Presentation on theme: "Wind Farms 101 Gary Snyder, RES, Oklahoma State University"— Presentation transcript:
1Wind Farms 101 Gary Snyder, RES, Oklahoma State University Wade Patterson, Garfield County AssessorWadeWednesday, August 15, :00pm - 2:00pm CDT Wind Farms 101 presented by Wade Patterson and Gary Snyder, RES 2.0 CEUsJoin Wade Patterson, Assessor, Garfield County Oklahoma and Gary Snyder, RES, Government Specialist, Oklahoma State University as they describe a “wind farm” from beginning to end. There’s more to it than a single turbine turning in the wind. A new wind farm is currently under construction in Garfield County and the presenters will describe the components and how the assessor’s office can be involved way before the project starts and during the project development phase. Many locations have wind, but it’s much more involved. The presenters will examine wind energy companies’ consideration of important factors such as environmental conditions, substation locations, a “grid” for purchase, transportation, and distribution besides the abundant, free, renewable natural resource, wind.From this Webinar you will learn: • What influences a developer to choose a particular site for a wind farm • An understanding of the steps/obstacles that can be encountered prior to construction • Identify the individual components of a wind farm • What infrastructure is needed for a wind farm project • How the electricity gets from the wind farm onto the grid • Several ideas on how the assessor can assist in the project
2What is wind energy and how is it generated? Wind energy is a source of renewable energy that harnesses the kinetic energy of the wind or, in other words, of the air in movement.Once transformed to mechanical energy, wind energy can be used for various applications (windmills to pump water or grind cereals).The most common use nowadays is to generate electricity using wind turbines.WadeAccording to AWEA (American Wind Energy Association):Wind energy is the fastest growing source of electricity in the world. In 2008, more than 27,000 megawatts (MW) of new capacity were installed worldwide. This stands as a 36 percent increase in annual additions compared with 2007.
3Picture of new and old “wind mills” WadeIn the United States, the original heyday of wind was between 1870 and 1930, when thousands of farmers across the country used wind to pump water.Small electric wind turbines were used in rural areas as far back as the 1920s, and prototypes of larger machines were built in the 1940s.When the New Deal brought grid-connected electricity to the countryside, however, windmills lost out.
4How do wind turbines work? The wind’s kinetic energy is transformed into electricity by wind turbines.These are made up of a tower, a gondola comprising a rotor and an anemometer (measures wind speed), a weather vane or “weathercock” to indicate wind directions and a lightning conductor.Wade
5Wind turbine diagram expanded WadeDiscuss each of the components on this diagram.What is pitch? The turning of the blade to catch more wind or catch less wind.What is yaw? The turning of the nacelle to point into the wind or out of the wind.Wind turbine diagram expandedSource: Way2Science
6How do wind turbines work? A Rotor is composed of the blades and an axle, attached to each other by a bearing, this allows for the pitch of the blade to be adjusted.The blades, moved by the wind, transmit force to the low speed shaft, which is connected to a multiplier (gearbox) that increases the axle speed.The mechanical energy is transferred from the multiplier to an electricity generator, which transforms it into electricity for subsequent injection into the grid.WadeParagraph #1: show images of blade and bearing before discussing the paragraph #2.After paragraph #3, show the animated slide of the turbine generating electricity.Wind turbines start operating at wind speeds of around 8-10 miles per hour and reach maximum power output at around 33 miles per hour.At very high wind speeds, i.e. gale force winds, 50+ miles/hour, wind turbines shut down. (mention the “Rock” but not the company)A wind turbine typically lasts around years. During this time, as with a car, some parts may need replacing.The very first of the mass-produced turbines celebrated its 20th birthday in May The Vestas 30kW machine has operated steadily throughout its lifetime, with none of the major components needing to be replaced.Source: AWEA
7Basic diagram of a wind turbine WadeGo over the turbine again.Basic diagram of a wind turbine
8How do wind turbines work? The range of wind turbine power goes from 100 W with a blade diameter of around 1 meter, which are mainly used for residential purposes, to about 5 MW (5,000,000 watts) with a blade diameter and tower height greater than 100 meters.Gary
9400 Watt Turbine 600 Watt Turbine Gary Small wind turbines are generally used for providing power off the grid, ranging from very small, 250-watt turbines designed for charging up batteries on a sailboat, to 50-kilowatt turbines that power dairy farms and remote villages.Like old farm windmills, these small wind turbines often have tail fans that keep them oriented into the wind.
