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1 Opinion Summarization Using Entity Features and Probabilistic Sentence Coherence Optimization (UIUC at TAC 2008 Opinion Summarization Pilot) Nov 19,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Opinion Summarization Using Entity Features and Probabilistic Sentence Coherence Optimization (UIUC at TAC 2008 Opinion Summarization Pilot) Nov 19,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Opinion Summarization Using Entity Features and Probabilistic Sentence Coherence Optimization (UIUC at TAC 2008 Opinion Summarization Pilot) Nov 19, 2008 Hyun Duk Kim, Dae Hoon Park, V.G.Vinod Vydiswaran, ChengXiang Zhai Department of Computer Science University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

2 Research Questions 1.Can we improve sentence retrieval by assigning more weights to entity terms? 2.Can we optimize the coherence of a summary using a statistical coherence model? 2

3 Opinionated Relevant Sentences Sentence Filtering Step 2 General Approach 3 Target 1001 Q1 Q2 … Opinion Summary Sentence Organization Step 3 Doc Query 1 Query 2 Relevant Sentences Sentence Retrieval Step 1 ?

4 Step 1: Sentence Retrieval Target 1001 Question i Doc Indri Toolkit Relevant Sentences Named Entity: 10 Noun phrase : 2 Others : 1 Uniform Term Weighting Non-Uniform Weighting

5 Step 2: Sentence Filtering 5 Relevant Sentences S1’ S2’ S3’ S1’ S2’ S4’ S6’ S7’ S4’ S1’ S2’ S3’ S1’ S2’ S4’ S6’ S7’ S4’ Keep only the same polarity S1’ S2’ S3’ S1’ S2’ S4’ S6’ S7’ S4’ Keep only Opinionated Sentences Remove redundancy S1’ S2’ S3’ S1’ S2’ S4’ S6’ S7’ S4’

6 Step 3: Summary Organization (Method 1: Polarity Ordering) –Paragraph structure by question and polarity –Add guiding phrase 6 The first question is … Following are positive opinions… Following are negative opinions… The second question is … Following are mixed opinions… …

7 Step 3: Summary Organization (Method 2: Statistical Coherence Optimization) 7 S1 S2 Sn … S1’ S2’ Sn’ … S3 S3’ c(S1’, S2’) c(S2’, S3’) c(Sn- 1 ’, Sn’) + … Coherence function: c(Si, Sj) Use a greedy algorithm to order sentences to maximize the total score c(S1’, S2’)+c(S1’, S2’)+…+c(Sn- 1 ’, Sn’)

8 Probabilistic Coherence Function (Idea similar to [Lapata 03]) 8 Sentence 1 Sentence 2 u vv v vu u Yes No P(u,v) = ( )/(3*4+1.0) Average coherence probability (Pointwise mutual information) over all word combinations Train with original document

9 Opinionated Relevant Sentences Sentence Filtering Step 2 General Approach 9 Target 1001 Q1 Q2 … Opinion Summary Sentence Organization Step 3 Query 1 Doc Sentence Retrieval Relevant Sentences Step 1 Query 2 ?

10 Opinionated Relevant Sentences Sentence Filtering Step 2 Submissions: UIUC1, UIUC2 10 Target 1001 Q1 Q2 … Opinion Summary Sentence Organization Step 3 Query 1 Doc Sentence Retrieval Relevant Sentences Step 1 Query 2 ? UIUC1: non-uniform weighting UIUC2: uniform weighting UIUC1: Aggressive polarity filtering UIUC2: Conservative filtering UIUC1: Polarity ordering UIUC2: Statistical ordering

11 Evaluation Rank among runs without answer-snippet 11 F-ScoreGrammaticality Non- redundancy Structure/ Coherence Fluency/ Readability Responsiveness UIUC1 Polarity UIUC2 Coherence (Total: 19 runs)

12 Evaluation Rank among runs without answer-snippet 12 F-ScoreGrammaticality Non- redundancy Structure/ Coherence Fluency/ Readability Responsiveness UIUC1 Polarity UIUC2 Coherence Statistical ordering Nothing (Total: 19 runs) NE/NP retrieval, Polarity filtering Polarity ordering

13 Evaluation of Named Entity Weighting Target 1001 Question i Doc Indri Toolkit Relevant Sentences Named entity: 10 Noun phrase : 2 Others : 1 Uniform Term Weighting Non-Uniform Weighting Assume a sentence is relevant iff similarity(sentence, nugget description) > threshold

14 Effectiveness of Entity Weighting Weighting Weighting

15 Polarity Module Polarity module performance evaluation on the sentiment corpus. [Hu&Liu 04, Hu&Liu 04b] 15 Classification resultPositiveNegative NonOpinionated Positive Negative Mixed Total Exact Match1363/3105= /1591=0.26 ( )/( )=0.38 Exact Opposite383/3105= /1591=0.23 ( )/( )=0.16 (Unit: # of sentence)

16 Coherence optimization Evaluation methods –Basic assumption the sentence order of original document is coherent –Among given target documents, use 70% as training set, 30% as test set. –Measurement: strict pair matching # of correct sentence pair / # of total adjacent sentence pair 16

17 Probabilistic Coherence Function 17 Average coherence probability over all word combinations Point-wise Mutual information with smoothing Strict joint probability

18 Probabilistic Coherence Function 18 Mutual information where, N = c(u,v)+c(not u, v)+c(u, not v)+c(not u, not v) For unseen pairs, p(u,v)=0.5*MIN(seen pairs in training)

19 Coherence optimization test –Pointwise mutual information effectively penalize common words 19 Selection of training words Strict Joint Probability Mutual Information Pointwise Mutual Information No Omission Omitted stopwords Omitted frequent words (counts > 33) (counts > 11) (counts > 6) (counts > 2) Omitted rare words (counts < 33) (counts < 14) (counts < 6) (counts < 2)

20 Coherence optimization test Top ranked p(u,v) of strict joint probability –A lot of stopwords are top-ranked. 20 uvp(u,v) the to the of and a the … the to of and the a … 1.75E E E E E E E-003 …

21 Coherence optimization test –Pointwise Mutual information was better than joint probability and normal mutual information. –Eliminating common words, very rare words improved performance 21 Selection of training wordsCoherence score Baseline: random order Strict Joint Probability Mutual Information Pointwise Mutual Information (UIUC2) Omitted stopwords Omitted non-stopwords Omitted 95% least frequent words (counts < 33): Omitted 90% least frequent words (counts < 14): Omitted 80% least frequent words (counts < 6): Omitted 60% least frequent words (counts < 2):

22 22 Conclusions Limited improvement in retrieval performance using named entity and noun phrase Need for a good polarity classification module Possibility on the improvement of statistical sentence ordering module with different coherence function and word selection

23 Thank you 23 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Hyun Duk Kim


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