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Lumbar and sacral plexuses. Nerve plexuses Networks of successive ventral rami that exchange fibers (crisscross & redistribute) –Why would this be protective?

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Presentation on theme: "Lumbar and sacral plexuses. Nerve plexuses Networks of successive ventral rami that exchange fibers (crisscross & redistribute) –Why would this be protective?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lumbar and sacral plexuses

2 Nerve plexuses Networks of successive ventral rami that exchange fibers (crisscross & redistribute) –Why would this be protective? Mainly innervate the limbs Thoracic ventral rami do not form nerve plexuses

3 Plexuses Cervical Brachial Lumbar Sacral

4 Lumbar plexus L1-L4 Lies within the psoas major muscle Innervates anterior and medial muscles of thigh through femoral and obturator nerves respectively Femoral nerve also innervates skin on anterior thigh (including quads) and medial leg

5 Diaphragm and posterior abdominal wall: The psoas major and minor muscles, the quadratus lumborum muscle. The lumbar plexus and its related nerves.

6 LUMBAR PLEXUS Spinal nerves branching from the lumbar region of the cord form the lumbar plexus. Branches of this plexus stimulate muscles of the back, hip and thigh. The plexus also is responsible for sensation in the skin of the thighs, the pubic area and the external genitalia in males and females.

7 LUMBOSACRAL SPINAL CORD POSTERIOR VIEW The area within the rectangle shows the lower portion of the spinal cord. The branches leaving the sacral region pass through the sacral foramina forming the sacral plexus.

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9 29 Oct. 2012Spinal-Nerves.ppt9 Lumbar plexus L 1 – L 4 (+ L 5 ) Ilioinguinal nerve –mostly sensory from skin of thigh & genitals Genitofemoral nerve –mostly sensory from scrotum, labia majora, ant. Thigh Femoral Nerve –to quadriceps, sartorius

10 Lumbosacral plexus Lumbar plexus (T12- L4): 1- Obturator nerve (L2-L3-L4) 2- Femoral nerve (L2-L3-L4) 3- Lumbosacral trunk (L4-L5) 7- subcostal nerve (T12) 8- iliohypogastric N. (T12-L1) 9- ilioinguinal N. (L1) 10- genitofamoral N. (L1-L2) 11- lateral cutaneous N. of the thigh (L2-L3)

11 Lumbar Plexus Femoral nerve –Cutaneous branches Thigh, leg, foot (e.g. saphenous nerve) –Motor branches Anterior thigh muscles (e.g. quadriceps, sartorius, iliopsoas) Obturator nerve –Sensory Skin medial thigh; hip, knee joints –Motor Adductor muscles Lateral femoral cutaneous –Sensory Skin lateral thigh Genitofemoral –Sensory Skin scrotum, labia major, anterior thigh –Motor Cremaster muscle

12 Lumbar plexus (be able to label femoral, obturator and saphenous nerves)

13 SACRAL PLEXUS Spinal nerves branching from the lumbar (L4 and L5) and sacral (S1, S2, S3 and S4) region of the cord form the sacral plexus. Nerves branching from this plexus innervate the limb and pelvic area. Because the lumbar and sacral plexuses are interconnected, they are sometimes referred to as the lumbosacral plexus.

14 Sacral plexus L4-S4 Supplies muscles and skin of posterior thigh and almost all of the leg Main branch is the large sciatic nerve, which consists of: –Tibial nerve – to most of hamstrings, calf and sole –Common fibular nerve – to muscles of anterior and lateral leg and skin Other branches supply pelvic girdle (gluteus muscles) and perineum (pudental nerve)

15 29 Oct. 2012Spinal-Nerves.ppt15 Sacral plexus L 4 – S 4 Superior & inferior gluteal nerves –To gluteus muscles Sciatic nerve –To hamstrings & other posterior thigh & leg muscles Pudendal nerve –Sensory from penis, clitoris, labia minora, anus

16 Lumbosacral plexus Sacral plexus: Sciatic nerve (roots): L4 L5 S1 S2 S3 *Sciatic nerve is the thickest nerve of body. *It is composed of Common Peroneal and Tibial nerves. *Com. Peroneal: composed of dorsal rami Tibial: composed of ventral rami *L4+L5= Lumbosacral trunk 3- Lumbosacral trunk 4- Sciatic nerve 5- common peroneal N. 6- tibial N. 12- posterior femoral cutaneous nerve 13- pudendal nerve 14- superior gluteal nerve

17 Sacral plexus (L4-S4)  Sciatic nerve (L4-S3)  Tibial nerve  Common peroneal (fibular) nerve Motor to muscles of pelvis and lower extremity (gluteal, posterior femoral, lower leg & foot) Sensory from posterior pelvis, posterior thigh, anterior, posterior & lateral leg

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19 SCIATIC NERVE The sciatic nerve (astrerisk) is formed from spinal nerves arising from the lumbar (L4 and L5) and sacral (S1, S2 and S3) regions of the spinal cord. It passes into the thigh and lower leg supplying innervation of sensation and movement for the entire lower limb. When giving a gluteal intramuscular injection, it is important to inject into the gluteus medius muscle to avoid damage to this large nerve.

20 Sacral Plexus Sciatic –Motor: Hamstring –Branches into: Tibial nerve –Cutaneous »Posterior leg and sole of foot –Motor »Posterior leg, foot Common fibular (peroneal) nerve –Cutaneous »Anterior and lateral leg, dorsum foot –Motor »Lateral compartment, tibialis anterior, toe extensors Superior gluteal nerve –Motor Gluteus medius and minimus, tensor fasciae latae

21 Sacral Plexus (continued) Inferior gluteal nerve –Motor Gluteus maximus Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve –Sensory Inferior buttocks, posterior thigh, popliteal fossa Pudendal nerve –Sensory External genitalia, anus –Motor Muscles of perineum

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23 The only one of the three that travel below the knee is the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve branches into two nerve: 1. tibial nerve 2. common peroneal nerve a. Superficial peroneal nerve b. Deep peroneal nerve

24 femurmedial lateral Anterior compartment- Extensors of the knee Femoral Nerve Medial compartment- Adductors of the knee Obturator Nerve Posterior compartment- Flexors of the knee Sciatic Nerve

25 L2 L3 L4 iliopsoas Rectus femoris pectineus Vastus medialis Vastus intermedius sartorius Vastus lateralis Motor Branches of the Femoral Nerve

26 Adductus magnus gracilis Adductor longus Adductor brevis Motor Branches of the Obturator Nerve

27 L4 L5 S1 S2 S3 Semitendinosis Biceps femoris semimembranosus Hamstrings Gastrocnemius and posterior compartment of the leg and foot Tibial nerve Common peroneal nerve Deep peroneal nerve Anterior compartment of leg Lateral compartment of leg Superficial peroneal nerve Motor Branches of the Sciatic Nerve

28 Sacral plexus nerves: ( Be able to label sciatic, tibial and common fibular nerves)

29 Diaphragm? Phrenic nerve C3-5 Arm and forearm extensors? Radial nerve Medial hand? Ulnar nerve Lateral palm? Median nerve Quad? Femoral nerve Footdrop? Common fibular/peroneal nerve (branch of Sciatic nerve) Cervical plexus C1-5 Brachial plexus C5-T1 Lumbar plexus L1-4 Sacral plexus L4-S4 Nerve plexuses (very) simplified ….

30 Dermatomes (innervation of skin) Dermatomes (area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branches from a single spinal nerve is called a dermatome) Reveal sites of damage to spinal nerves or spinal cord


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