10One 1.6 MW turbine will provide enough power for 500 typical homes GaryLarge wind turbines, most often used by utilities to provide power to a grid, range from 250 kilowatts up to the enormous 3.5 to 5 MW machines that are being used offshore.In 2008, the average land-based wind turbines had a capacity of 1.67 MW.The 788 turbines installed during the first quarter of 2012 had an average capacity of 2.15 MWThe use of wind power in the United States has expanded quickly over the last several years. Construction of new wind power generation capacity in the first quarter of 2012 totaled 1695 megawatts (MW) bringing the cumulative installed capacity to 48,611 MW. This capacity is exceeded only by China.In February 2012 the electricity produced from wind power in the US amounted to 11 terawatt-hours (TW·h) or 3.6% of all electric power. In 2010, the wind power industry in the US received 42% ($4.986 billion) of all federal subsidies for electricity generation.Use with slide 10Q1: What is the largest wind turbine in the world?A1: A) 4MW B) 7MW C) 15MW D) 18.5MW (The Vestas V164, 7MW Turbine: Blades = 264’, Tip height = 617’, Tower height = 350’)The largest wind turbine in the world:The Vestas - V164 7MW: Statistics: Swept area – 21,124 meters, Blade length – 80 meters, Minimum hub height – 105 meters, Rotor diameter – 164 metersTip height – 187 meters, Weight – 800 tonsOne 1.6 MW turbine will provide enough power for 500 typical homes
111.8 Megawatt Turbine, or the equivalent of 4,500 small 400 Watt turbines GaryTwenty three years ago, the largest commercial wind turbines were producing around 0.5 MW of electrical power, with a rotor blade diameter of approximately 40 m [130 feet] and a tower height of a little over 50 m [165 feet].Thirteen years ago the largest turbines were producing perhaps 2 MW, the rotor diameter had doubled to around 80 m [260 feet] and the turbine nacelle [the "pod" at the top that contains all the electromechanical components] sat perched on a tower now 100 m [330 feet] tall.Now, production of turbines generating as much as 7 MW of power, with rotor diameters of over 164 m [540 feet] and tower heights in the order of 115 m [380 feet] and a tip height of over 187 meters (617 feet)!
12DefinitionsRenewable Energy - Energy derived from resources that are regenerative or that cannot be depleted. Types of renewable energy resources include wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, and moving water.Grid (also “Power Grid” and “Utility Grid”) - A common term referring to an electricity transmission and distribution system.Wind Turbine - A term used for a wind energy conversion device that produces electricity.Gary
13DefinitionsGenerator - A device for converting mechanical energy to electrical energy.Met Tower - Meteorological towers erected to verify the wind resource found within a certain area of land.Nacelle - The cover for the gearbox, drive train, and generator of a wind turbine.Rotor - The blades and other rotating components of a wind energy conversion turbine .Gary
14DefinitionsWatt (W) - The rate of energy transfer (from an outlet to an appliance, for example). Wattage is calculated by multiplying voltage by current.Kilowatt (kW) - A standard unit of electrical power equal to 1,000 watts.Megawatt (MW) - The standard measure of electric power plant generating capacity. One megawatt is equal to one thousand kilowatts or 1 million watts.Gigawatt (GW) - A unit of power equal to 1 million kilowatts.GaryThis might be easier to understand if you think about your computer. Information is stored in bytes, then kilobytes, then megabytes, then gigabytes, no we have terabytes. Each are multiples of 1,000.
