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– R 7 :: 1 – 0024 Spring 2010 Parallel Programming 0024 Recitation Week 7 Spring Semester 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "– R 7 :: 1 – 0024 Spring 2010 Parallel Programming 0024 Recitation Week 7 Spring Semester 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 – R 7 :: 1 – 0024 Spring 2010 Parallel Programming 0024 Recitation Week 7 Spring Semester 2010

2 – R 7 :: 2 – 0024 Spring 2010 Today‘s program Assignment 6 Review of semaphores Semaphores Semaphoren and (Java) monitors Semaphore implementation of monitors (review) Assignment 7

3 – R 7 :: 3 – 0024 Spring 2010 Semaphores Special Integer variable w/2 atomic operations P()(Passeren, wait/up) V()(Vrijgeven/Verhogen, signal/down) Names of operations reflect the Dutch origin of the inventor...

4 – R 7 :: 4 – 0024 Spring 2010 class Semaphore public class Semaphore { private int value; private int value; public Semaphore() { public Semaphore() { value = 0; } public Semaphore(int k) { public Semaphore(int k) { value = k; } public synchronized void P() { /* see next slide */ } public synchronized void P() { /* see next slide */ } public synchronized void V() { /* see next slide */ } public synchronized void V() { /* see next slide */ }}

5 – R 7 :: 5 – 0024 Spring 2010 P() operation public synchronized void P() { while (value == 0) { while (value == 0) { try { try { wait(); wait(); } catch (InterruptedException e) { } catch (InterruptedException e) { } } value --; value --; }

6 – R 7 :: 6 – 0024 Spring 2010 V() operation public synchronized void V() { ++value; ++value; notifyAll(); notifyAll(); }

7 – R 7 :: 7 – 0024 Spring 2010 Comments You can modify the value of an semphore instance only using the P() and V() operations. Initialize in constructorEffect P() may block V() never blocks Application of semaphores: Mutual exclusion Conditional synchronization

8 – R 7 :: 8 – 0024 Spring kinds of semaphores Binary semaphore Value is either 0 or 1 Supports implemention of mutual exclusion Semaphore s = new Semaphore(1); s.p() //critical section s.v() Counting (general) semaphore Value can be any positive integer value

9 – R 7 :: 9 – 0024 Spring 2010 Fairness A semaphore is considered to be “fair“ if all threads that execute a P() operation eventually succeed. Different models of fairness – Semaphore is “unfair”: a thread blocked in the P() operation must wait forever while other threads (that executed the operation later) succeed.

10 – R 7 :: 10 – 0024 Spring 2010 Semaphores in Java java.util.concurrent.Semaphore java.util.concurrent.Semaphore acquire() instead of P() acquire() instead of P() release() instead of V() release() instead of V()Constructors Semaphore(int permits); Semaphore(int permits); Semaphore(int permits, boolean fair); Semaphore(int permits, boolean fair); permits: initial value fair: if true then the semphore uses a FIFO to manage blocked threads

11 – R 7 :: 11 – 0024 Spring 2010 Semaphores and monitors Monitor: model for synchronized methods in Java Both constructs are equivalent One can be used to implement the other

12 – R 7 :: 12 – 0024 Spring 2010 Example from Mar 18 See slides for context

13 – R 7 :: 13 – 0024 Spring 2010 Buffer using condition queues class BoundedBuffer extends Buffer { public BoundedBuffer(int size) { super(size); } public synchronized void insert(Object o) throws InterruptedException { while (isFull()) wait(); doInsert(o); notifyAll(); }// insert

14 – R 7 :: 14 – 0024 Spring 2010 Buffer using condition queues, continued // in class BoundedBuffer public synchronized Object extract() throws InterruptedException { while (isEmpty()) wait(); Object o = doExtract(); notifyAll(); return o; }// extract } // BoundedBuffer

15 – R 7 :: 15 – 0024 Spring 2010 Emulation of monitor w/ semaphores We need 2 semaphores: One to make sure that only one synchronized method executes at any tiven time call this the “access semaphore” (S) binary semaphore One semaphore to line up threads that are waiting for some condition call this the “condition semaphore” (SCond) – also binary call this the “condition semaphore” (SCond) – also binary threads that wait must do an “acquire” and this will not complete For convenience: Counter waitThread to count number of waiting threads i.e., threads in queue for SCond

16 – R 7 :: 16 – 0024 Spring 2010 Basic idea  Frame all synchronized methods with S.acquire() and S.release() This ensures that only one thread executes a synchronized method at any point in time Recall S is binary.  Translate wait() and notifyAll() to give threads waiting in line a chance to progress (these threads use SCond) To simplify the debate, we require that “notifyAll()” is the last action in a synchronized method Java does not enforce this requirement but the mapping of synchronized methods into semaphores is simplified.

