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Keybridge Research LLC 3050 K Street, Suite 220 Washington, D.C. 20007 202.965.9480 How and When Will the Global Economic and Financial Crisis End? ISEO.

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Presentation on theme: "Keybridge Research LLC 3050 K Street, Suite 220 Washington, D.C. 20007 202.965.9480 How and When Will the Global Economic and Financial Crisis End? ISEO."— Presentation transcript:

1 Keybridge Research LLC 3050 K Street, Suite 220 Washington, D.C. 20007 202.965.9480 How and When Will the Global Economic and Financial Crisis End? ISEO Summer School 26 June 2009 Robert Wescott, Ph.D. Keybridge Research LLC

2 T OPICS TO C OVER I. Current position of U.S. and world economies II. What policymakers are doing – Fiscal policy – Monetary policy – Financial rescue package (TARP) – Confidence measures III. How and when the economic recovery will begin IV. Risks

3 W ORLD GDP G ROWTH E STIMATES B EING R EVISED D OWNWARD BY IMF 2009 Growth (%) Revision from Nov. 2008 to April 2009 U.S.-2.8-2.1 Euro Area-4.2-3.7 U.K.-4.1-2.8 Japan-6.2-6.0 China+6.5-2.0 Asian NIEs-5.6-7.7 World-1.3-3.5 Source: IMF World Economic Outlook, April 2009

4 U.S. E MPLOYMENT L OSSES : D EEPEST OF ALL R ECESSIONS 24 months pre; 24 months post business cycle peak Current Recession 1974 & 1982 Recessions 1991 & 2001 Recessions Non-Farm Payroll Employment During U.S. Recessions April 2009

5 N EGATIVE R IPPLE E FFECTS ON C ONFIDENCE Be asked to take a pay cut Be laid off Lose some/all health benefits Your employer may move/go out of business Feb 2009 Jan 2008 +12 +6 +4 +1 “Very/somewhat likely in the next year that you may…” Source: Pew Research Center, 2/12/09, N=760  Overall, 44% of American are now worried about their jobs/job security

6 H OUSEHOLDS F EELING THE E FFECTS OF E CONOMIC D OWNTURN A ROUND THE W ORLD A Lot A Little U.S. Nigeria Ghana India Brazil Indonesia Japan China Italy Spain U.K. Ground Zero Heavy Exporters Low Integration Source: BBC World Service Poll, March 2009

7 H OUSEHOLDS F EELING THE E FFECTS OF G LOBAL S HORTAGE OF F INANCIAL C REDIT A Lot A Little U.S. Nigeria Ghana India Brazil Indonesia China Italy Spain U.K. Ground Zero Heavy Exporters Low Integration Source: BBC World Service Poll, March 2009

8 P OLICY R ESPONSES I. Fiscal policy II.Monetary policy III.Financial rescue packages (TARP, etc.) IV.Confidence measures

9 P OLICYMAKERS ’ F EAR : A NOTHER G REAT D EPRESSION 1929-1933 GDP: -30% World Trade: -67% Unemployment Rate: 25%


11 H OW D OES O BAMA ’ S $787 B ILLION S TIMULUS P LAN C OMPARE TO H ISTORICAL G OVERNMENT E XPENDITURES ? Years Expenditure at the time 2008 Equivalent Dollars World War II1940s$290 billion$3.6 trillion Vietnam War1960s$111 billion$698 billion Iraq War2003-2008$551 billion$597 billion Korean War1950s$54 billion$454 billion Interstate Highway System1950s-60s$58 billion$425 billion Race to the Moon1960s$36.4 billion$237 billion Savings and Loan Crisis1980s$153 billion$256 billion Louisiana Purchase1803$15 million$217 billion Marshall Plan1940s$12.7 billion$115.3 billion Work Projects Administration 1930s$7 billion$100 billion Source: The Washington Post

12 T IMING & S COPE OF THE US S TIMULUS P ACKAGE ( BILLIONS ) student loans state fiscal stabilization fund highway construction energy efficiency/ renewable energy health insurance assistance for unemployed school facilities renovation unemployment benefits tax provisions $74 $39 $27 $13 $17 $28 $54 $17 Source: Congressional Budget Office, February 13, 2009