15DefinitionsCapacity Factor - The amount of power a turbine actually produces over a period of time divided by the amount of power it could have produced if it had run at its full rated capacity over that time period.Specific Yield - Measurement of the annual energy output per square meter of area swept by the turbine blades as they rotate.Rated Power Output - Used by wind generator manufacturers to provide a baseline for measuring performance. Rated output may vary by manufacturer.Rated Wind Speed - The wind speed at which the turbine is producing its nameplate-rated power production. For most small wind turbines this is around 30 to 35 miles per hour.GaryThe more the wind blows, the more power will be produced by wind turbines. But, of course, the wind does not blow consistently all the time. The term used to describe this is "capacity factor," which is simply the amount of power a turbine actually produces over a period of time divided by the amount of power it could have produced if it had run at its full rated capacity over that time period.A more precise measurement of output is the "specific yield." This measures the annual energy output per square meter of area swept by the turbine blades as they rotate. Overall, wind turbines capture between 20 and 40 percent of the energy in the wind. So at a site with average wind speeds of seven m/s, a typical turbine will produce about 1,100 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per square meter of area per year. If the turbine has blades that are 40 meters long, for a total swept area of 5,029 square meters, the power output will be about 5.5 million kWh for the year. An increase in blade length, which in turn increases the swept area, can have a significant effect on the amount of power output from a wind turbine.Rated Power Output--Used by wind generator manufacturers to provide a baseline for measuring performance. Rated output may vary by manufacturer. For example, one manufacturer's 1500 watt turbine may produce that amount of power at a 30 mph wind speed, while another brand of 1500 watt turbine may not make 1500 Watts until it gets a 40 mph wind speed.
16DefinitionsStart-Up - The wind speed at which a wind turbine rotor starts to rotate. It does not necessarily produce any power until it reaches cut-in speed.Cut-In-Speed - The rotational speed at which an alternator or generator starts pushing electricity hard enough (has a high enough voltage) to make electricity flow in a circuit.Cut-Out Speed - The wind speed at which the turbine automatically stops the blades from turning and rotates out of the wind to avoid damage to the turbine.GaryCut-Out Speed --The wind speed at which the turbine automatically stops the blades from turning and rotates out of the wind to avoid damage to the turbine, usually around 55 to 65 miles per hour.So, you can have too much of a good thing. Too much wind and things start to break if you don’t slow them down.
17DefinitionsPower curve - The instantaneous power output of a specific turbine design at various wind speeds. Used with wind resource data to determine the potential for electricity generation at a project site.Furling - The act of a wind generator Yawing out of the wind either horizontally or vertically to protect itself from high wind speeds.Yaw - Rotation parallel to the ground. A wind generator Yaws to face winds coming from different directions.Gary
18Wind farmsIt is normal practice, to group wind turbines together within wind farms to harness the maximum wind force and obtain greater quantities of energy.The turbines are separated from each other in these parks by a minimum distance of three times the diameter of the rotor and a maximum of nine times this diameter, in order to avoid wind turbulence and make it easier to connect the wind turbines to the electricity grid.WadeAfter paragraph #1 show the image of the Texas wind farm.Utility-scale turbines are usually placed in groups or rows to take advantage of prime windy spots. Wind "farms" like these can consist of a few or hundreds of turbines, providing enough power for tens of thousands of homes.Use with slide 18Q2: Where is the largest wind farm in the US?A2: A) Texas B) Nevada C) California D) Wyoming (The Alta Wind Energy Center in Kern County California, 1020MW)
19Wind turbine turbulence WadeThis photo shows the turbulence coming from wind turbines off shore in Denmark.Wind turbine turbulence
20Wind farmsWhen evaluating a potential wind farm site, the ground conditions have to be taken into account, such as unevenness, the existence of obstacles and the area's orography (the study of the formation and relief of mountains), so that the best return possible is achieved.Uneven ground reduces wind speed, while obstacles such as trees, buildings, and outcrops cause turbulence, which has a negative effect on the wind harnessed for electricity generation. These factors also cause wind turbines to wear faster.WadeOk, how many people had heard of “orography” before this slide. If you said yes, you must be a mapping geek or a geologist!
