Presentation on theme: "Acute cellular and humoral rejection"— Presentation transcript:
1Acute cellular and humoral rejection Eva HonsovaInstitute for Clinical and Experimental MedicinePrague, Czech Republic
2Graft rejection:The new era of transplantation began during World War II.1. Cellular theory (Peter Medawar): the process of graft rejection is immunologically dependent. The cells (easy to see on histological slides) were recognized and identified as a cause of tissue damage.
3Hyperacute rejection (HR) The antibodies are not seen in routine histological staining.HR can occur immediately after transplantationHR was observed when the kidney was transplanted into a recipient with pre-existing DSAHR can also be caused by antibodies directed at allogenic blood groups A and BNew generation of laboratory tests prevents HRthrombosis
4Graft rejection:2. Humoral theory (Paul Terasaki): evidence that also in later periods after transplantation antibodies must participate in graft damage.2000: 80/70% at 5 yearsThey were unable to prove this theory: no tissue marker of confirmation. Several landmark observations enabled the definition of dg. criteria of A-MR: P. Halloran: AR with „de novo“ DSAs production and poor prognosis.H. Feucht: studied complement components and recognized the relationship of C4d deposition in PTCs in kidney grafts to graft dysfunction.
5Complement systemC4dPositive C4d staining is a marker of antibody-mediated rejection and represents something like an imprint that the reaction occurred at the place of positive staining.
6Detection of C4d (positive staining in PTCs) immunofluorescence immunoperoxidase
7Classification of rejection changes various centers were developingtheir own protocols and their own definitions of the morphological featureswithout standardization of the nomenclature the communication among various centers would remain unsatisfactoryBanff classification since 1991The schema underwent considerable evolution, and was repeatedly revised and modified in follow-up meetings during a 2-year period
8Kidney graft biopsy, adequacy criteria A large number of conditions can affect the allograft, frequently in combination with varying degrees of arteriosclerosis.the pre-biopsy clinical diagnosis differed from the definitive diagnosis in 42% of episodes of graft dysfunction (Pascual et al. Transplantation 1999;67:737-41)Therapy is changed in 60% following graft biopsya) adequacy of the sample; b) processing of the tissueLMIFEM2 cores10 gli2 arteries3 gli1glus3 H&E3 PAS1-3 Trichrom or Sirius red with elastinIgG, IgA, IgMC3, C4dFb, κ,λ light chains, (HLA-DR or others)PU, hematuria,1 year after Tx
9The immunologic threat to the graft begins before transplantation A. Systemic effects of ischemia/reperfusion injuryI/R up-regulates the expression of HLA antigens by the graft, the release of a cascade of chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules.The increased display of HLA antigens intensifies the immune response.B. Each graft has its “medical history“; varying degrees of preexisting, clinically silent injury, mainly vascular nephrosclerosisNo collateral vessel among arteries and arterioles; stenosis of the lumen represents chronic ischemia in the interstitial tissue.
10Acute T-cell-mediated rejection C: 3. Borderline Changes:"Suspicious" for acute T-cell-mediated r.C: 4. Acute T-cell-mediated rejection (type/grade)IA. Cases with significant interstitial infiltration (>25% of parenchyma affected, i2 or i3) and foci of moderate tubulitis (t2)IB. Cases with significant interstitial infiltration (> 25% of parenchyma affected, i2 or i3) and foci of severe tubulitis (t3)IIA. Cases with mild to moderate intimal arteritis (v1, <25% of the luminal area)IIB. Cases with severe intimal arteritis comprising > 25% of the luminal area (v2)III. Cases with "transmural" arteritis and/or fibrinoid change and necrosis of medial smooth muscle cells with accompanying lymphocytic inflammation (v3)
11Acute T-cell-mediated rejection, tubulitis-schema Significant lowering of the rate of episodes of ACR to approximately 5-10% in the 1st yearGrade I: 65-70%, grade II: 30%Huge progress was made in our understanding of immunological mechanisms of rejectionCD4 recognize peptide antigens presented by class II, can be divided according to their cytokine production:Th1: IFNγ , IL2, TNFα, typically in infiltrate of acute rejecting graftsTH2: IL4,IL5,IL10, provide help for B cells and production IgE – promote eosinophilsInflammatory cytokines produced by T cells activate epithelial cells, which in turn attract more T cells.CD8 recognize peptide antigens presented by class I MHC, produce IFNγMediate direct cytotoxicity via granzymes and perforin
