Presentation on theme: "TRACHEOSTOMY Dr. Manorama Mittal Dr. Namita Arora"— Presentation transcript:
1TRACHEOSTOMY Dr. Manorama Mittal Dr. Namita Arora
255yr.old man with Ca. larynx Q1: What comes to our mind first?Q2: What are the relevant points in the history?Q3: What do you see on examination?
3Tracheostomy for Ca LxQ1: What are the advantages of a pre-op. traecheostomy?Q2: What are the disadvantages of pre-op.traecheostomy?Q3: Traecheostomy done in ward & patient suddenly dies. What is the likely cause? How can we prevent it?Q4: What are the problems with post-op. traecheostomy?Q5: For how long is humidification required in these patients?
4Heat & Moisture Exchanger (artificial nose) Q1: What is HME?Q2: How does it work?
5Tracheostomy in a patient of chronic bronchitis with CO2 narcosis. Q1: Take a hypothetical case of chronic bronchitis with CO2 narcosis with traecheostomy.He was put on ventilator following which he became conscious & then suddenly died.Why?
6Tracheostomy vs Prolonged intubation in paediatric patient Q1: What are the problems of traecheostomy in children?Q2: What should be method of suctioning & the interval in between the two suctions?Q3: What are the methods of humidification?Q4: What are the problems with humidification?
7Weaning in paediatric patient with tracheostomy Q1: Why is weaning difficult?Q2: What is ward decannulation?
8Q1: What are the different types of cuffs? Patient on ventilatorQ1: What are the different types of cuffs?
9Indications of Tracheostomy Q1: What are the indications of preoperative Tracheostomy?Q2: What are the indications of post-op Tracheostomy?Q3: What are the other indications of elective Tracheostomy?Q4: What are the indications of emergency Tracheostomy?
10Cricothyroidotomy Q1: What are the indications of cricothyroidotomy? Q2: What are the advantages of cricothyroidotomy?Q3: What are the disadvantages of cricothyroidotomy?Q4: What is an absolute contra-indication to jet ventilation through needle cricothyroidotomy?
11Percutaneus Dialational Tracheostomy (PDT) Q1: Enumerate the steps of PDT?Q2: What are the advantages of PDT?Q3: What are the disadvantages of PDT?Q4:Complications of PDT?
12Complications of Tracheostomy Q1: What is the cause of massive hemorrhage following Tracheostomy?Q2: What is the cause of mediastinal emphysema?Q3: What is a persistant stoma?Q4: Usually how long does a stoma take to close?
14Q1: What comes to our mind first? This patient must have been a smokerDoes he have an airway compromise?Would he need a tracheostomy to overcome the airway compromise prior to surgery?
15Q2: What are the relevant points in the history? · Smoking, tobacco chewing,alcohol intake· Dyspnoea, dysphagia, loss of weight & appetite,fever· Hoarseness of voice· Cough: dry/productive
16Q3: What do you see on examination? GPEVitalsAnemia ,waxy look ,toxic ,cachectic,/anxiousCervical lymphadenopathy.II. Systemic ExaminationRespiratory System
17Q1: What are the advantages of a pre-op. traecheostomy? For the anaesthetist the biggest advantage is that problems of difficult airway are bypassed
18Q2: What are the disadvantages of pre-op.traecheostomy? Local infection & inflammation that occurs does not allow the surgeon to demarcate the clear area for resection.
19Q3:. Traecheostomy done in ward & patient suddenly dies Q3: Traecheostomy done in ward & patient suddenly dies. What is the likely cause? How can we prevent it?Asphyxia i.e, hypoxia with hypercarbia get corrected when obstruction is relieved.The stimuli for respiration are hence abolished leading to respiratory arrest & death.VVagal stimulation due to excessive movement of trachea may cause death during the tracheostomy.DDeath can be prevented by monitoring the ECG & having means to ventilate the patient in the ward.
20Q4: What are the problems with post- op. traecheostomy? Patient is unable to communicate if any problem arises. We need to have a bell switch /light switch/nurse by the side of the patient.
21Q5: For how long is humidification required in these patients? This is especially relevant here as these patients have a permanent traecheostomy.Humidification required for one week after which the columnar ciliated epithelium changes into pseudo-stratified squamous epithelium that is resistant to drying.
22Q1: What is HME?It is an equipment which helps in preserving the moisture & heat of the expired breath.
23Has minimal dead space (8 to 9ml.) Q2: How does it work?It contains a Nylon coil. During expiration water condenses on the coil & heats it.During inspiration the cold dry air picks up water vapour & gets heated up while passing through the HME.Has minimal dead space (8 to 9ml.)Has very low resistance to flow(I to2cm H2O).
24Q1:. Take a hypothetical case of chronic bronchitis Q1: Take a hypothetical case of chronic bronchitis with CO2 narcosis with traecheostomy.He was put on ventilator following which he became conscious & then suddenly died.Why?CO2 tissue stores in such patients are very high. Marked hypercarbia leads to high levels of circulating catecholamines but also desensitizes the myocardium to their action.Sudden lowering of CO2 levels leads to regaining of sensitivity of myocardium but since circulating catecholamine levels are still high, there is fibrillation followed by cardiac arrest & death.