21Wind farmsMaking good use of an area’s orography can have advantages and result in improved performance.Thus, a good option is to position turbines in “tunnels” between, for example, two rock outcrops, where the wind speed is greater.Wind farms are also frequently installed on hilltops since the wind speed is greater at higher altitudes.WadeParagraph #2: Have you ever seen a road sign warning motorcycles of high cross winds? These usually occur in a valley where the wind is “channeled” into a funnel shape, causing a dramatic difference in wind speed.Paragraph #3: Same here, have you ever been on a hilltop and noticed that the wind is blowing harder up high than it was down at a lower level?
22Wind turbines at Blue Canyon Wind Farm, SW Oklahoma WadeWind turbines at Blue Canyon Wind Farm, SW Oklahoma
23Wind turbines at Blue Canyon Wind Farm, SW Oklahoma WadeWind turbines at Blue Canyon Wind Farm, SW Oklahoma
24The Production Tax Credit (PTC) --American wind power's key federal incentive (the 2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour Production Tax Credit, or PTC) only applies to projects that succeed in putting electricity on the grid. It will expire Dec. 31, 2012, unless Congress extends it.--The PTC has not been allowed to expire since 2005, when President George W. Bush extended it as part of the Energy Policy Act.--This successful policy over the past several years has incentivized $15.5 billion a year on average in private investment in the United States. Wind facilities account for 35% of all new energy production capacity (measured in megawatts) in the United States. This is a close second to natural gas.WadeIn the early 1990s, improvements in technology resulting in increased turbine reliability and lower costs of production provided another boost for wind development.In addition, concern about global warming and the first Gulf War lead Congress to pass the Energy Policy Act of 1992–comprehensive energy legislation that included a new production tax credit for wind and biomass electricity. However, shortly thereafter, the electric utility industry began to anticipate a massive restructuring, where power suppliers would become competitors rather than protected monopolies.Investment in new power plants of all kinds fell drastically, especially for capital-intensive renewable energy technologies like wind. America's largest wind company, Kenetech, declared bankruptcy in 1995, a victim of the sudden slowdown.It wasn’t until 1998 that the wind industry began to experience continuing growth in the United States, thanks in large part to federal tax incentives, state-level renewable energy requirements and incentives, and–beginning in 2001–rising fossil fuel prices.While the wind industry grew substantially from the early 2000’s on, it suffered from a bout of boom-and-bust cycles due to the on-again, off-again nature of federal tax incentives. In 2006, a period of uninterrupted federal support for wind began, which has led to several years of record growth.Source: AWEA
25The Production Tax Credit (PTC) The PTC, the main policy tool in the deployment of U.S. wind power, was first adopted during the administration of President George H.W. Bush as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L ).It has been a significant driver of the recent growth of the U.S. wind industry. In each of the years during which the PTC lapsed (2000, 2002, and 2004), meaning that it expired prior to being renewed, the level of additional deployed wind capacity slowed or collapsed when compared to the previous year’s total: 93% in 2000, 73% in 2002, and 77% in 2004Wade
26History of new wind production capacity in relation to the Production Tax Credit (AWEA) Wade
27The wind energy Production Tax Credit Congress provided a three-year extension of the PTC through December 31, 2012, as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.The PTC provides an inflation-adjusted per kilowatt-hour (kWh) income tax benefit over the first ten years of a wind project’s operations, which in 2010 was 2.2 cents per kWh, and is a critical factor in financing new wind farms.In order to qualify, a wind farm must be completed and start generating power while the credit is in place, which would be by the end of 2012.WadeThe House on Wednesday (August 1st, 2012) easily approved a one-year extension of all the Bush-era tax cuts set to expire in January, but in the Senate, presidential politics are complicating efforts to extend a tax credit for wind power. The House votes pitted a straight extension of all the expiring Bush tax cuts against a Democratic plan, passed by the Senate, that would allow taxes on income, capital gains and dividends to rise on earnings over $250,000, increasing revenues by around $100 billion.The Senate Finance Committee passed a bill Thursday (August 2nd, 2012) that would extend a roughly $2 billion tax break for wind energy production, which is slated to expire at the end of the year. The extension of the wind energy production tax credit passed the Finance Committee on a 19-5 vote as part of the Family and Business Tax Cut Certainty Act of 2012, a bill that addresses several tax breaks slated to expire at the end of the year.Q3: Which state has the most installed wind power capacity?A3: A) Texas B) California C) Iowa D) Minnesota (Texas, 10,648MW, quarter 1, 2012)Use with slide 27Texas, with 10,648 MW of capacity, has the most installed wind power capacity of any U.S. state, followed by Iowa with 4,419 MW.
