Presentation on theme: "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians"— Presentation transcript:
1Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians What does the data tell us?How does this impact on VALS’ future directions?
2Victoria’s Aboriginal population is young and growing fast… Victoria’s recorded Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population was 37,988 people out of a total Victorian population of 5,354,042. This equates to 0.7% of the population.Nationally the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is 2.5% of the total population.6.9% of the nation’s ATSI people live in VictoriaABS CENSUS 2011Nationally Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people make up about 2.5% of the Australian population.This growth rate is understood to be due to natural population increases (that is, births minus deaths) as well as an increase in the number of people choosing to identify as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin on the Census form.
3A population that is younger and growing faster than the general community The age distribution of the Aboriginal population in Victoria is younger than the total Victorian population. This is a result of higher mortality rates and earlier deaths among Aboriginal people, as well as a higher birth rate.The age profile of the Aboriginal population, with a higher proportion of young people, also means that younger Aboriginal people make up a higher proportion of the total population, with Aboriginal people aged between 0-4 years old making up 1.4% of the Victorian population aged between 0 and 4, in 2011 (Figure 2).
4Victoria’s Aboriginal young people The Victorian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population has a younger age distribution than the non-Indigenous population with a median age of 21 years in the 2011 Census, compared with 38 years for non-Indigenous people.More than one in three Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are under 15 years of age.Young people are more likely to have contact with the criminal justice system.
5Victoria’s Aboriginal population is growing fast Victoria’s ATSI population increased by 7,848 since the 2006 censusThis is a growth rate of 4.7% per annum, compared to a growth rate of 1.7% for Victoria’s general population.…and an increase of 26% since the 2006 census, a rate of growth exceeded only by the ACT.Note preliminary estimates adjusted for undercount indicate the ATSI population might be as high as 47,327. Final figures will be available in 2014.The Victorian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population grew.
6Where do Aboriginal Victorian’s live? 53.7% live in regional areas, 46.3% in metro areas.The distribution of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population across Victoria is quite uneven, with relatively higher numbers of Aboriginal people living in a small number of local government areas.At the 2011 census, 46.3% of Victoria’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population lived in metropolitan Melbourne (17,573 people) compared with 53.7% in regional Victoria (20,415 people). In comparison, 26.2% of Victoria’s total population lived in regional Victoria and 73.6% lived in metropolitan Melbourne.
7LGAs with the greatest number of Aboriginal people Greater Shepparton- 2082Mildura- 1836Greater Geelong- 1788Greater BendigoCasey- 1403East Gippsland- 1353Darebin- 1156Wyndham- 1144Ballarat- 1140Whittlesea-1125Latrobe- 1055HumeOver 51% of the Victorian Aboriginal population live in one of fifteen local government areas. Across these locations, the Aboriginal population makes up a higher proportion of the total population in regional local government areas ( %), compared with metropolitan local government areas ( %).
8Aboriginal populations in key regional towns -2011
9Aboriginal populations in key centres in Greater Melbourne Metropolitan area, 2011
11Up to 2010 adolescent contact with police reduced AJA Evaluation phase 2 report page 42From 2002 to 2010 youth contact with police per 1,000 Koori youth has reduced significantly since 2002 for Koories under 17 years old. It should be noted that results by year have been mixed but overall are showing a reduced trend year olds have seen increased police contact.Recent VALS data indicates an upward trend in year olds in contact with police.
12Over- representation in prison Victoria has performed well, but trending up AJA Evaluation phase 2 report, page 38Koories in Victoria have better justice outcomes than all other States and Territories apart from Tasmania and the ACT, which have comparatively low Indigenous populations. Tasmania is the best performing State, with the lowest rates of overrepresentation and the greatest improvements over time.
13Aboriginal Victorians are 12.5 times as likely to be in prison The rate of imprisonment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners nationally was 15 times higher than the rate for non-Indigenous prisoners at 30 June 2012, an increase in the ratio compared to 2011 (14 times higher) for Koori mobABS: Prisoners in Australia, 2012 (cat. no ).