25Q1: What are the problems of tracheostomy in children? Performing a tracheostomy is verydifficult, a specialist’s jobFalse passage is very likelyIt has to be a planned procedure under general anaesthesia in an intubated childSubglottic oedema & stenosis are very commonWeaning is difficult
26The interval in adults is 10 to 15 sec. Q2: What should be method of suctioning & the interval in between the two suctions?The interval in adults is 10 to 15 sec.The duration of suctioning should also be the same.In children there should be 3 to 4 breaths in between the two suctions even if the child is drowning in secretions.Answer .doc
27Q3: What are the methods of humidification? · Wet gauze /Saline drip· Droplet delivery (mechanical/ultrasonic)· Hot water humidification· HMEAnswer .doc
28Q4: What are the problems with humidification? · Over hydration – especially with nebulization· Over heating -When using hot water humidificationBy temporary disconnection of a pressure cycled ventilator because flow suddenly increases.Thermostat failure.
29Q1: Why is weaning difficult? As a well fitting tube is put in children, they are unable to breathe when the tracheostomy tube is occluded. Hence we need to use a fenestrated tube for weaning.Suprastomal collapse & granulation are common.Psychological attachment to the tracheostomy tubeHence more controlled process called ward decannulation is used.Fenestrated tubeAns .doc
30Q2: What is ward decannulation? Child is kept in the ward for decannulation.Tracheostomy tube is progressively down sized.Usually one size smaller each day till the smallest size of T’ tube has been tolerated.Tracheostomy tube is then blocked for 12 hrs during the day & then 24hrs next day & night.The tube is now safely removed & stoma covered. Child observed for further 5 days.
31Q1: What are the different types of cuffs? Low volume High PresssureLarge vol. Low pressureFoam cuff· Low vol. high pr, cuff: Introduction is easy· High vol. cuff : Difficult to introduce.Chance of aspiration is high if tube is big & cuff not fully inflated.· Polyurethane (foam) cuff:self inflating· Double cuff:The two cuffs are alternately inflated & deflated.· Pressure adjusting cuff:When N20 is used, it diffuses into the cuff leading to increase in intra cuff pressure but in this tube the change in volume of cuff is shifted to the pilot balloon which in turn is big, pliable & thin walled from where N20 diffuses out thus preventing any rise in intra cuff pressurePic. Ans from .doc
32Q1: What are the indications of preoperative Tracheostomy? Massive cystic HygromaLudwig’s AnginaMassive Thyroid enlargement(with respiratory difficulty)Add answerCarcinoma maxilla
33Q2: What are the indications of emergency Tracheostomy? Angioneurotic oedemaCroupDiphtheriafailed intubationPicture?? Add answer from.doc
34Q3: What are the indications of postoperative Tracheostomy? Ca.larynx following laryngectomyMassive thyroid enlargement: if more than 3 tracheal cartilages are eroded or calcified.Picture?? Add answer from.doc
35Q4: What are the other indications of elective Tracheostomy? · Prolonged ventilation· Pulmonary hygiene/toilet (as in a respiratory cripple)Picture?? Add answer from.doc
36Q1: What are the indications of cricothyroidotomy? Add answerCannot intubate, cannot ventilate: needle cricothroidotomy for ventilationDifficult intubation: needle cricothroidotomy for reterograde intubation
37Q2: What are the advantages of cricothyroidotomy? SimpleTakes less than 1min to performAmbulance/casualty/emergencypersonnel/nurses can perform itAdd answer
38Q3: What are the disadvantages of cricothyroidotomy? Subglotic oedema & stenosis are very likelyAdd answer
39Complete/near complete obstruction at glottic/supraglottic level Q4: What is an absolute contra-indication to jet ventilation through needle cricothyroidotomy?Complete/near complete obstruction at glottic/supraglottic levelAdd answer
40Q1: Enumerate the steps of PDT? Trachea punctured with needleGuide wire passedGraded dilators passed over the guide wireTracheostomy tube passedThe whole procedure can be done while visualizing the trachea with a fibrescope through the endotracheal tube.Add answer
41Q2: What are the advantages of PDT? · Easy to learn· Shorter procedure· Elimination of scheduling difficulty· Precludes necessity to shift critical patient to OT· Half as expensive as surgical TracheostomyAdd answer
42Q3: What are the disadvantages of PDT? · Needs special equipment· Can be done only in intubated patients· Contra indicated in children· Contraindicated in cervical spine fractures asneck cannot be hyper extended.Add answer
43Q4: Complications of PDT? False passageP Puncture through side &B back wall of tracheaAdd answer
44Q1: What is the cause of massive hemorrhage following Tracheostomy? Tracheo-innominate artery fistula. This happens when tube’s not in line with trachea.Add answer
45Q2: What is the cause of mediastinal emphysema? Too small a tracheal tubeExcessive coughing & straining on the tubeAdd answer
46Q3: What is a persistant stoma? Stoma that persists for more than 2months & requires surgical closureLarge stoma may require perichondralflap from thyroid cartilageAdd answer
47Q4: Usually how long does a stoma take to close? UUsually takes few days to a weekAdd answer