12Acute T-cell-mediated rejection, type I tubulitis in non-atrophic tubules Banff criteria:IA. i:>25% of parenchyma affected, i2 or i3 and t2IB. i> 25% of parenchyma affected, i2 or i3 and t3Chapel Hill Standards1. i ≥5%2. Mild to moderate interstitial edema3. Tubulitis (t1 in ≥3 tubules in most inflamed area),- scattered eosinophils and ATI are common- MHC class II in tubular cells- If criteria 1-3 are not fulfilled, but tubules stronglyexpressed MHC class II, then an episode of ACR is suggested
14Acute T-cell-mediated rejection, type I dg Acute T-cell-mediated rejection, type I dg. problems and differential diagnosisHow much inflammation is reactive in subcapsular space early posttransplantResolving/partially treated rejectioninflammation in areas of interstitial fibrosis with t1 in the interface areas20-65% ATMR show C4d deposits along PTCs: mixed cellular- and antibody-mediated rejectionDifferential diagnosisDrug-induced TINDifficult or impossible todistinguish from ATMRPyelonephritisneutrophlic castsPolyomavirus nephropathyplasma cells, IH detection
15Acute T-cell-mediated rejection, type I Dif. Dg Acute T-cell-mediated rejection, type I Dif. Dg.: polyoma virus nephropathy
16Acute T-cell-mediated rejection, type II and III arteritis or endotheliitis
17Acute T-cell-mediated rejection, type II and III differential diagnosis AS, hypertensionAtheromatous embolismSevere hypertensionIf we strictly follow the Banff criteria, one lymphocyte is enough for the dg. type II ATMR rejection. Pre-existing donor disease
18Acute B-cell-mediated rejection/humoral rejection Recognition of AMR requires demonstration of C4d and circulating antibodies.The diagnostic criteria of AMR(cases that meet 2 criteria are considered suspicious for AHR)1. Neutrophil/lymphocyte margination (capillaritis),and/or thombosis/necrosis2. C4d+ in PTCs3. Circulating anti-donor antibodies (DSA)Categories:1.Hyperacute rejection2. Acute B-cell-mediated rejection, late acute B-cell-mediated3. Accommodation
19Hyperacute rejection (HR) Now, HR is not included in Banff schemaComplement dependentrecipient with pre-existing DSACan be C4d negativeDifferential dg.:Vascular thrombosis (artery or vein), technical problems or hypercoagulable stateDonor TMA
20Acute B-cell-mediated rejection/humoral rejection C4d is the terminal inactive split product of antibody-activatedclassical complement cascade and positive C4d staining representssomething like an imprint of the reaction driven by antibodies.Scoring of C4d stainingC4d0 negative % of ptcsC4d1 minimal C4d detection %C4d2 focal C4d positive %C4d3 diffuse C4d positive >50%
21Acute B-cell-mediated rejection capillaritis: gli, PTCs; thrombosis AHR has occurred with all IS regiments. The pathology of AHR has a wide spectrum of findings. However, none of these features is specific.
22Acute B-cell-mediated rejection Anti-donor Abs such as those directed atMHC antigens can trigger AMR.However, the absence of DSA cannot be taken to exclude AMR.Cases with: C4d+, DSA+Cases with: C4d+, DSA-some antigens may be expressed on the endothelial cells and not on lymphocytes, which are typically used for the test (MICA).graft can absorb huge amounts of antibodies from blood and Abs can be below the level of detection.Cases with: C4d-,DSA+Negative staining may result from non-complement fixing antibodies, low reactivity of Abs.Sis B; Halloran P.Endothelial transcripts uncover a previously unknown phenotype: C4d-negative antibody-mediated rejection.Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation. 15(1):42-48, February 2010.
23Acute B-cell-mediated rejection Phenomenon of so-calledaccommodation was repeatedlydescribed in AB0 incompatible kidneygrafts.In this situation, there are DSA, and C4dpositive staining in PTCs.There is no tissue injury in the graft andthe function is stable.However, in long-term studies, themorphological features of chronic injurywere demonstrated more frequentlythan in AB0 compatible recipients.cg
24Rejection remains a central challenge in the field of transplantation Although huge progress has been made in our understandingof immunological mechanisms of rejection there is still alot unknown.???Is humoral response always pathogenic?What is the role of IgG subclasses in transplantation?Can some antibodies block these DS antibodies which bind the complement?Are all DSA harmful?Is there acute antibody mediated rejection with arterial injury similar to type II ATMR? (humoral v, in mice it is so)(Hirohashi et al. Am J Transplant 2010:10; )
25Now we do not know what technique will represent a breakthrough and a great improvement in diagnosis of rejection; gene transcripts or perhaps microRNA, or something unknown …???