6 Glass Manufacturing: Raw Materials Silica Sand, Soda Ash, Felspar, Dolomite, Cullet
7 Raw Material Source DOLOMITE SODA ASH CHINA CARBON SALT CAKE SILICA SANDFELSPARDOLOMITESODA ASHCHINA AND USACARBONJAPANSALT CAKECHINA
8 Float Glass Manufacturing Process ROYAL CUSTOM TRAINING MODULEFloat Glass Manufacturing ProcessMixing at Batch PlantDeliveryMelting at FurnaceForming at BathRefining at FurnaceAnnealing at LehrWashing, drying and defects analysisCutting and inspectionProduction and packing8178
15 Pilkington Arctic Blue™ & Emerald Green™ High Performance Tint Provides both lower shading coefficient and good daylight transmittance compared to regular tintsLow exterior reflectanceLow UV transmittanceExcellent performance when combined with Low-E for reduced heat gainAll these are produced & available in Malaysia15
16 Pilkington Optifloat™ Tinted Features & BenefitsGood solar controlReduces cooling loadsLow external & internal reflectance
17 Reflite™ Reflective Glass New coating facility in MalaysiaFeatures & BenefitsMedium solar control (low SHGC)Low Shading coefficient (SC)Subtle Reflectivity - privacyPyrolytic coating (hard coat)Easy to handleGood glare controlAir conditioning costs reduced17
30 1,555,200 9. LAMINATION ORIENTATION Coated plies: Coating to air side ORCoating against interlayer (pvb etc.)n.b. Low-E coatings touching theinterlayer lose their low-e propertybecause glass is opaque to Far IR!21,555,200
31 7,776,000 10. FIRE RESISTANCE: Wired Glass, Intumescent Laminates - 20, 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes Fire Rating57,776,000
32 11. ELECTROCHROMIC:Switch between High & Low SHGC. Switch between Transparent & Translucent15,552,000
33 46,656,000 12. ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING: Prevent electronic data escaping. Prevent interference entering.Different db shielding levels46,656,000
36 373,248,000 2 ORIENTATION OF IGU Everyone should use hand-held coating detector meters2373,248,000
37 That makes about millions different combinations. ONE is the best That makes about millions different combinations! ONE is the best. All others are likely less than best.HOW DO YOU CHOOSE?
38 CONCLUSIONSGlazing choices are many and variedIG gas fills and some coatings (4 at least) are invisibleYou cannot see by eye: U-Factor or SHGCThere are tools, codes, standards and certification programs availableWhich bring us to low e, energy savings, and green issues….
39 Glass for Malaysia How do you choose? Performance issues Look of the buildingEnergy SavingsGreen initiativesMany, many factors
41 The 4 Energy/Heat Flows Remember: Heat Flows from Hot to Cold 3%47%UV VisibleSolar IRFar IRThere are 4 distinct and separate heat flow elements. Note that 3 of them are generated by the sun, and only one of them is visible.Invisible Far Infra Red (IR) energy is generated by any warm (room temperature) body, even the moon!Tinted glass which has absorbed visible sunlight plus short wave Solar IR, then tries to lose its heat by radiating far IR.50%
42 Heat Flows from HOT to COLD Conduction ConvectionRadiationTypical Transmission and Reflection chart showing what happens to each of the 4 energy groups when they shine on a light of Energy Advantage Low-E glass.Note: the addition of the energy Transmitted plus Reflected plus Absorbed must always add up to 100% at every wavelength.
43 U-Factor measures the rate of heat transfer from warm air side to cool air side. Watts/sq.m.degC Far IR RadiationConductionConvectionTypical Transmission and Reflection chart showing what happens to each of the 4 energy groups when they shine on a light of Solar E glass.Note: the addition of the energy Transmitted plus Reflected plus Absorbed must always add up to 100% at every wavelength.
