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Leadership Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Northouse, 4th edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Leadership Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Northouse, 4th edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leadership Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Northouse, 4th edition

2 Overview Situational Approach Perspective Leadership Styles
Developmental Levels How Does the Situational Approach Work?

3 Situational Approach Description (Hersey & Blanchard, 1969)
“Leaders match their style to the competence and commitment of subordinates” Perspective Focuses on leadership in situations Emphasizes adapting style - different situations demand different kinds of leadership Used extensively in organizational leadership training and development

4 Situational Approach Description, cont’d (Hersey & Blanchard, 1969)
Definition Comprised of both a Directive dimension & Supportive dimension: Each dimension must be applied appropriately in a given situation Leaders evaluate employees to assess their competence and commitment to perform a given task

5 Leadership Styles Definition
Leadership style - the behavior pattern of an individual who attempts to influence others It includes both: Directive (task) behaviors Supportive (relationship) behaviors

6 Leadership Styles, cont’d.
Dimension Definitions Directive behaviors - Help group members in goal achievement via one-way communication through: Giving directions Establishing goals & how to achieve them Methods of evaluation & time lines Defining roles

7 Leadership Styles, cont’d.
Dimension Definitions Supportive behaviors - Assist group members via two-way communication in feeling comfortable with themselves, co-workers, and situation Asking for input Problem solving Praising; listening

8 S1 - Directing Style Leader focuses communication on goal achievement
Spends LESS time using supportive behaviors S 1 Directing High Directive Low Supportive

9 S2 - Coaching Style Coaching
Leader focuses communication on BOTH goal achievement and supporting subordinates’ socioemotional needs Requires leader involvement through encouragement and soliciting subordinate input S 2 Coaching High Directive High Supportive

10 S3 - Supporting Style Supporting
Leader does NOT focus solely on goals; rather the leader uses supportive behaviors to bring out employee skills in accomplishing the task Leader delegates day-to-day decision-making control, but is available to facilitate problem solving S 3 Supporting High Supportive Low Directive

11 S4 - Delegating Style Delegating
Leader offers LESS task input and social support; facilitates subordinates’ confidence and motivation in relation to the task Leader lessens involvement in planning, control of details, and goal clarification Gives subordinates control and refrains from intervention and unneeded social support S 4 Delegating Low Supportive Low Directive

12 Dimension Definitions
Development Levels Definition Dimension Definitions The degree to which subordinates have the competence and commitment necessary to accomplish a given task or activity Low Competence High Commitment D1 Some Competence Low Commitment D2 Mod-High Competence Low Commitment D3 High Competence High Commitment D4 High Moderate Low D4 D3 D2 D1 Developed Developing Developmental Level Of Followers

13 How Does the Situational Approach Work?
Focus of Situational Approach Strengths Criticisms Application

14 Situational Approach Focus Centered on the idea subordinates vacillate along the developmental continuum of competence and commitment Leader effectiveness depends on - assessing subordinate’s developmental position, and adapting his/her leadership style to match subordinate developmental level “The Situational approach requires leaders to demonstrate a strong degree of flexibility.”

15 How Does The Situational Approach Work?
Using the SLII model – In any given situation the Leader has 2 tasks: 1st Task 2nd Task Adapt their Style To prescribed Leadership style in the SLII model Leadership style must correspond to the employees development level Diagnose the Situation Identify the developmental level of employee Ask questions like: What is the task subordinates are being asked to perform? How complicated is it? What is their skill set? Do they have the desire to complete the job?

16 How Does The Situational Approach Work?
Employees Developmental level Leaders Leadership style Low Competence High Commitment S1 – Directing High Directive-Low Supportive D1 S2 – Coaching High Directive-High Supportive Some Competence Low Commitment D2 Mod-High Competence Low Commitment S3 – Supporting High Supportive-Low Directive D3 High Competence High Commitment S4 – Delegating Low Supportive-Low Directive D4

17 Strengths Marketplace approval. Situational leadership is perceived as providing a credible model for training employees to become effective leaders. Practicality. Situational leadership is a straightforward approach that is easily understood and applied in a variety of settings. Prescriptive value. Situational leadership clearly outlines what you should and should not do in various settings.

18 Strengths, cont’d. Leader flexibility. Situational leadership stresses that effective leaders are those who can change their style based on task requirements and subordinate needs. Differential treatment. Situational leadership is based on the premise that leaders need to treat each subordinate according to his/her unique needs.

19 Criticisms Lack of an empirical foundation raises theoretical considerations regarding the validity of the approach Further research is required to determine how commitment and competence are conceptualized for each developmental level Conceptualization of commitment itself is very unclear Replication studies fail to support basic prescriptions of situational leadership model

20 Criticisms, cont’d. Does not account for how particular demographics influence the leader- subordinate prescriptions of the model Fails to adequately address the issue of one- to-one versus group leadership in an organizational setting Questionnaires are biased in favor of situational leadership

21 Application Often used in consulting because it’s easy to conceptualize and apply Straightforward nature makes it practical for managers to apply Breadth of situational approach facilitates its applicability in virtually all types of organizations and levels of management in organizations

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