean association rules) Methods to Improve Apriori ’ s Efficiency Frequent-Pattern Growth (FP-Growth) Method From Association Analysis to Correlation Analysis Summary

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17 The Apriori Algorithm: Basics The Apriori Algorithm is an influential algorithm for mining frequent itemsets for boolean association rules. Key Concepts : Frequent Itemsets: The sets of items which have minimum support (denoted by L i for itemsets of i elements). Apriori Property: Any subset of a frequent itemset must be frequent. Join Operation: To find L k, a set of candidate k-itemsets is generated by joining L k-1 with itself.

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18 The Apriori Algorithm: key ideas Find the frequent itemsets : the sets of items that have minimum support – A subset of a frequent itemset must also be a frequent itemset (Apriori property) i.e., if { AB } is a frequent itemset, both { A } and { B } should be a frequent itemset – Iteratively find frequent itemsets with cardinality from 1 to k (k- itemset ) Use the frequent itemsets to generate association rules.

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Use of Apriori algorithm Initial information: transactional database D and user-defined numeric minimun support threshold min_sup Algorithm uses knowledge from previous iteration phase to produce frequent itemsets This is reflected in the Latin origin of the name that means ” from what comes before ”

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Creating frequent sets Let ’ s define: C k as a candidate itemset of size k L k as a frequent itemset of size k Main steps of iteration are: 1)Find frequent itemset L k-1 (starting from L 1 ) 2)Join step: C k is generated by joining L k-1 with itself (cartesian product L k-1 x L k-1 ) 3)Prune step (apriori property): Any (k − 1) size itemset that is not frequent cannot be a subset of a frequent k size itemset, hence should be removed from C k 4)Frequent set L k has been achieved

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Creating frequent sets (2) Algorithm uses breadth-first search and a hash tree structure to handle candidate itemsets efficiently Then frequency for each candidate itemset is counted Those candidate itemsets that have frequency higher than minimum support threshold are qualified to be frequent itemsets

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Apriori algorithm in pseudocode (2) Join step and prune step (Wikipedia)

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23 The Apriori Algorithm: Example Consider a database, D, consisting of 9 transactions. Suppose min. support count required is 2 (i.e. min_sup = 2/9 = 22 % ) Let minimum confidence required be 70%. We have first to find out the frequent itemsets using Apriori algorithm. Then, Association rules will be generated using min. support & min. confidence. TIDList of Items T100I1, I2, I5 T101I2, I4 T102I2, I3 T103I1, I2, I4 T104I1, I3 T105I2, I3 T106I1, I3 T107I1, I2,I3, I5 T108I1, I2, I3

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24 Step 1 : Generating 1-itemset Frequent Pattern ItemsetSup.Count {I1}6 {I2}7 {I3}6 {I4}2 {I5}2 ItemsetSup.Count {I1}6 {I2}7 {I3}6 {I4}2 {I5}2 In the first iteration of the algorithm, each item is a member of the set of candidate. The set of frequent 1-itemsets, L 1, consists of the candidate 1- itemsets satisfying minimum support. Scan D to count of each candidate Compare candidate support count with minimum support count C1C1 L1L1

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25 Step 2 : Generating 2-itemset Frequent Pattern Itemset {I1, I2} {I1, I3} {I1, I4} {I1, I5} {I2, I3} {I2, I4} {I2, I5} {I3, I4} {I3, I5} {I4, I5} ItemsetSup. Count {I1, I2}4 {I1, I3}4 {I1, I4}1 {I1, I5}2 {I2, I3}4 {I2, I4}2 {I2, I5}2 {I3, I4}0 {I3, I5}1 {I4, I5}0 ItemsetSup Count {I1, I2}4 {I1, I3}4 {I1, I5}2 {I2, I3}4 {I2, I4}2 {I2, I5}2 Generate C 2 candidates from L 1 (L 1 xL 1 ) C2C2 C2C2 L2L2 Scan D for count of each candidate Compare candidate support count with minimum support count

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26 Step 2 : Generating 2-itemset Frequent Pattern [Cont.] To discover the set of frequent 2-itemsets, L 2, the algorithm uses L 1 Join L 1 to generate a candidate set of 2- itemsets, C 2. Next, the transactions in D are scanned and the support count for each candidate itemset in C 2 is accumulated (as shown in the middle table). The set of frequent 2-itemsets, L 2, is then determined, consisting of those candidate 2-itemsets in C 2 having minimum support. Note: We haven ’ t used Apriori Property yet.