28National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future GaryThis is an animated map that displays the “year end wind capacity” starting in 1999 and goes thru 2011.Take note of the changing total located above the expanded view of Alaska!National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future28
29GaryAccording to AWEA:Total U.S. Utility-Scale Wind Power Capacity, Through 1st Quarter of 2012: 48,611 MW (was 2,472 at the end of 1999)U.S. Wind Power Capacity, Installed in 2011: 6,816 MW U.S. Wind Power Capacity, Installed in 1st Quarter of 2012: 1,695 MW U.S. Wind Power Capacity Under Construction as of 1st Quarter of 2012: 8,916 MWU.S. Wind Power Capacity, Installed in Previous Years (including small-wind): 2010: 5,216 MW : 10,010 MW : 8,366 MW : 5,258 MWNumber of States with Utility-Scale Wind Installations, 2011: 38Number of States with over 1,000 MW of Wind Installations, 2011: 14Notice the huge increase in wind production from the slide showing 1999 production!
30How a wind farm is developed Find a windy site. Look for sites where the average wind speed is appropriate for the turbines to be used.Make sure the site has nearby transmission lines. It’s not enough to find wind. There has to be a way to transport the electricity generated by a wind farm to a main power grid.Define the boundaries. After you find a windy place that’s near a power grid, define the boundaries of the prospect area.GaryYou talk about advanced technology, here in Oklahoma the windiest place in the entire state has been precisely located to be at the intersection of 23rd and Lincoln in Oklahoma City (that is our State Capitol Building)! We are probably the only state like that, I assume that other state capitol buildings are not as windy.Funny thing, even though we don’t have a wind farm on the Capitol grounds, we do have working oil wells on the property.
31ERCOT By: TheWINDCOALITION (North American Electric Reliability Corporation)Northeast Power Coordinating CouncilMidwest Reliability OrganizationReliability First CorporationGaryWhat is the NERC?The NERC is an international, independent, not-for-profit organization, whose mission is to ensure the reliability of the bulk power system in North America.History of NERC:The electricity industry created an informal, voluntary organization of operating personnel to facilitate coordination of the bulk power system in the United States and Canada. Four interconnected transmission systems were connected to three more systems, forming the largest electricity grid in the world.November 9, The largest blackout to this date in history occurred, as 30 million people lost power in the northeastern United States and southeastern Ontario, Canada. New York City and Toronto were among the affected cities. Some customers were without power for 13 hours.June 1, National Electric Reliability Council (NERC) was established by the electric utility industry, in response to the 1965 blackout. Nine regional reliability organizations were formalized under NERC. Also formalized were regional planning coordination guides, which NERC maintained. NAPSIC operations criteria and guides continued to be maintained and practiced voluntarily.1981, NERC changed its name to the North American Electric Reliability Council in recognition of Canada’s participation.January 1, The North American Electric Reliability Council became the North American Electric Reliability Corporation. The new entity has a large membership base representing a cross-section of the industry.Western Electricity Coordinating CouncilSouthwest Power PoolSERC Reliability CorporationERCOTElectric Reliability Council of TexasFlorida Reliability Coordinating CouncilBy: TheWINDCOALITION
32How a wind farm is developed Determine who owns the land within the prospect boundaries. The owners of the land within the prospect boundaries are potential partners.Contact the landowners. In order to gauge interest in wind farm development, the wind energy company contacts the landowners about the possibility of a partnership.Call a town meeting. If there are many landowners in the same area, a town meeting helps explain the ins and outs of wind farm royalty payments and natural resource management.WadeParagraph #2: As a matter of fact, this was very important in the decision of one wind company to not build in our area. A small group of landowners were very negative to the idea of wind energy and refused to lease any land to the company. This decision by a few landowners derailed the entire project.Paragraph #3: Because I had been meeting with representatives of the wind company, I had an understanding of the base lease and how it might affect property values and therefore property taxes. I attended several of the meetings and answered property tax questions. I also went on a couple of tours of wind farms with the company to see for myself how the wind farms operated as well as hearing the noise of the wind farm.
