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Space-Time Tradeoffs in Software-based Deep Packet Inspection Author: Anat Bremler-Barr, Yotam Harchol, and David Hay Published in Proc. IEEE HPSR 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Space-Time Tradeoffs in Software-based Deep Packet Inspection Author: Anat Bremler-Barr, Yotam Harchol, and David Hay Published in Proc. IEEE HPSR 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Space-Time Tradeoffs in Software-based Deep Packet Inspection Author: Anat Bremler-Barr, Yotam Harchol, and David Hay Published in Proc. IEEE HPSR 2011

2 2 Goal Software based DPI AC based (Exact Matching) Reduced memory size Fit in CPU cache Worst case throughput

3 3 Aho-Corasick Forward Transitions (To Deeper states) Failure Transitions Given a states s, Depth(s): Depth(S 4 ) = 2, Depth(S 13 ) = 3 Label(s): Label(S 4 ) = BD, Label(S 13 ) = BCA Label(S 12 ) = CDBCAB Failure Transitions to S 0 are omitted

4 4 ABCDE S2S2S0S2S5S4S3 S4S4S0S2S7S0S1 S5S5S0S2S7S6S1 S13S14S2S7S0S1 … Lookup Table format used in: (# of Forward transitions) more than 64. State Structure (1/3) Lookup Table Format

5 5 State Structure (2/3) Linear Format ABCDE S2S2S0S2S5S4S3 S5S5S0S2S7S6S1 S4 (S0) S5 (S7) DS6 S2 (S0) CS5DS4ES3

6 6 State Structure (3/3) Bitmap Format ABCDE S2S2S0S2S5S4S3 S5S5S0S2S7S6S1 S5 (S7) DS6 S2 (S0) CS5DS4ES S S5S4S3S0 S7

7 7 Path-Compression (1/3) One-way branch states are compressed. Problem: Incoming Failure Transition Outgoing Failure Transition Solution: No incoming failure transition is allowed Multiple outgoing transition Fields

8 8 Path-Compression (2/3) SaSbScSd ABC SaSd ABC SxSySz A, Sx 3, Sd B, Sy C, Sz A, Sb *, Sx B, Sc *, Sy C, Sd *, Sz

9 9 Path-Compression (3/3) Tuck. (INFOCOM 2004) SaSbScSd ABC SaSd ABCSxSySz A, Sx 3, Sd B, Sy C, Sz A, Sb *, Sx B, Sc *, Sy C, Sd *, Sz SiSjSk A T TS T, Sj *, Sp A, Sk *, Sq *, Sb SiSk TA T, Sp 2, Sk A, Sq BeforeAfter ???

10 10 Aho-Corasick Path Compression: Before and After Text: CDBCAB Text: CDBCAA

11 11 Leaves-Compression Trie leaves consists only failure transition. SaSb A Sc B SaSb A Sa Adding one bit for each forward transition => indicate an accept state The process can be applied recursively A, SbB, Sc*, Sx A, Sb, 0B, Sx, 1 AB, Sx, 1 Original 1st process 2nd process

12 12 Use both techniques Add one bit for every symbol of compressed path. Sa Sb Sc S0 Sp Sq AB, 0C, 1 B E Set the bit of i-th symbol when: (1) when a transition with the first i symbols of the path is to an accepting state (2) if the failure transition of the pre-compressed state reached after the first i symbols of the path, is to a leaf Sd D, 1

13 13 Leaves Compression: Before and After

14 14 Pointer Compression There are many transitions that go to states whose depth is small. 31% of the failure transitions go to depth 1 states Additional 35% of the failure transitions go to depth 2 states.

15 15 Variable-Size Pointers Two lengths: 2 and 2+log2|S| 00: Go to state S0 01: Go to depth 1 states (S0 occurs current symbols) 10: Go to depth 2 states (S0 occurs last symbols + current symbols) (Valid pairs are less, thus use hashing) 11: Go to next states as regular pointer

16 16 Huffman Coding Huffman coding allocates short code for frequent symbols and long code for infrequent ones. A lookup table is used to provide symbol-to-Huffman-code conversion. The idea is not used.

17 17 Evaluation Environment Two Environment: Core 2 Duo 2.53 GHz (2 Core), 32KB L1, 3MB L2. Core i GHz (4 Core), 32 KB L1, 256 KB L2, 8MB L3.

18 18 Evaluation Traffic Pattern: Snort ClamAV (Partial) Traffic: DARPA (Real Life) Exhaustive Traversal Failure path Traversal Worst Case

19 19 Space Requirement

20 20 Throughput

21 21 Memory Access

22 22 L1 Cache Miss Ratio

23 23 Miss ratio of Larger L2 Cache


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