17 – R 7 :: 17 – 0024 Spring 2010 Buffer with auxiliary fields class BoundedBuffer extends Buffer { public BoundedBuffer(int size) { super(size); access = new Semaphore(1); cond = new Semaphore(0); } private Semaphore access; private Semaphore cond; private int waitThread = 0; // continued

18 – R 7 :: 18 – 0024 Spring ) Framing all methods public void insert(Object o) throws InterruptedException { access.acquire(); //ensure mutual exclusion while (isFull()) wait(); doInsert(o); notifyAll(); access.release(); }// insert

19 – R 7 :: 19 – 0024 Spring 2010 Notes There is one semaphore for all synchronized methods of one instance of “BoundedBuffer” Why? Must make sure that insert and extract don’t overlap. There must be separate semaphore to deal with waiting threads. Why? Imagine the buffer is full. A thread that attempts to insert an item must wait. But it must release the access semaphore. Otherwise a thread that wants to remove an item will not be able to executed the (synchronized!) extract method.

20 – R 7 :: 20 – 0024 Spring ) Translate wait and notifyAll The operation wait() is translated into waitThread ++ S.release(); // other threads can execute synchronized methods SCond.acquire(); // wait until condition changes S.acquire(); waitThread --

21 – R 7 :: 21 – 0024 Spring 2010 Each occurrrence of NotifyAll() is translated if (waitThread > 0) { if (waitThread > 0) { for (int i=0; i< waitThread; i++) { SCond.release();} } All threads waiting are released and will compete to (re)acquire S. They decrement waitThread after they leave SCond.acquire Note that to enter the line (i.e., increment waitThread) the thread must hold the access semaphore S

22 – R 7 :: 22 – 0024 Spring 2010 Recall that S.release is done at the end of the synchronized method So all the threads that had lined up waiting for SCond compete to get access to S No thread can line up while the SCond.release operations are done since this thread holds S.

23 – R 7 :: 23 – 0024 Spring 2010 Note We wake up only all threads – they might not be able to enter their critical section if the condition they waited for does not hold. But all threads get a chance. This approach is different from what we discussed in the lecture

24 – R 7 :: 24 – 0024 Spring 2010 Translate “wait()” public void insert(Object o) throws InterruptedException { access.acquire(); while (isFull()) { waitThread ++; access.release(); // let other thread access object cond.acquire(); // wait for change of state access.acquire() waitThread --; } doInsert(o); notifyAll(); access.release(); }// insert

25 – R 7 :: 25 – 0024 Spring 2010 Translate “notifyAll()” public void insert(Object o) throws InterruptedException { access.acquire(); while (isFull()) { waitThread ++; access.release(); // let other thread access object cond.acquire(); // wait for change of state access.acquire() waitThread --; } doInsert(o); if (waitThread > 0) { for (int i=0; i

26 – R 7 :: 26 – 0024 Spring 2010 Example Consider the buffer, one slot is empty, four operations insert I1 insert I2 extract E extract E I1 – access.acquire I2 – access.acquire: blocks on access I3 – access.acquire: blocks on access I1 – waitThread == 0 I1.release

27 – R 7 :: 27 – 0024 Spring 2010 (cont) I2 – access.acquire completes I2 – access.acquire completes I2 – buffer full waitThread =1 I2 – access.release I2 – cond.acquire – blocks on cond I3 – access.acquire completes I3 – buffer full waitThread = 2 I3 – access.release I3 – cond.acquire – blocks on cond

28 – R 7 :: 28 – 0024 Spring 2010 (cont) E – access.acquire E – access.acquire remove item remove item E – SCond.release E – SCond.release E – access.release E – access.release One of I2 or I3 will succeed with access.acquire and be able to insert the next item

29 – R 7 :: 29 – 0024 Spring 2010 Exercise How would the method “extract” look like (if we used semaphores to emulate monitors)?

30 – R 7 :: 30 – 0024 Spring 2010 Assignment 7 Hint: Thread.currentThread() returns a handle to the current thread and might be useful for the assignment.

31 – R 7 :: 31 – 0024 Spring 2010 Overview Your task is to implement a Read/Write Lock Max. 4 Threads Max. 2 Reader Threads (shared access is allowed) and 1 Writer Thread A thread that executes read() is a reader At a later time it can be a writer....

32 – R 7 :: 32 – 0024 Spring 2010 The challenge No starvation Efficient implementation If there are fewer than 2 readers and no waiting writers then the next reader must be allowed to proceed If there is no contention then a thread must be allowed to proceed immediately Your implementation must be fair (you may want to use FIFOQueue.java)

33 – R 7 :: 33 – 0024 Spring 2010 Other comments Keep your solution as simple as possible Decide what you want to use [your decision] Monitors (synchronized methods) Semaphores  Semaphore Only change class Monitor.java If you feel it‘s necessary to change other files, please let us know. Please comment your code!

34 – R 7 :: 34 – 0024 Spring 2010 You may want to recall Thread.currentThread().getId() wait_list.enq(Thread.currentThread().getId()) wait_list.getFirstItem() == Thread.currentThread().getId()

35 – R 7 :: 35 – 0024 Spring 2010 Your log could look like this … READ LOCK ACQUIRED 1 READ LOCK RELEASED 0 WRITE LOCK ACQUIRED 1 WRITE LOCK RELEASED 0 READ LOCK ACQUIRED 1 READ LOCK ACQUIRED 2 READ LOCK RELEASED 1 READ LOCK ACQUIRED 2 READ LOCK RELEASED 1 READ LOCK ACQUIRED 2


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