33How a wind farm is developed Settle the contracts. A company and the landowners will negotiate agreements for test towers and options for lease agreements.Create blueprints. The company lays out potential wind farm configurations to give landowners an idea of where the turbines might be placed.Watch the wind. A company typically monitors the wind for 6 months to 2 years to corroborate their data with publicly available wind data.GaryParagraph #1: Before you can start to layout the wind farm you need to know exactly where you have the land leased. You do not have to have every landowner under contract but you need to have a good “block” of leases in order to design a wind farm.Paragraph #2: This is where you use your met tower data to layout the best pattern for your farm and navigate around un-leased land.Paragraph #3: How would you like to have this job? Is this a low stress job or what! Very basic observation skills needed.
34How a wind farm is developed Get the necessary permits. While testing the wind’s power, the company is also acquiring the necessary permits at the federal, state, and county levels.Perform environmental analyses. The company is required to ensure the safety of local wildlife and the environment.Test the wires. Testing grid connections is very important. Companies will perform additional transmission research.Gary
35How a wind farm is developed Sell the electricity. Selling wind generated electricity is the “Holy Grail” in the business.Most wind energy companies cannot build a project until a customer is found.Because of the huge upfront cost, projects are feasible only after a customer, such as a large utility, has committed to a long-term energy purchase (power purchase agreement or PPA) of 10 to 20 years in duration.GaryFrom the examples here in Oklahoma, it appears that most companies will have an agreement before a farm is built. Either a request for proposal (RFP) is extended by a utility company (OG&E or PSO) for a certain MW of electricity and a company or companies are selected to provide a certain amount, or a company can solicit a prospective purchaser of electricity and contract to sell to the utility.
36How a wind farm is developed Begin construction. The construction phase usually takes about 9 months to a year.Work with landowners to minimize disturbance to the land. The company will build roads and erect turbines. The company will establish the electrical and engineering work to connect the turbines to the grid.Wind turbines and access roads occupy less than 3% of the land in a typical wind farm.Gary
57Top 10 wind turbine manufacturers by annual market share (installed capacity) in 2011 by IHS Inc. Vestas %Sinovel %Goldwind %Gamesa %Enercon %GE Wind Energy %Suzlon Group %Guodian United Power 7.4%Siemens Wind Power 6.3%Ming Yang %GarySince 2005 many turbine manufacturing leaders have opened U.S. facilities; of the top 10 global manufacturers in 2007, seven – Vestas, GE Energy, Gamesa, Suzlon, Siemens, Acciona, and Nordex – have an American manufacturing presence. In addition, Clipper Windpower, which is based in the U.S., has joined GE as a major domestic player in the production of utility-scale wind turbines, with the two companies together accounting for 50% of the 2008 domestic turbine market. REpower is another manufacturer with notable usage in the United States.Plans for 30 new manufacturing facilities were announced in 2008, and the wind industry expects to see a continued shift towards domestic manufacturing in the coming years. In total, 70 manufacturing facilities have begun production, been expanded, or announced since January 2007.As of April 2009, over 100 companies are producing components for wind turbines, employing thousands of workers in the manufacture of parts as varied as towers, composite blades, bearings and gears. Many existing companies in traditional manufacturing states have retooled to enter the wind industry. Their manufacturing facilities are spread across 40 states, employing workers from the Southeast to the Steel Belt, to the Great Plains and on to the Pacific Northwest.Source;: Wikipedia
58Nacelle and hub lay down site GaryNacelle and hub lay down site
59Close-up of the nacelle GaryClose-up of the nacelle
60Starting to connect the nacelle and the hub GaryStarting to connect the nacelle and the hub
