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1 On your Notecards please write the following:
(1) Name (2) Year (3) Major (4) Courses taken in Biology (4) Career goals (5) address (6) Why am I taking this class?

2 EVOLUTION The Unifying Concept in Biology Dr. Carol Eunmi Lee
4/10/2017 EVOLUTION The Unifying Concept in Biology Dr. Carol Eunmi Lee University of Wisconsin, Madison Professor Carol Lee

3 Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900-1975)
Evolution 410 4/10/2017 “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution” Theodosius Dobzhansky ( ) Professor Carol Lee

4 Reading (1) Evolutionary Analysis 5th Edition, 2013
4/10/2017 Reading (1) Evolutionary Analysis 5th Edition, 2013 Jon Herron & Scott Freeman (2) Journal articles posted on Course Website Professor Carol Lee

5 Course Website https://mywebspace.wisc.edu/carollee/web/Lee/Evolution410.html

6 Background needed for this course
Some understanding of basic genetics (Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium, DNA, RNA, transcription, translation, allele, genotype)

7 OUTLINE: 1) Overview 2) What is Evolution? 3) Basic Concepts
4/10/2017 OUTLINE: 1) Overview 2) What is Evolution? 3) Basic Concepts 3) Practical Applications 4) Example of Evolution in Action: Evolution of HIV Professor Carol Lee

8 Course Overview: (1) TODAY: What is Evolution? Practical Applications
4/10/2017 (1) TODAY: What is Evolution? Practical Applications (2, 3) History of Evolutionary Thought (4) Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (no evolution), Genetic Drift (5) EVOLUTIONARY MECHANISMS: Genetic Drift (6, 7) EVOLUTIONARY MECHANISMS: Genetic Variation (8) EVOLUTIONARY MECHANISMS: Epigenetic Inheritance (9,10) EVOLUTIONARY MECHANISMS: Natural Selection (11, 12) Molecular Evolution (13, 14) Genome Evolution (15, 16) Evolutionary Tradeoffs (17, 18) Speciation (19, 20) Earth History, History of Life on Earth (21, 22) Reconstructing the Tree of Life (23) Microbial Evolution (24) Plant Evolution (25, 26) Animal Diversity (27, 28) Human Evolution Professor Carol Lee

9 Structure of Lectures:
Evolution 410 4/10/2017 Introduction What is Evolution? Practical Applications &Background History of Evolutionary Thought No Evolution Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Evolutionary Genetic Drift Mechanisms Genetic Variation (Mutation, Recombination) Epigenetic Variation Natural Selection (including molecular and genome levels) Macroevolution Speciation History of Life on Earth Tree of Life Diversity Microbial Evolution Plant Evolution Animal Diversity Human Evolution Professor Carol Lee

10 Evolution 410 4/10/2017 Grading & Exams • 3 exams of equal weight, multiple choice: 100 points each = 300 pts total • 3 quizzes: 20 points each = 60 pts total • 3 homeworks: 30 points each = 90 pts total • In-class extra credit, unannounced random dates: 50 pts 300 (exams) + 60 (quizzes) + 90 pts (homework) + 50 pts (extra credit) = 500 points total Professor Carol Lee

11 Q: What is Evolution? Q: How does Evolution Occur?
4/10/2017 Q: What is Evolution? Q: How does Evolution Occur? These are potential exam questions Professor Carol Lee

12 Q1: What is Evolution? This question will be on the final exam
4/10/2017 Q1: What is Evolution? This question will be on the final exam Professor Carol Lee

13 Q1: What is Evolution? (give the most comprehensive answer)
4/10/2017 Q1: What is Evolution? (give the most comprehensive answer) The increase in fitness over time due to natural selection, or adaptation. The accumulation of mutations, which alter fitness over time. The change in allele frequencies (or the heritable expression of those alleles) in a population across generations. The progression into more complex forms of life This question will be on the final exam Professor Carol Lee

14 Q1: What is Evolution? (give the most comprehensive answer)
4/10/2017 Q1: What is Evolution? (give the most comprehensive answer) The change in allele frequencies (or the heritable expression of those alleles) in a population across generations. (BB) (Bb) (bb) Blue Purple Red Generation 1: Generation 2: Generation 3: Here the frequencies of the B and b alleles remain the same across generations, the population has gone out of Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium, and is evolving… Although, even if allele frequencies in a population remain the same across generations, a population is evolving if it goes out of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (more on this later) Professor Carol Lee