13 T ODAY ’ S F ISCAL I MPULSE – O N P AR W ITH O NSET OF WWII 1990 - 2010 Great Depression - WWII +7.8 +5.2 +6.5


15 A M ASSIVE E XPLOSION OF THE F EDERAL R ESERVE ’ S B ALANCE S HEET Net portfolio holdings Commercial Paper Funding Facility LLC Securities to dealers TLSF Foreign central bank TAF Term auction credit TAF Securities held outright Credit to AIG

16 S HORT - TERM C REDIT M ARKETS : S TARTING T O T HAW 2000 – pre Lehman Brothers collapse average = 0.6% May 2009 = 0.83% TED Spread

17 Merrill Lynch US High Yield Spread vs. 10-Year Treasuries Source: Merrill Lynch L ONG -T ERM C REDIT M ARKETS : T URNED THE CORNER, BUT STILL A LONG WAY TO GO Latest: 11%

18 I MPETUS FOR THE TARP Political challenge: intervention into the banking system was considered anti-capitalist:“bailout” = dirty word  Paulson and Treasury wanted to buy assets and inject capital into banks back in March 2008  Government intervention unsellable without a “crisis on the doorstep” to show Congress Crisis hit in Sept 2009 – credit flows were effectively frozen  Case-by case intervention (e.g., Lehman, AIG) not working  Lack of liquidity threatening businesses beyond Wall Street finance world Sept 2008 TED Spread exceeded 300 bps – worse than Black Monday 1987. Sept ‘08 Pew Survey: 57% American supported banking bailout Oct 2008 TED Spread around 460 bps.

19 TARP: B ASICS OF THE P LAN Passed by Congress on October 3, 2008 Covered more than 600 banks Authorized for $700 billion in loans Largest recipients of funds = Citigroup, Goldman Sachs, Bank of America, JPMorgan Chase Controversial provisions:  No more “golden parachutes” for executives  No more incentives to top executives for taking on unnecessary/excessive risk  Bailout funds apply to GM and Chrysler

20 TARP: T HE P OSITIVES AND N EGATIVES Many banks say lending increased Several banks posted quarterly profits Average bank stock up 25% Banks still have “toxic assets” Rising losses from credit cards and commercial real estate No financial regulatory reform yet POSITIVE NEGATIVE

21 TARP AND THE B ANKS : E XTRACTION P ROCESS Already $68 billion approved for TARP payback, including $2 billion of interest and dividends  The U.S. government earned 4% rate of return 10 banks financially stable enough to start repaying funds:  Goldman Sachs  JPMorgan Chase  Morgan Stanley Banks not yet repaying funds:  Citibank  Bank of America  Wells Fargo Banks have raised $85 billion in capital since the Stress Tests $90 billion given to these two banks alone $1.2 billion in dividends to taxpayers

22 P AIN H EAVILY U.S. C ENTERED : P OTENTIAL G LOBAL F INANCIAL W RITEDOWNS (2007-10) April 2009 EstimateImplied Cumulative Loss (%) United States Loans$1,068 Billion7.9% Securities$1,644 Billion12.6% Europe Loans$888 Billion4.3% Securities$305 Billion10.0% Japan Loans$131 Billion2.0% Securities$17 Billion2.2% Total all Loans and Securities $4,054 Billion7.0% Source: IMF, Global Financial Stability Report, April 2009

23 U.S. B ANK “S TRESS T EST ” R ESULTS New capital needed (6% threshold) New equity needed to absorb future losses Estimated consumer mortgage losses -- $39 B -- $28 B -- $44 B -- $34 B $47 B $14 B $12 B $3 B $9 B $5 B THE GOOD THE BAD THE UGLY

24 P UBLIC C ONFIDENCE IN O BAMA ’ S E CONOMICS “ How confident are you that Obama’s economic program will improve the economy?” Source: Washington Post-ABC News poll, 1/18/09 74% 92% 72% Confident 43% Not Confident Independents Democrats All Republicans

25 P UBLIC C ONFIDENCE IN THE U.S. E CONOMY Improvement in personal finances Sustained gains in the stock market Infrastructure projects Signing of stimulus bill Unsure 25% 19% 15% 7% 34% Source: Ipsos/McClatchy Poll, 1/15/09-1/18/09, N=979 "Which of the following would have the greatest positive effect on your confidence in the U.S. economy?”

