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Epigraphy Optional Course MA/MPhil Ancient History Leiden University 2014-2015 1 st semester Instructor: Dr F.G. Naerebout

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Presentation on theme: "Epigraphy Optional Course MA/MPhil Ancient History Leiden University 2014-2015 1 st semester Instructor: Dr F.G. Naerebout"— Presentation transcript:

1 Epigraphy Optional Course MA/MPhil Ancient History Leiden University 2014-2015 1 st semester Instructor: Dr F.G. Naerebout

2  Epigraphy = the study of intaglio texts in hard, non-organic material and more or less related stuff [for a full view of textual evidence from archaeological sources you have look beyond epigraphy]  Epigraphy deals with any text that answers to the formalist criteria [the contents of inscriptions show a very wide range – even though some genres, such as epitaphs, predominate]  Epigraphy for the present purpose is Greek & Latin epigraphy, dealing with inscribed alphabetic texts of the 8th c BC-7th c AD [there are many other epigraphies]  Our purpose is to know and understand what epigraphers do in order to be able to critically use the published texts that epigraphers provide us with 1. Summary

3  Issues for the epigraphist: specialist knowledge in order to publish previously unpublished texts (and republish texts). Crucial: make a text understandable: restitutions, categorization and commentary, translation  Issues for the user of epigraphic sources: find (bibliography, geography, typology), understand (ability to ‘read’ an epigraphic edition), put to use. Crucial: knowledge of the heuristics and of the publishing conventions continued


5 Lacunae and conjectures



8 Pausanias, Ἑ λλάδος περιήγησις (Hellados Periēgēsis) (2nd c AD)

9 2. Typology Contents Context Form Corpora have chosen to use primarily context  provenance / dating But texts are also grouped on the basis of their contents, and even form

10 traditionally: Res publicae Res sacrae Vita privata

11 Guarducci, Epigrafia greca Epigrafi di carattere publico Epigrafi di carattere privato Epigrafi sacre pagane Leggi sacre, cippi terminali, oracoli, inni sacri, sanationes, listi di sacerdoti etc, dediche, arai, defixiones, laminette, amuletti, varia Epigrafi cristiane

12 Ghinatti, Profilo di epigrafia greca Decreti Lettere Rendiconti Inventari Dediche, iscrizioni sacre Tabelle di defissione Responsi oracolari, laminette orfiche “Gli altri tipi”

13 Larfeld, Griechische Epigraphik Staatsverträge, Gesetze, Dekrete, Edikte, Briefe Ehren-, Weih- und Grabinschriften Besitz-, Bau- und Künstlerinschriften Beambtenurkunden Kataloge Privatrechtliche Inschriften Inschriften literarischen Charakters

14 McLean, An introduction to Greek epigraphy Decrees, laws, treaties, official letters Honorific decrees, honorific inscriptions, proxeny decrees Dedications, ex-votos Funerary inscriptions Manumission inscriptions Other legal instruments Boundary stones, milestones, herms Sacred laws and other sacred inscriptions Inscriptions on buildings Inscriptions on portable objects Accounts and catalogues Quarry and masons’ marks Inscriptions in metal Graffiti Artists’ signatures

15 Meyer, Einfuehrung in die lateinische Epigraphik Staatsurkunden Kalender, Liste, Fasti, Sonstiges Private Urkunden Bauinschriften Meilensteine Weihinschriften Ehreninschriften Grabinschriften Verschiedenes Kleininschriften

16 Lassère, Manuel d’épigraphie romaine Inscriptions privées –Biographie, la vie privée, épitaphes, magie Les institutions des cités La vie matérielle des cités –Constructions, métiers, productions, actes privés La vie sociale –Collèges, spectacles, jeux, évergétisme, la vie religieuse L’État –Magistratures, empereur, légions et corps auxiliaires

17 Bérard et al., Guide de l’épigraphiste Histoire Fastes et calendriers Économie et société Guerre et armée Droit Architecture et sculpture Concours et spectacles Religion Elogia Inscriptions funéraires Épigrammes Tablettes, ostraca, graffites Instrumentum domesticum

18 3. Finding a text Two different basic heuristic procedures: 1) trace a text departing from a reference 2) establish the presence (or lack) of epigraphic evidence departing from a particular question but the second will always be followed by the first