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27 Step 3 : Generating 3-itemset Frequent Pattern Itemset {I1, I2, I3} {I1, I2, I5} …. ItemsetSup. Count {I1, I2, I3}2 {I1, I2, I5} …. 2 ItemsetSup Count {I1, I2, I3}2 {I1, I2, I5}2 C3C3 C3C3 L3L3 Scan D for count of each candidate Compare candidate support count with min support count Scan D for count of each candidate L 2 xL 2 The generation of the set of candidate 3-itemsets, C 3, involves use of the Apriori Property (see next slide). In order to find C 3, we compute L 2 Join L 2. C 3 = L2 Join L2 = {{I1, I2, I3}, {I1, I2, I5}, {I1, I3, I5}, {I2, I3, I4}, {I2, I3, I5}, {I2, I4, I5}}. Now, Join step is complete and Prune step will be used to reduce the size of C 3. Prune step helps to avoid heavy computation due to large C k.

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28 Step 3 : Generating 3-itemset Frequent Pattern [Cont.] Based on the Apriori property that all subsets of a frequent itemset must also be frequent, we can determine that four latter candidates cannot possibly be frequent. How ? For example, lets take {I1, I2, I3}. The 2-item subsets of it are {I1, I2}, {I1, I3} & {I2, I3}. Since all 2-item subsets of {I1, I2, I3} are members of L 2, we will keep {I1, I2, I3} in C 3. Lets take another example of {I2, I3, I5} which shows how the pruning is performed. The 2-item subsets are {I2, I3}, {I2, I5} & {I3,I5}. BUT, {I3, I5 } is not a member of L 2 and hence it is not frequent violating Apriori Property. Thus We will have to remove {I2, I3, I5} from C 3. Therefore, C 3 = {{I1, I2, I3}, {I1, I2, I5}} after checking for all members of result of Join operation for Pruning. Now, the transactions in D are scanned in order to determine L 3, consisting of those candidates 3-itemsets in C 3 having minimum support. {{I1, I2, I3}, {I1, I2, I5}, {I1, I3, I5}, {I2, I3, I4}, {I2, I3, I5}, {I2, I4, I5}}.

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29 Step 4 : Generating 4-itemset Frequent Pattern The algorithm uses L 3 Join L 3 to generate a candidate set of 4-itemsets, C 4. Although the join results in {{I1, I2, I3, I5}}, this itemset is pruned since its subset {{I2, I3, I5}} is not frequent. Thus, C 4 = φ, and algorithm terminates, having found all of the frequent items. This completes our Apriori Algorithm. What ’ s Next ? These frequent itemsets will be used to generate strong association rules ( where strong association rules satisfy both minimum support & minimum confidence).

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Found to be Infrequent Illustrating Apriori Principle Pruned supersets

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31 Step 5: Generating Association Rules from Frequent Itemsets Procedure: For each frequent itemset “ l ”, generate all nonempty subsets of l. For every nonempty subset s of l, output the rule “ s (l-s) ” if support_count(l) / support_count(s) >= min_conf where min_conf is minimum confidence threshold. Back To Example: We had L = {{I1}, {I2}, {I3}, {I4}, {I5}, {I1,I2}, {I1,I3}, {I1,I5}, {I2,I3}, {I2,I4}, {I2,I5}, {I1,I2,I3}, {I1,I2,I5}}. – Lets take l = {I1,I2,I5}. – Its all nonempty subsets are {I1,I2}, {I1,I5}, {I2,I5}, {I1}, {I2}, {I5}.

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32 Step 5: Generating Association Rules from Frequent Itemsets [Cont.] Let minimum confidence threshold is, say 70%. The resulting association rules are shown below, each listed with its confidence. – R1: I1 ^ I2 I5 Confidence = sc{I1,I2,I5}/sc{I1,I2} = 2/4 = 50% R1 is Rejected. – R2: I1 ^ I5 I2 Confidence = sc{I1,I2,I5}/sc{I1,I5} = 2/2 = 100% R2 is Selected. – R3: I2 ^ I5 I1 Confidence = sc{I1,I2,I5}/sc{I2,I5} = 2/2 = 100% R3 is Selected. l = {I1,I2,I5}, s : {I1,I2}, {I1,I5}, {I2,I5}, {I1}, {I2}, {I5}

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33 Step 5: Generating Association Rules from Frequent Itemsets [Cont.] – R4: I1 I2 ^ I5 Confidence = sc{I1,I2,I5}/sc{I1} = 2/6 = 33% R4 is Rejected. – R5: I2 I1 ^ I5 Confidence = sc{I1,I2,I5}/{I2} = 2/7 = 29% R5 is Rejected. – R6: I5 I1 ^ I2 Confidence = sc{I1,I2,I5}/ {I5} = 2/2 = 100% R6 is Selected. In this way, we have found three strong association rules.