44 SHGC Solar Heat Gain Coefficient % of Sun’s heat striking a window that enters a room (by conduction + convection + radiation)Far IR RadiationSolar IR RadiationUV energy is seldom wanted. The amount transmitted can be reduced by an appropriate glass choice.Visible energy turns into heat when it is absorbed in a room. It represents almost half the sun’s heat. Note: large dark glass windows will still transmit enough light for good vision.Solar IR heat energy is valuable in a cold climate e.g. Canada, and Northern China. Solar IR can be blocked by Reflection (soft, sputter coat Low-E), or by Absorption (hard coat pyrolytic Solar E, or tinted glass with Low-E).Far IR energy comes from warm objects. It can becontrolled by using Low-E to either Reflect it, or not emit it.Convection
45 Shading Coefficient% of Sun’s heat striking a window that enters a room (by conduction + convection + radiation)Compared to% of Sun’s heat striking a 3 mm Clear Glass window that enters a room (by conduction + convection + radiation)SHGC ~ 0.87 x Shading CoefficientShading Coefficient is a Poor # to use…Why? Whose 3mm glass? Why not 6mm? SHGC is a pure formula and preferred.Very roughly, during a hot South China 24 hour day, a square building with glass on all 4 sides, will admit about twice as much heat through the glass by Solar Radiation (SHGC) as by Conduction (U-Factor) from the hot air and ground outside.Therefore low SHGC and low U-Factors are both needed.Single Glazed Clear Glass, with a SHGC of 0.87 can be reduced by a factor of 6 using SuperGrey with Energy Advantage Low-E to SHGC = 0.15.Similarly the U-Factor of 5.7 for Single Glazed can be reduced by a factor of 4 to 1.5 using Double Glazed with Energy Advantage Low-E and Argon.The glass, and coatings, exist to offer major controls of unwanted heat gains in China.Low emissivity coatings lower both SHGC and U-Factor.
46 About half as much enters over a 24 hour Heat enters when the sun shines through the glass: SHGC (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient) or SF or S/CAbout half as much enters over a 24 hourday by conduction (U-Factor, or K factor) for 15 °C difference (40 °C outside, 25 °C inside)Adding Low Emissivity always helps because it lowers SHGC and it lowers U-FactorVery roughly, during a hot South China 24 hour day, a square building with glass on all 4 sides, will admit about twice as much heat through the glass by Solar Radiation (SHGC) as by Conduction (U-Factor) from the hot air and ground outside.Therefore low SHGC and low U-Factors are both needed.Single Glazed Clear Glass, with a SHGC of 0.87 can be reduced by a factor of 6 using SuperGrey with Energy Advantage Low-E to SHGC = 0.15.Similarly the U-Factor of 5.7 for Single Glazed can be reduced by a factor of 4 to 1.5 using Double Glazed with Energy Advantage Low-E and Argon.The glass, and coatings, exist to offer major controls of unwanted heat gains in China.Low emissivity coatings lower both SHGC and U-Factor.
47 Three Numbers are needed: Tdw for fading control. (Free from LBNL Windows to 0. Lower means less fading. )SHGC for Solar Control (or SF or Shading Coefficient x Lower value means less solar heat gained inside the building from sun shining on the window)U-Factor for thermal control (or U-Value, K Factor. Conversion: 1Btu/hr.sq.ft.°F = 5.68 Watt/sq.m.°K Lower value means less heat flow by conduction from warm to cold)If fading control is important find out the Tdw value. See also ATS Bulletin # 141 on Fading.SHGC is the number that needs to be low, only if the sun can shine directly on the glass.U-Factor needs to be low always.
48 WHAT TO DO:Select Glass for appearance, daylight transmission, color, reflectivity, etc.Add a Low Emissivity property, and add a light of glass, for better Solar control if a solar absorbing layer is present.For better Thermal control add Low-E, and add a light of glass (double glazing)Select the glass tint and reflectivity by eye, for appearance.Refer to the SHGC and U-Factor values to determine the effectiveness of controlling unwanted heat gains.Remember, adding Low-E will always help lower SHGC and U-Factor.
49 Glass, Light, & Heat Glass Energy is Either: The Flow of Visible and Invisible (Infrared) Energy from the Sun.Energy is Either:TransmittedGlassAbsorbedReflected
50 Typical Glass Energy Characteristics 3mm monolithic CLEAR8%100%6% Reflected Out7% Absorbed (Emitted Out)Total Rejected 13%86% Transmitted In1% Absorbed (Emitted In )87% Total AdmittedOUTDOORINDOOR
51 Solar Spectrum Terms Visible Light Transmittance Infrared (IR) Percent of light in the visible spectrum transmitted through the glass Wavelength range of ~ nanometersInfrared (IR)Has a penetrating heat effect when radiated onto a transparent material. Short-wave IR converts to heat when absorbed by an object Wavelength of ~ nmUltraviolet (UV)Invisible to the human eye. Partially responsible for fading fabric materials over time, etc.Wavelength of ~ nm
52 Architectural Glass Selection Appearance vs. PerformanceClearTintedReflectiveMatch MaterialsComplement SiteComfort LevelGlareFadingSelf-Cleaning
53 Outboard Inboard (1” I.G.) Fabrication ProductsHeat Treated - Heat Strengthened - TemperedLaminatedInsulatedSpandrel1234¼” Eclipse Advantage EverGreen, coating on #2 surface¼” Energy Advantage Low-E, coating on #3 surfaceOutboard Inboard (1” I.G.)
