Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Lumbar and sacral plexuses

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Lumbar and sacral plexuses"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lumbar and sacral plexuses

2 Nerve plexuses Networks of successive ventral rami that exchange fibers (crisscross & redistribute) Why would this be protective? Mainly innervate the limbs Thoracic ventral rami do not form nerve plexuses

3 Plexuses Cervical Brachial Lumbar Sacral

4 Lumbar plexus L1-L4 Lies within the psoas major muscle
Innervates anterior and medial muscles of thigh through femoral and obturator nerves respectively Femoral nerve also innervates skin on anterior thigh (including quads) and medial leg

5 Diaphragm and posterior abdominal wall:
The psoas major and minor muscles, the quadratus lumborum muscle. The lumbar plexus and its related nerves. 5

6 LUMBAR PLEXUS Spinal nerves branching from the lumbar region of the cord form the lumbar plexus. Branches of this plexus stimulate muscles of the back, hip and thigh. The plexus also is responsible for sensation in the skin of the thighs, the pubic area and the external genitalia in males and females.

The area within the rectangle shows the lower portion of the spinal cord. The branches leaving the sacral region pass through the sacral foramina forming the sacral plexus.


9 Lumbar plexus L1 – L4 (+ L5) Ilioinguinal nerve Genitofemoral nerve
mostly sensory from skin of thigh & genitals Genitofemoral nerve mostly sensory from scrotum, labia majora, ant. Thigh Femoral Nerve to quadriceps, sartorius 29 Oct. 2012 Spinal-Nerves.ppt 9

10 1- Obturator nerve (L2-L3-L4) 2- Femoral nerve (L2-L3-L4)
Lumbosacral plexus Lumbar plexus (T12- L4): 1- Obturator nerve (L2-L3-L4) 2- Femoral nerve (L2-L3-L4) 3- Lumbosacral trunk (L4-L5) 7- subcostal nerve (T12) 8- iliohypogastric N. (T12-L1) 9- ilioinguinal N. (L1) 10- genitofamoral N. (L1-L2) 11- lateral cutaneous N. of the thigh (L2-L3) 10

11 Lumbar Plexus Femoral nerve Obturator nerve Lateral femoral cutaneous
Cutaneous branches Thigh, leg, foot (e.g. saphenous nerve) Motor branches Anterior thigh muscles (e.g. quadriceps, sartorius, iliopsoas) Obturator nerve Sensory Skin medial thigh; hip, knee joints Motor Adductor muscles Lateral femoral cutaneous Skin lateral thigh Genitofemoral Skin scrotum, labia major, anterior thigh Cremaster muscle

12 Lumbar plexus (be able to label femoral, obturator and saphenous nerves)

13 SACRAL PLEXUS Spinal nerves branching from the lumbar (L4 and L5) and sacral (S1, S2, S3 and S4) region of the cord form the sacral plexus. Nerves branching from this plexus innervate the limb and pelvic area. Because the lumbar and sacral plexuses are interconnected, they are sometimes referred to as the lumbosacral plexus.

14 Sacral plexus L4-S4 Supplies muscles and skin of posterior thigh and almost all of the leg Main branch is the large sciatic nerve, which consists of: Tibial nerve – to most of hamstrings, calf and sole Common fibular nerve – to muscles of anterior and lateral leg and skin Other branches supply pelvic girdle (gluteus muscles) and perineum (pudental nerve)

15 Sacral plexus L4 – S4 Superior & inferior gluteal nerves Sciatic nerve
To gluteus muscles Sciatic nerve To hamstrings & other posterior thigh & leg muscles Pudendal nerve Sensory from penis, clitoris, labia minora, anus 29 Oct. 2012 Spinal-Nerves.ppt 15

16 Sciatic nerve (roots): L4 L5 S1 S2 S3
Lumbosacral plexus Sacral plexus: Sciatic nerve (roots): L4 L5 S1 S2 S3 *Sciatic nerve is the thickest nerve of body. *It is composed of Common Peroneal and Tibial nerves. *Com. Peroneal: composed of dorsal rami Tibial: composed of ventral rami *L4+L5= Lumbosacral trunk 3- Lumbosacral trunk 4- Sciatic nerve 5- common peroneal N. 6- tibial N. 12- posterior femoral cutaneous nerve 13- pudendal nerve 14- superior gluteal nerve 16

17 Sacral plexus (L4-S4) Sciatic nerve (L4-S3) Tibial nerve
Motor to muscles of pelvis and lower extremity (gluteal, posterior femoral, lower leg & foot) Sensory from posterior pelvis, posterior thigh, anterior, posterior & lateral leg Sciatic nerve (L4-S3) Tibial nerve Common peroneal (fibular) nerve


19 SCIATIC NERVE The sciatic nerve (astrerisk) is formed from spinal nerves arising from the lumbar (L4 and L5) and sacral (S1, S2 and S3) regions of the spinal cord. It passes into the thigh and lower leg supplying innervation of sensation and movement for the entire lower limb. When giving a gluteal intramuscular injection, it is important to inject into the gluteus medius muscle to avoid damage to this large nerve.

20 Sacral Plexus Sciatic Superior gluteal nerve Motor: Branches into:
Hamstring Branches into: Tibial nerve Cutaneous Posterior leg and sole of foot Motor Posterior leg, foot Common fibular (peroneal) nerve Anterior and lateral leg, dorsum foot Lateral compartment, tibialis anterior, toe extensors Superior gluteal nerve Gluteus medius and minimus, tensor fasciae latae

21 Sacral Plexus (continued)
Inferior gluteal nerve Motor Gluteus maximus Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve Sensory Inferior buttocks, posterior thigh, popliteal fossa Pudendal nerve External genitalia, anus Muscles of perineum


23 The only one of the three that travel below the knee is the sciatic nerve.
The sciatic nerve branches into two nerve: 1. tibial nerve 2. common peroneal nerve a. Superficial peroneal nerve b. Deep peroneal nerve

24 Anterior compartment-
Extensors of the knee Femoral Nerve lateral medial femur Medial compartment- Adductors of the knee Obturator Nerve Posterior compartment- Flexors of the knee Sciatic Nerve

25 Motor Branches of the Femoral Nerve L2 L3 L4 Rectus femoris iliopsoas
pectineus sartorius Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Vastus intermedius

26 Motor Branches of the Obturator Nerve Adductor brevis Adductor longus
gracilis Adductus magnus

27 Motor Branches of the Sciatic Nerve Hamstrings Common peroneal nerve
Semitendinosis Biceps femoris semimembranosus Hamstrings Common peroneal nerve Tibial nerve Deep peroneal nerve Superficial peroneal nerve Anterior compartment of leg Gastrocnemius and posterior compartment of the leg and foot Lateral compartment of leg

28 Sacral plexus nerves: (Be able to label sciatic, tibial and common fibular nerves)

29 Nerve plexuses (very) simplified….
Cervical plexus C1-5 Brachial plexus C5-T1 Lumbar plexus L1-4 Sacral plexus L4-S4 Diaphragm? Phrenic nerve C3-5 Arm and forearm extensors? Radial nerve Medial hand? Ulnar nerve Lateral palm? Median nerve Quad? Femoral nerve Footdrop? Common fibular/peroneal nerve (branch of Sciatic nerve)

30 Dermatomes (innervation of skin)
(area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branches from a single spinal nerve is called a dermatome) Reveal sites of damage to spinal nerves or spinal cord Dermatomes (innervation of skin)

Download ppt "Lumbar and sacral plexuses"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google