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34 Overview Basic Concepts of Association Rule Mining The Apriori Algorithm (Mining single dimensional boolean association rules) Methods to Improve Apriori ’ s Efficiency Frequent-Pattern Growth (FP-Growth) Method From Association Analysis to Correlation Analysis Summary

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35 Methods to Improve Apriori ’ s Efficiency Hash-based itemset counting: A k -itemset whose corresponding hashing bucket count is below the threshold cannot be frequent. Transaction reduction: A transaction that does not contain any frequent k-itemset is useless in subsequent scans. Partitioning: Any itemset that is potentially frequent in DB must be frequent in at least one of the partitions of DB. Sampling: mining on a subset of given data, lower support threshold + a method to determine the completeness. Dynamic itemset counting: add new candidate itemsets only when all of their subsets are estimated to be frequent.

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36 Overview Basic Concepts of Association Rule Mining The Apriori Algorithm (Mining single dimensional boolean association rules) Methods to Improve Apriori ’ s Efficiency Frequent-Pattern Growth (FP-Growth) Method From Association Analysis to Correlation Analysis Summary

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FP-growth: Another Method for Frequent Itemset Generation Use a compressed representation of the database using an FP-tree Once an FP-tree has been constructed, it uses a recursive divide-and-conquer approach to mine the frequent itemsets

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38 Efficiently Mining Frequent Patterns Without Candidate Generation Compress a large database into a compact, Frequent-Pattern tree (FP-tree) structure – highly condensed, but complete for frequent pattern mining – avoid costly database scans FP-Growth: allows frequent itemset discovery without candidate itemset generation. Two step approach: – Step 1: Build a compact data structure called the FP-tree Built using 2 passes over the data-set. – Step 2: Extracts frequent itemsets directly from the FP-tree

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39 FP-Growth Method: Construction of FP-Tree First, create the root of the tree, labeled with “ null ”. Scan the database D a second time. (First time we scanned it to create 1-itemset and then L). The items in each transaction are processed in L order (i.e. sorted order). A branch is created for each transaction with items having their support count separated by colon. Whenever the same node is encountered in another transaction, we just increment the support count of the common node or Prefix. To facilitate tree traversal, an item header table is built so that each item points to its occurrences in the tree via a chain of node-links. Now, The problem of mining frequent patterns in database is transformed to that of mining the FP-Tree.

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Example FP-Growth (1) Suppose min-support=3 1. Count item frequency and order items by support Red numbers are the order of items (by support)

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Example (2) 2. Items are ordered in each transaction according to their support

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Example (3) The root node is null A branch is created for each transaction with items having their support count separated by colon. We start with T1, every node is an item with its count, in order of support

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Example (4) Now consider T2: First 4 items are in the same order as T1, so we can traverse the branch incrementing counts, and add C at the end

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Example (5) In T 3 you have to visit B,A,E and C respectively. But can't connect B to existing A overtaking D. As a result you should draw another A and connect it to B and then connect new E to that A and new C to new E.

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Example (6) In T 4 we only need to update counts in one of the branches With T5 we need to add another branch

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Example (7) T6, T7 and T8 follow the same procedure

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47 Phase 2: Mining the FP-Tree by Creating Conditional (sub) pattern bases Steps: 1.Start from each frequent length-1 pattern (as an initial suffix pattern). 2.Construct its conditional pattern base which consists of the set of prefix paths in the FP-Tree co-occurring with suffix pattern. 3.Then, construct its conditional FP-Tree & perform mining on such a tree. 4.The pattern growth is achieved by concatenation of the suffix pattern with the frequent patterns generated from a conditional FP-Tree. 5.The union of all frequent patterns (generated by step 4) gives the required frequent itemset.