54 High Performance Tints Dark Grey™Arctic Blue™Emerald Green™54
60 Pilkington Energy Advantage™, Solar-E™ & Eclipse Advantage™ Low-E GlassPilkington Energy Advantage™,Solar-E™ & Eclipse Advantage™60
61 How Low-E Coating Works Low-E coating redirect radiant heat (long wave radiation) back toward the sourceHeat moves fromHOTCOLDIn the Winter heat from the inside flows OUTIn the Summer heat from the outside flows IN61
62 Low Emissivity = Low U-Value In Winter, inside heat flows OutIn Summer, heat from the outside flows In62
63 Energy Advantage™ Low E High Solar Heat GainLow Thermal Loss63
64 Solar and Thermal control in a single pyrolytic surface Solar-E™ Low-ESolar and Thermal control in a single pyrolytic surface64
65 Solar-E™ Low-ELow Solar Heat GainLow Thermal Gain65
66 Eclipse Advantage™ Architectural Community asked for: Color options Higher Visible Light Transmittance (more natural light)Color optionsExcellent Solar and Thermal control characteristicsReduced GlareProviding an element of privacy for occupantsReadily available (inventoried locally, short lead times)
67 Eclipse Advantage™ Next generation coating technology by Pilkington: Combines multiple attributes into single coating:High visible light transmittanceExcellent solar control (low SHGC)Good thermal control (low U-value)Subtle ReflectivityPyrolytic coating (hard coat)
68 Eclipse Advantage™ Reflective Low-E Solar Control (vs. Tinted IGU)COLOR SHGC SHGC – with Ecl.AdvClearGreyBronzeBlue-GreenArctic BlueEvergreen* 1” insulated unit, coating surface #2 Lower SHGC is better---reduced cooling costs
69 Eclipse Advantage™ Low-E Thermal ControlCOLOR U-Value U-Value (Eclipse Advantage)ClearGreyBronzeBlue-GreenArctic BlueEvergreen* 1” insulated unit, coating surface #2, winter u-value Lower U-value is better---less heating/cooling costs, (comparison to tint or reflective with no low-E) U-value = 1/R-value
70 Reflite™ Reflective Glass New coating facility in MalaysiaFeatures & BenefitsMedium solar control (low SHGC)Low Shading coefficient (SC)Subtle Reflectivity - privacyPyrolytic coating (hard coat)Easy to handleGood glare controlAir conditioning costs reduced70
74 Pilkington Emerald Green™ 1 First Avenue,Petaling Jaya
75 Pilkington Eclipse Advantage™ Evergreen Davenport Skybridge, IowaBahrain Financial HarbourSand, Dalamite, Soda Ash, Lime, Cullet & heatedto 2500 degreesPilkington invented the float glass process in 1952 and has licensed this technology to other glass manufacturers including PPG, Guardian, AFG and CardinalReplaced the sheet process which required each sheet to be polished, which was extremely expensive.Cullet is recycled glass that has be cut later in the process; broken and “sent back” to the batch to aid in melting the batch. Can be ~20-25% of the batch.
76 Pilkington Reflite™ Emerald Green & Arctic Blue Kota Sentosa Commercial Centre, Kuching –Reflite™ Emerald GreenManagement & Science University,Shah Alam – Reflite™ Arctic Blue
78 “What makes a glass self-cleaning?” Pilkington Activ™ Self-Cleaning Glass“What makes a glass self-cleaning?”Pyrolytic Coating – Hard CoatPhotocatalytic Properties – Dirt DestroyingHydrophyllic Properties – Water Sheeting78
79 Pilkington Activ™ Self-Cleaning Glass Stephen May Hall, UKLacks Cancer Center Grand Rapids, USAKLCC Canopy, Malaysia79