19 3.1 From a reference Abbreviations From corpora to journals Tracing the text through different editions etc –Concordances –BE, SEG, EBGR, AE

20 BE –contained in REG –Editors: 1888-1890 B. Hausollier; 1891-1906 Th. Reinach; 1907-1912 A.-J. Reinach; 1913-1936 P. Roussel et al.; 1938-1984 (except for 1957/1975) J. & L. Robert; 1987-2005 Ph. Gauthier et al.; 2006- L. Dubois –Re-publications: the Robert years, 1938-1984, have been published separately in 10 vols. Paris 1972-1987; the years1987-2001, in 4 vols. Paris 2007 –Indices: for the years 1888-1936 there is no index, for 1938-1965 an index in 3 vols., for 1966-1973 an index in 1 vol., for 1974-1977 an index in 1 vol., for 1978- 1984 an index has been published in 2009, for 1987- 2001 an index in 3 vols has been published in 2005- 2006. For 2002- there is no index.

21 SEG –Editors: vols. 1-1: Hondius, 12-25: Woodhead et al.; 26-53: Pleket et al.; 50- Chaniotis et al. –Indices: vols. 1-10 have indices in every issue, most of names only. For vols. 11-20 (1950-1964) consolidated indices were produced by G. Pfohl, 1970, again names only; for vols. 26-35 (1976-1985) and vols. 36-45 (1986-1995) consolidated indices by Roozenbeek, Strubbe et al., 1990 & 1999, provide full indexing. There are no proper indices for vols. 1-25, and for vols. 46-53 one has to rely on the indices in the individual volumes. –All volumes are available online (UB)

22 EBGR –contained in Kernos (Chaniotis c.s.). With a subject index in every issue. –There also are concise indices online at –Issues 1-24 of Kernos are available online:

23 AE, AnnEpigr –Revue des publications épigraphiques relatives à l’Antiquité romaine: part of the Revue archéologique until the issue dated 1964, then became an autonomous publication –Editors: 1888-1935 René Cagnat, d’abord seul, puis avec Maurice Besnier jusqu’en 1932, enfin avec Alfred Merlin. 1936-1964 Alfred Merlin, avec Jean Gagé certaines années. 1965Jean Gagé et Marcel Le Glay. 1966-1973 Jean Gagé, Marcel Le Glay, Hans-Georg Pflaum et Pierre Wuilleumier. 1974 -1978 André Chastagnol, Jean Gagé, Marcel Le Glay et H.-G. Pflaum. 1979-1980André Chastagnol, Jean Gagé, Marcel Le Glay. 1981-1986 André Chastagnol, Marcel Le Glay, Patrick Le Roux. 1987-1990 André Chastagnol, André Laronde, Marcel Le Glay, Patrick Le Roux. 1991- Nouvelle équipe de rédaction, sous la direction de Mireille Corbier, avec Patrick Le Roux et Sylvie Dardaine comme secrétaires de la rédaction.

24 3.2 as yet unknown epigraphic material (“what epigraphic evidence is there for subject/question/problem X”) –by provenance –by date –by subject [typology may help] Collections arranged according to subject Subject indices in any epigraphic collection Any publication (incl websites) on a subject making use of epigraphic sources Greek or Latin vocabulary –by some specific characteristic

25 Going digital Websites: see portal on

26 1st assignment 1) trace the publication; 2) trace the inscription and find out what it is about; 3) try to do so with reference to the physical edition; 4) send your results to before next class LSCG 151 SEG 2002, 933 TAM 5.1.326 Kaibel 1122 ILS 1353 Wuill. 234 AE 1977, 24 ILCV 779 BRGK 17, 1927, 32 CLE 954

27 PAPER 10.000 words Choose a subject and a question  find epigraphic evidence  publish a corpus (mettre en série!!) paying attention to publication history and editorial correctness. Provide full details  analyse the epigraphic evidence and discuss in how far that evidence can contribute to the answering of your question (be aware of the pros and cons of the material in your selection)  you may suggest some hypothesis, but you may also conclude that more (different) evidence is needed. As long as you have seriously discussed the potential of the inscriptional evidence.

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