61Connecting the nacelle and the hub GaryConnecting the nacelle and the hub
62Final adjustments before nacelle and hub are connected Easy does it!Gary
87Chisholm View Wind Project Project Location:The Chisholm View Wind Project is located approximately 15 miles North and East of Enid, Oklahoma and directly adjacent to Hunter, OK. The project sits within Garfield and Grant Counties.Wade
89Wind Power Classes Wind Power Class 10 meter 50 meter Wind Power densitySpeed m/s (mph)Wind Power DensityWind Speed m/s (mph)124.4 (9.8) / 5.11 (11.5)5.6 (12.5) / 6.4 (14.3)35.1 (11.5) / 5.6 (12.5)6.4 (14.3) / 7.0 (15.7)45.6 (12.5) / 6.0 (13.4)7.0 (15.7) / (16.8)56.0 (13.4)/6.4 (14.3)7.5 (16.8)/8.0 (17.9)66.4 (14.3)/7.0 (15.7)8.0 (17.9)/8.8 (19.7)7>400>7.0 (15.7)>800>8.8 (19.7)WadeWind power classesFrom Interwest Energy Alliance WikiThe term "wind power classes" is a standard instrument for determining the suitability of a location for wind farm development. Wind power density is measured in watts per square meter and indicates how much energy is available at the site for conversion by a wind turbine.As shown in the following table, there are seven wind power classes (1 through 7). It is standard to give wind density measurement at both 10 meter and 50 meter heights.Wind Power Class number increases with an increase of wind density. Thus class 7 sites have the highest wind density.
93Chisholm View Wind Farm, Garfield Co. OK WadeNotice how the wind farm built on both sides of the transmission line. Go back 110 years and it resembles how towns built along the railroads. The more things change, the more the stay the same!Chisholm View Wind Farm, Garfield Co. OK
94Close-up of Chisholm View WadeClose-up of Chisholm View
95Chisholm View Wind Project Project Interconnection: An existing 345kv line owned by Oklahoma Gas & Electric runs through the project site. Chisholm View will interconnect directly onto this line and have the ability to deliver energy South to load centers such as Oklahoma City and North to load centers in and around Wichita, KS.Wade
96Chisholm View Wind Project Project Size: 235 MW (140 Turbines) Project Turbines: GE 1.6 MW Landowners and Acreage Involved: Chisholm View encompasses approximately 45,000 acres and involves over 150 landowners.Wade
97Chisholm View Wind Project Utility Buyers: The power produced by Chisholm View (located in the SPP grid region) will be sold to Alabama Power Company, a subsidiary of Atlanta-based Southern Company. (located in the SERC grid region) The Chisholm View Wind Project will deliver clean, low cost electricity to communities in Alabama.WadeNotice that the electricity is being sold out of state and even out of the region.
98ERCOT Wade By: TheWINDCOALITION (North American Electric Reliability Corporation)Northeast Power Coordinating CouncilMidwest Reliability OrganizationReliability First CorporationWadeWestern Electricity Coordinating CouncilSouthwest Power PoolSERC Reliability CorporationERCOTElectric Reliability Council of TexasFlorida Reliability Coordinating CouncilBy: TheWINDCOALITION
99Key Project Attributes: Chisholm View Wind ProjectKey Project Attributes:A 235 MW Chisholm View Wind Project would produce enough power for approximately 80,000 Alabama homes.The project will take only approximately 1-2 percent of land out of service to build, including all land for roads, turbine foundations, and maintenance buildings.Chisholm View is one of the most energetic wind development sites in North Central Oklahoma.Wade
100Chisholm View Wind Project Key Project Attributes continued:Once fully developed, Chisholm View Wind project will contribute up to $5 million per year in total annual landowner payments.The project enjoys broad community support from landowners and local government agencies.The project is expected to have no material effect on any threatened and endangered species of birds or animals based on third party studies commissioned by TradeWind Energy.WadeQ4: The Chisholm View Wind Farm will cost $375,000,000 to construct?A4: True False ($375,000,000: $375 million/140 turbines = $2,678,571/turbine, $375 million/235.2MW = $1,594,388/MW)Use with slide 100The Following is a brief summary of some income estimates of the wind farm:Landowners will make:Approximately $10,000 per turbine per year in the early years – this will escalate over timeApproximately $20/acre for landowners that are kept as “buffer ground” for the duration of the operational periodCan also be compensated for:Met tower sitesTransmission linesSubstationsPermanent buildings and yardsCorridors (roads or connecting lines)