15 Evolution 410 4/10/2017 Q: What is Evolution? Change in proportions of genetically different individuals at each generation Leading to an average change in characteristics of populations over time  change in allele frequencies (genetic composition) or the heritable change in the expression of those alleles (epigenetic inheritance) Acts by removing individuals from the population, or by allowing some to leave more offspring By population, we are referring to a group of interbreeding individuals and their offspring (in the case of sexual species) This will be on the exam Evolution is a statistical process Many prominent evolutionary biologists are mathematicians or statisticians It is the statistical change in proportions of individuals in a population Acts on individuals that consequently end up with different fitnesses Professor Carol Lee

16 Q3: How does Evolution Occur?
4/10/2017 Q3: How does Evolution Occur? So Evolution acts through Genetic Drift or Natural Selection acting on the genetic variation caused by mutations or recombination, or lack of variation caused by inbreeding Professor Carol Lee

17 Q3: How does Evolution Occur?
Biology 151, Evolution 4/10/2017 Q3: How does Evolution Occur? ***Through 5 Major Mechanisms: Genetic Drift Mutation Heritable Epigenetic Modification Migration Natural Selection (Think about what forces would change the allele frequencies in a population, or the heritable expression of those alleles) So Evolution acts through Genetic Drift or Natural Selection acting on the genetic variation caused by mutations or recombination, or lack of variation caused by inbreeding Professor Carol Lee

18 i.e. what causes changes in the allelic composition in a population?
Biology 151, Evolution 4/10/2017 i.e. what causes changes in the allelic composition in a population? Genetic Drift: totally random changes in allele frequency from generation to generation Mutation: changes in the genetic code, such as errors in DNA replication, gene deletions or duplications, etc… Epigenetic Inheritance: heritable changes that are not due to changes in DNA sequence itself, but the expression of the DNA, such as changes in DNA methylation and histone modifications, etc… Migration: alleles moving from one population to another Natural Selection: when some alleles favored over others due to an increase in fitness (not random); acts on genetic variation in the population So Evolution acts through Genetic Drift or Natural Selection acting on the genetic variation caused by mutations or recombination, or lack of variation caused by inbreeding Professor Carol Lee

19 Natural Selection Sources of Genetic Variation
Biology 151, Evolution 4/10/2017 Sources of Genetic Variation Mutation generates genetic variation Epigenetic modification changes expression of genes Genetic Drift reduces genetic variation Natural Selection Natural Selection acts on genetic or epigenetic variation in a population Without genetic or epigenetic variation, Natural Selection cannot occur Professor Carol Lee

20 Evolutionary Concepts Permeate all Aspects of Biology
4/10/2017 Evolutionary Concepts Permeate all Aspects of Biology Biotechnology Agriculture Medicine Conservation Professor Carol Lee

21 Evolution 410 4/10/2017 Agriculture Most of your food is a product of intense artificial selection, or human induced evolution Professor Carol Lee

22 Evolution of a Pathogen as an Example:
4/10/2017 Evolution of a Pathogen as an Example: I will now use an infectious disease to illustrate basic evolutionary concepts. The following example illustrates several evolutionary mechanisms I will explain these concepts in more detail over the next few lectures Professor Carol Lee

23 HIV infects macrophages, T-cells
Evolution 410 4/10/2017 HIV: Fastest evolving organism on Earth HIV infects macrophages, T-cells Professor Carol Lee

24 Evolution 410 AIDS Pandemic 4/10/2017 AIDS is among the most deadly epidemics in Human History ( : ~30 million deaths) ~34 million people living with AIDS (estimated 2010) 90 million deaths predicted by 2020 #people living with HIV UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic (http://www.unaids.org/en/KnowledgeCentre/HIVData/GlobalReport/2008/) Professor Carol Lee

25 A global view of HIV infection
Evolution 410 4/10/2017 A global view of HIV infection 33 million people [30–36 million] living with HIV, 2007 Professor Carol Lee

26 Evolution 410 4/10/2017 Problem : HIV has the fastest mutation rate of any virus or organism observed to date HIV evolves more rapidly than humans, and more quickly than the ability of humans to produce new drugs Implications: AIDS vaccines are unlikely to work on all strains of the virus… …and unlikely to work on a given strain in the long run Our understanding of how to combat viruses had in general been poor, and the recent intensive research on HIV has greatly enhanced our understanding of how to combat viruses in general Professor Carol Lee

27 Questions: (1) What is Evolution?
4/10/2017 Questions: (1) What is Evolution? (2) How does evolution operate? What are the main Evolutionary Mechanisms? (3) Discuss how an understanding of evolution impacts practices in Agriculture, Medicine, and Conservation (4) For example, discuss how different evolutionary mechanisms impact the evolution of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS Professor Carol Lee

28 Concepts Evolution Population Genetic Drift Natural Selection Mutation
4/10/2017 Concepts Evolution Population Genetic Drift Natural Selection Mutation Genetic Variation Allele, Genotype HIV Professor Carol Lee


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