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MONOPOLY By LISA BRENNAN.  A monopoly is an industry in which there is only one producer of the product What is a monopoly?

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Presentation on theme: "MONOPOLY By LISA BRENNAN.  A monopoly is an industry in which there is only one producer of the product What is a monopoly?"— Presentation transcript:



3  A monopoly is an industry in which there is only one producer of the product What is a monopoly?

4 An Example of a monopoly:

5  2010 Q2  2008 Q2  2004 Q1  2000 Q2  1998 Q1 Higher level questions:

6  2011 Q1  2010 Q1  2008 Q1  2005 Q1  2001 Q1  2000 Q1  1999 Q1 ORDINARY LEVEL QUESTIONS:

7  Only 1 firm in the industry – they’re a price maker.  The firm aims to maximise profits  There are barriers to entry  The firm can control either the price charged or the quantity sold but not both – the demand curve determines the other.  There is perfect knowledge of profit and cost levels. Assumptions: 2010 HL Q2 (a)

8  THROUGH LEGISLATION- gov grants 1 firm the sole right to produce a product or service.  MERGERS/ TAKE-OVERS- existing firms in the industry are taken over by 1 firm  ACCESS TO RAW MATERIAL- if a firm has sole access to an important raw material it can gain a monopoly position.  CARTELS- firms agree not to compete in certain geographical areas. How a monopoly arises/ barriers to entry: 2011 OL Q1 (b), 2010 OL Q1 (b), 2008 OL Q1 (b), 2005 Q1, 2001 Q1

9  PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION- a firm can create brand loyalty so that consumers would never switch to any new brand.  ECONOMIES OF SCALE- the larger a firm gets the lower its AC becomes, so when competitors attempt to enter the market the existing firm will lower its price so no one can compete against it.  COPYRIGHTS/ PATENTS- where inventors of a product can legally prevent anyone else from selling it.  NATURAL MONOPOLY- sometimes it’s not possible to survive in business unless you have all or nearly all of the market HL Q2 (c) and 2004 Q1 (b)


11 Long run Equilibrium Occurs at point A where MC = MR and MC is rising and cuts MR from below. 2. Price charge & /Output produced The firm produces output Q1 and sells it at price P1 on the market 3. Cost of production The cost of producing this output shown at point C/D. 4. Super Normal Profits. This firm is earning SNP’s. because AR > AC and they can continue to earn SNP’s because barriers to entry exist.. 5. Waste of Scarce Resources Because the firm is not producing at the lowest point of the AC curve it is wasting scarce resources. HL 2010 Q2, HL 2008 Q2, HL 2004 Q1, HL 2000 Q1, OL 2010 Q1, 2008 Q1, 2005 Q1, 2001 Q1

12  Benefit from economies of scale, allowing them to sell products at lower prices.  Large scale production helps avoid wasteful duplication of resources.  They’re less vulnerable to change in the level of demand – therefore employment is more secure. Advantages of monopoly: OL 2010 Q1

13  Doesn’t produce at lowest AC = waste of eco resources  The consumer is exploited (indicated by SNP’s)  Consumers don’t have a choice of products  No incentive to be innovative as there is no competition  Able to practice price discrimination Disadvantages of monopoly:

14 Deregulation: Is allowing more suppliers of a good/ service into the market

15 Lower Prices. Increased availability of service. Increased efficiency. Loss of essential non-profit making services Loss of quality in service Higher prices in future Loss of employment in existing businesses. Job opportunities with new suppliers. Changed working conditions. Effect of deregulation on: Consumers: Employees: HL 2008 Q2, 2004 Q1

16 Price discrimination: Takes place when producer sells the Same product to two or more different Markets at different prices – price Difference isn’t related to any difference In costs in these markets. HL 2010 Q2, 2008 Q2, 2000 Q2,

17 Type Explanation 1st Degree A monopolist attempts to remove consumer surplus. A monopolist identifies those consumers who are prepared to pay a higher price and consequently charges them that higher price. This type of price discrimination can occur in one-to-one confidential services. E.g. doctors/ solicitor 2nd Degree large quantities are sold at lower prices e.g. bulk buying 3rd Degree Consumers have different price elasticities of demand. Consumers with inelastic demand pay a higher price than consumers with elastic demand e.g. cinemas

18  Some degree of Monopoly power  Separation of markets – consumers in 1 market mustn’t be able to transfer the product to those in another  Different consumer price elasticity of demand.  Consumer indifference  Consumer ignorance  Consumer attitude to the goods Conditions necessary for price discrimination: HL 2010 Q2, 2004 Q1, 2000 Q2, 1998 Q1


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