26 Based on sample of 65 recessions over past 50 years in 21 industrial countries Examples of Recessions Associated with Financial Crisis Study based on regression analysis. N EW IMF S TUDY OF R ECESSION D URATION AND D EPTH Australia1990: Q2 – 1991: Q2 Finland1990: Q1 – 1993: Q3 Japan1993: Q2 – 1993: Q4 Sweden1990: Q2 – 1993: Q1 United Kingdom1973: Q3 – 1974: Q1

27 A NALYSIS OF R ECESSIONS : A VERAGE D URATION (Q UARTERS ) Source: IMF World Economic Outlook, April 2009

28 A NALYSIS OF R ECESSIONS : O UTPUT L OSS (% FROM PEAK ) Source: IMF World Economic Outlook, April 2009

29 K EYBRIDGE R ESEARCH U.S. E CONOMIC M OMENTUM M ONITOR July 2007 December 2007 December 2008May 2009July 2008


31 K EY TO O UTLOOK : U.S. P ERSONAL S AVING R ATE N OW R EBOUNDING F ROM H ISTORIC L OWS 2005 - III = -0.7 Mar 2009 = 4.2 60-Year Historic Average = 7% U.S. Personal Saving Rate

32 F ACTORS S UPPORTING G LOBAL R ECOVERY U.S.: $787 billion stimulus package, 0% interest rates, TARP, TALF, PPIP, TAF, small business loans China: $586 billion stimulus package, 50% increases in M2 and loans France: $46 billion Paris transport infrastructure, cut of VAT on restaurants New Zealand: interest rate cuts Brazil: interest rate cuts Globally: money growth of +10.1% year on year, 600 similar policy initiatives

33 M OST L IKELY C ASE N OW FOR U.S. E CONOMIC G ROWTH Massive stimulus policy does restart U.S. economy Economy hits bottom during August-October 2009 Modest growth in 2009Q4 to 2010Q2 as households continue to rebuild savings (+1 to +2% SAAR) Credit market unthawing continues—banks start slowly returning to lending by 2010Q1-Q2 Labor markets still weak for rest of 2009— unemployment rate keeps climbing until early 2010 Public starts to believe in Obama’s economic policies and they gain acceptance Commodity prices remain weak for first 2 years of recovery, as is the historical pattern

34 M OST L IKELY C ASE N OW FOR E CONOMIC G ROWTH IN R EST OF W ORLD Massive stimulus policy in China helps to restore Asian growth, but exports remain weak. Construction sector helps economy grow moderately. Korea and Japan remain soft until early-mid 2010 because of slow recovery of export demand to US and EU. EU recovery lags behind global recovery because of late easing of monetary policy/strong euro. Negative GDP until early 2010. Unthawing of global capital markets helps restore credit flows to “stronger” emerging markets, like Brazil and India. Massive IMF and official flows help restore credit flows to “weaker” emerging markets, like Ukraine, African countries. Oil exporters tread water with oil prices remain in the $60-$70s. World GDP returns to positive range for 2010, gather speed as year progresses. 2011 return to normalcy.

35 Good Idea Bad Idea Unsure Both Neither I S A MERICA B ECOMING P ROTECTIONIST ? Source: Pew Research Center, 2/4-8/09, N=1,303 Is the ‘Buy America Provision’ in the Stimulus Bill a good or bad idea? 1930: Smoot and Hawley

36 T HE W ORLD O IL B ILL ( AS A SHARE OF GDP ) Global Slowdown Monitoring Level Source: EIA, IMF WEO

37 I NFLATION R ISKS ? The driving risk factors: global money supply +10.1% and massive fiscal stimulus The counterweights: wage moderation around the world Japan: wages -3.7% year on year Korea: wages -2.1% year on year United Kingdom: wages +0.1% year on year Wage cuts/freezes around the world Policy challenge—can stimulus be turned off after economic takeoff, before inflation? One possibility—a smaller “cleanup” recession in 2011-12?


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