14Average daily ATSI imprisonment rate Largest proportional increase in ATSI imprisonment rate was found in Victoria (15%)Average daily ATSI imprisonment rateABS: - Corrective Services, Australia, March Quarter (CAT NO )
15Other social and economic indicators Household income distribution also differs when comparing Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal households. Census data allows the comparison of household income where at least one member of the household identifies as Indigenous, with the income of all households. Figure 4 shows that for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households, the household income is lower, with 36% of households earning $799 per week, or less.Overall, the median household income for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households is $962/week, compared to a median of $1,216 for Victoria as a whole. Importantly, it should be noted that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households are typically larger than the Victorian average, with three people per household, compared to the average of 2.6 people per household across Victoria. This means that a smaller household income is providing for more people per Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander household.Due to a range of issues, there is a clear difference between the level of educational attainment between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Victoria. Figure 5 shows that Aboriginal people are more likely to have left highschool before the attainment of Year 12, and significantly less likely to have completed Year 12. Over 50% of non-Aboriginal Victorians have achieved year 12 or equivalent qualifications. The figure for Aboriginal Victorians is slightly below 30%, with Year 12 completion rates higher among Aboriginal women compared to Aboriginal men. For over 20% of Victorian Aboriginal people, Year 10 or an equivalent is the highest level of schooling they have completed. This has significant implications in terms of employment options, security and income, which in turn affects individual, family and household health and wellbeing.ABS employment graph Source: ABS Labour Force characteristics ofAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians
16Key trends in Victoria which may have contributed to improved Koori justice outcomes between 2005 and 2011 have been:In 2002, 31.8% of Koori Victorians reported having used substances in the last 12 months. By 2008 this had reduced to 27.5%Koori labour force participation in Victoria has risen from 56.9% in 2006 to 66.3% in 2010Attendance at social activities, sporting and physical recreation activities and cultural activities have improved amongst Koori Victorians, by 1%, 13% and 13% respectively.School retention from year 7 to 12 has increased from 38.4% in 2006 to 46.9% in 2011 plus many Victorian Indigenous students also enrolled in TAFE coursesIn % of Aboriginal students in Year 12 went on to university compared to 27.7% in 2006.Key trends in Victoria that may have negatively impacted Koori justice outcomes:Risky/high risk alcohol use in the Victorian Koori community rose from 33.8% in 2002 to 39% in 2008Koori unemployment in Victoria has risen from 15.8% in 2006 to 16.3% in 2010, although this is explained by rising labour force participation.Most Koories overall have completed part Secondary schooling only: 91.3% of males and 85% of females.Child protection substations increased from 56.6 per 1000 children in 2006 to 62.5 in 2012Koori substance use (including ‘analgesics and sedatives for non-medical use’, ‘amphetamines or speed’ and ‘marijuana, hashish or cannabis resin’) has reduced in Victoria.
17Family violence incidence Police data – often first point of contact in family violence situationsFamily Incident Reports rapidly increased in recent years across the state from 31,660 in 2007/08 to 50,382 in 2011/12, the proportion of these where the affected family member identified as Koori increased from 4.8% in 2007/08 to 5.9% in 2011/12 suggesting growth in reported incidents is faster for the Koori community than non-Koori community.Family violence is traditionally an under reported crime, particularly for Aboriginal communities, so it is likely that a significant proportion of the growth in the reported incidents reflects an increase in the level of confidence to report, rather than a substantial growth in the occurrence of family violence.Total FIRs by Koori individuals more than doubled between 2006/07 and 2011/12 (2947 FIRs) – first time attendance increased from 794 to 1663 and repeat attendances increased from 582 to Proportion of FIRs where charges were laid also increased from 28.7 (2006/07) to 39.3% (by 2011/12) for first time attendances and for repeat attendances from 31.1% (2006/07) to 42.5% (2011/12).In terms of over-representation, this suggests that in 2011/12, Koories were about 12 times more likely to be processed by police for alleged FV related offences than non-Koories.
18Family Violence Regional and Metropolitan break down In regional Victoria, the most significant increases in the number of alleged Koori FV offenders processed by police occurred in Gippsland and Loddon Mallee – in both regions the number of alleged Koori offenders processed by police for FV related offences more than doubled in the last two years.In metropolitan Melbourne, the number of alleged Koori FV offenders processed by police are generally lower (particularly in the Eastern and Western Metropolitan regions), but also increasing, especially in the Northern Metropolitan region
19Family Violence Offenders by gender and age The numbers of male and female alleged Koori FV offenders have increased in recent years, with the number of female alleged FV offenders more than tripling (280% increase) from 69 to 261 between 2005/06 and 2011/12, and the number of male alleged FV offenders almost doubling over the same period from 648 to 1207.The proportion of Koori alleged offenders that are female is increasing over time from around 10% (9.62%) in 2005/06 to 18% (17.78%) in 2011/12.
20Family Violence Victims by gender and age The numbers of male and female Koori FV victims reported to police have increased in recent years, with the numbers of FV victims almost tripling between 2006/07 and 2011/12.The proportion of Koori FV victims that are male appears to be increasing over time from around 15.5% in 2005/06 to 18% (18.11%) inOver 50% (53.24%) of reported Koori victims of family violence were aged between 21 and 39 years in 2011/12.
21VALS’ clients – numbers and trends AssistanceCaseworkCriminal, Civil and FamilyLocationAge and gender breakdown
25Concluding pointsThe Aboriginal population is proportionally small when compared to the total Victorian population, but growing at a faster rateAboriginal Victorians are more likely to live in regional Victoria that non-Aboriginal VictoriansPopulation is young and it is young people who are more likely to have contact with the justice systemThe rate of imprisonment has grown 15%, the highest in the country in the year to March 2013Non-metropolitan regions have seen increases in the proportion of Koories that were sentenced to community based orders compared to prison. However, the reverse occurred in large metropolitan regions what yearIndigenous males in custody increased 7% and females 12% in the year to March 2013The rate of imprisonment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners nationally was 15 times higher than the rate for non-Indigenous prisoners at 30 June 2012; Victoria 12.5 times higher.Risky/high risk alcohol use in the Victorian Koori community rose from 33.8% in 2002 to 39% in 2008Aboriginal young people are far more likely to be remanded – 30% compared to 22%