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Example : 1. Start from each frequent length- 1 pattern (as an initial suffix pattern). The Items and their frequency of occurrences can be listed as B:6 D:6 A:5 E:4 C:3 Minimum support count is 3 (as previously stated) To find frequent itemsets we need to move bottom-up (C)

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Example :2. Build Conditional Pattern Base C:3 There are 3 patterns with C (gray, red and blue) The conditional pattern base (CPB) for C are: BDAE:1, B:1 BAE:1 Note that: 1)the patterns do not include C 2)the frequency is determined by C: the CPB of C is the set of patterns in which C occurs 3)Items in CBP are again in order of relevance

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Example : 2. Build Conditional Pattern Base (cont’d) The conditional pattern base (CPB) for C are: BDAE:1, B:1 BAE:1 Note that: 1)the patterns do not include C 2)the frequency is determined by C: the CPB of C is the set of patterns in which C occurs 3)Items in CBP are again in order of relevance

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Example : 3. Build conditional FP-tree (CPB) for C : BDAE:1, B:1 BAE:1 Then we have to find F-tree from the Conditional Pattern Base of C. The list of items (F-list) in CPC are B:3,D:1,A:2,E:2 but B:3 only eligible for sitting on the FP-tree due to fulfill the Minimum Support Count. So the FP-tree is B:3

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Example : 4. Extract frequent patterns All frequent pattern corresponding to suffix C are generated by considering all possible combinations of C and conditional FP-Tree. Now we can find the FP from the F- tree: C:3, BC:3

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Example (cont’d) : Build Conditional Pattern Base for E Now we consider the item E The conditional pattern base (CPB) for E are: BDA:2, BA:1 DA:1 And the F-list is: A:4 B:3 D:3

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Example : Build F-tree for E F-list is: A:4 B:3 D:3 F-tree i build from red and blue patterns (need blue pattern since red has only A:3)

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Example : Build FPs for E All frequent pattern corresponding to suffix E are generated by considering all possible combinations of E and conditional FP-Tree. F-list: A:4 B:3 D:3 FPs: DE:3 ABE:3 DE:3, ADE:3 BE:3, ABE:3 AE:4

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Benefits of the FP-tree Structure Performance study shows – FP-growth is an order of magnitude faster than Apriori Reasoning – No candidate generation, no candidate test – Use compact data structure – Eliminate repeated database scan – Basic operation is counting and FP-tree building

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57 Overview Basic Concepts of Association Rule Mining The Apriori Algorithm (Mining single dimensional boolean association rules) Methods to Improve Apriori ’ s Efficiency Frequent-Pattern Growth (FP-Growth) Method From Association Analysis to Correlation Analysis Summary

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58 Association & Correlation Correlation Analysis provides an alternative framework for finding interesting relationships, or to improve understanding of meaning of some association rules (a lift of an association rule).

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59 Correlation Concepts Two item sets A and B are independent (the occurrence of A is independent of the occurrence of item set B) iff P(A B) = P(A) P(B) Otherwise A and B are dependent and correlated The measure of correlation, or correlation between A and B is given by the formula: Corr(A,B)= P(A U B ) / P(A). P(B)

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60 Correlation Concepts [Cont.] corr(A,B) >1 means that A and B are positively correlated i.e. the occurrence of one implies the occurrence of the other. corr(A,B) < 1 means that the occurrence of A is negatively correlated with ( or discourages) the occurrence of B. corr(A,B) =1 means that A and B are independent and there is no correlation between them.

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61 Association & Correlation The correlation formula can be re-written as – Corr(A,B) = P(B|A) / P(B) We already know that – Support(A B)= P(AUB) – Confidence(A B)= P(B|A) – That means that, Confidence(A B)= corr(A,B) P(B) So correlation, support and confidence are all different, but the correlation provides an extra information about the association rule (A B). We say that the correlation corr(A,B) provides the LIFT of the association rule (A=>B), i.e. A is said to increase (or LIFT) the likelihood of B by the factor of the value returned by the formula for corr(A,B).

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62 Summary Association Rule Mining – Finding interesting association or correlation relationships. Association rules are generated from frequent itemsets. Frequent itemsets are mined using Apriori algorithm or Frequent- Pattern Growth method. Apriori property states that all the subsets of frequent itemsets must also be frequent. Apriori algorithm uses frequent itemsets, join & prune methods and Apriori property to derive strong association rules. Frequent-Pattern Growth method avoids repeated database scanning of Apriori algorithm. FP-Growth method is faster than Apriori algorithm. Correlation concepts & rules can be used to further support our derived association rules.

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