101Road Maintenance Agreement Overview “Primary Roads” are identified – i.e. major construction traffic corridorsDesignation of condition and/or type of roadSite plan is approved by county as part of agreementCounty authorizes project’s use and improvement of said roadsCounties waive weight restrictions in return for payment and/or upgrade/repair obligationsWade
102Road Maintenance Agreement Overview County to continue routine maintenance during constructionProject agrees to specific payments due and/or upgrade and restoration obligations and specsCulverts and bridges needing replacement or repair are identifiedCounty allows Project to make routine improvements and initiate routine maintenance of Primary roads at its own expenseCounty authorizes crane crossing of ROW, increasing radiusesof intersections, etcWade
104Chisholm View Wind Project Environmental Studies CompletedAvian Migration, Raptor Migration, Raptor Nest, Bat Monitoring, Cultural Resources, Wetlands, Threatened and Endangered Species Habitat Assessment, Phase I Environmental Site Assessment, Microwave Beam Path, TV, AM/FMGary
105Chisholm View project time line of events Site Prospecting and SelectionQ12008Interconnection Feasibility Request Filed (SPP)Assessor Supplied GIS OwnershipBegin Contacting Landowners to Gauge InterestMet Tower Installation (1st of many)Initiate Land Leasing CampaignQ2Conduct Town Hall Meetings (1st of many)Initial Field Environmental Surveys2009Continue Environmental Surveys, Wind Data Collection, Leasing, PRallInitiate Power Marketing EffortsLand Leasing Substantially Complete2010Generator Interconnection Agreement Executed (SPP)Q3Power Purchase Agreement Executed2011Initiate PermittingInitiate Final EngineeringProcure Major EquipmentQ4Complete Road Maintenance Agreement w/ County2012Permitting CompleteConstruction CommencementTurbine Erection BeginsFinal Completion - Commercial OperationConstruction Restoration Complete (roads, bridges, private)2013Wind Project Operations2013 and onChisholm View project time line of eventsWadeAssessor Supplied GIS Ownership: provided plat books, ownership maps, taxroll lists, road and bridge layers, multiple specialty map projects, school district maps, county commissioner maps, etc.Conduct Town Hall Meetings: attended town hall meetings to answer questions regarding property valuations and ad valorem taxes. Went on bus tours of wind farms to see the wind farms in person.Initiate Permitting: Worked with company to secure contact information for local permitting. Helped arrange meetings between company and local officials.Complete Road Maintenance Agreement: Assessor and County Commissioners met with company officials to work out details of the road maintenance agreement. Assessor provided road maps and aerial images overviews.Construction Restoration Complete (roads, bridges, private): work with County Commissioners to make sure all are restored to previous condition or better. Commissioners and company worked with landowners to repair any damaged property.
106The first completed tower in the Chisholm View Wind Farm. Picture taken July 27, 2012!WadeI now understand how all you grandmothers feel when you carry pictures of your grand kids. This is our first turbine and I think I will start carrying a picture in my wallet and on my phone! This is almost 5 years in the making and now it is finally coming to fruition.Notice the terrain, no orography study needed in northwest Oklahoma!!!!
107Sources AWEA EDP Renewable North America / Horizon Wind Energy ENEL Green Power, North AmericaFEMAGarfield County CommissionersNRELThe WINDCOALITIONTrade Wind EnergyVestas Wind SystemsWay2ScienceWikipediaGaryThanks to everyone that allowed us to use their images, diagrams, or maps.Most of the images of the wind turbines and turbine components were taken at TradeWind Energy or Horizon Wind Energy/EDP Renewable wind farms.Data from the Chisholm View Wind Project, courtesy of TradeWind Energy and EGP North America.