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Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Leadership Northouse, 4 th edition Chapter 5 - Situational Approach.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Leadership Northouse, 4 th edition Chapter 5 - Situational Approach."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Leadership Northouse, 4 th edition Chapter 5 - Situational Approach

2  Situational Approach Perspective  Leadership Styles  Developmental Levels  How Does the Situational Approach Work? Overview

3 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Situational Approach Description ( Hersey & Blanchard, 1969)  Focuses on leadership in situations  Emphasizes adapting style - different situations demand different kinds of leadership  Used extensively in organizational leadership training and development PerspectivePerspective “Leaders match their style to the competence and commitment of subordinates”

4 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Situational Approach Description, cont’d ( Hersey & Blanchard, 1969) DefinitionDefinition  Comprised of both a Directive dimension & Supportive dimension: –Each dimension must be applied appropriately in a given situation –Leaders evaluate employees to assess their competence and commitment to perform a given task

5 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach  Leadership style - the behavior pattern of an individual who attempts to influence others It includes both: –Directive (task) behaviors –Supportive (relationship) behaviors Definition Leadership Styles

6 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Leadership Styles, cont’d. Dimension Definitions  Directive behaviors - Help group members in goal achievement via one-way communication through: –Giving directions –Establishing goals & how to achieve them –Methods of evaluation & time lines –Defining roles

7 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Leadership Styles, cont’d. Dimension Definitions  Supportive behaviors - Assist group members via two-way communication in feeling comfortable with themselves, co- workers, and situation –Asking for input –Problem solving –Praising; listening

8 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach S1 - Directing Style  Leader focuses communication on goal achievement  Spends LESS time using supportive behaviors Directing High Directive Low Supportive S 1

9 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach S2 - Coaching Style  Leader focuses communication on BOTH goal achievement and supporting subordinates’ socioemotional needs  Requires leader involvement through encouragement and soliciting subordinate input Coaching High Directive High Supportive S 2

10 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach S3 - Supporting Style  Leader does NOT focus solely on goals; rather the leader uses supportive behaviors to bring out employee skills in accomplishing the task  Leader delegates day-to-day decision-making control, but is available to facilitate problem solving Supporting High Supportive Low Directive S 3

11 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach S4 - Delegating Style  Leader offers LESS task input and social support; facilitates subordinates’ confidence and motivation in relation to the task  Leader lessens involvement in planning, control of details, and goal clarification  Gives subordinates control and refrains from intervention and unneeded social support Delegating Low Supportive Low Directive S 4

12 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Development Levels  The degree to which subordinates have the competence and commitment necessary to accomplish a given task or activity Definition Dimension Definitions D1 Low Competence High Commitment D2 Some Competence Low Commitment D3 Mod-High Competence Low Commitment D4 High Competence High Commitment D4D3D2D1 DevelopedDeveloping HighModerate Low Developmental Level Of Followers

13 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach How Does the Situational Approach Work?  Focus of Situational Approach  Strengths  Criticisms  Application

14 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Situational Approach  Centered on the idea subordinates vacillate along the developmental continuum of competence and commitment  Leader effectiveness depends on - –assessing subordinate’s developmental position, and –adapting his/her leadership style to match subordinate developmental level FocusFocus “The Situational approach requires leaders to demonstrate a strong degree of flexibility.”

15 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach 1 st Task 2 nd Task Diagnose the Situation  Identify the developmental level of employee Ask questions like: -What is the task subordinates are being asked to perform? - How complicated is it? -What is their skill set? - Do they have the desire to complete the job? Using the SLII model – In any given situation the Leader has 2 tasks: Adapt their Style  To prescribed Leadership style in the SLII model Leadership style must correspond to the employees development level How Does The Situational Approach Work?

16 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Employees Developmental level D1 Low Competence High Commitment D2 Some Competence Low Commitment D3 Mod-High Competence Low Commitment D4 High Competence High Commitment Leaders Leadership style Leaders Leadership style S1 – Directing High Directive-Low Supportive S2 – Coaching High Directive-High Supportive S3 – Supporting High Supportive-Low Directive S4 – Delegating Low Supportive-Low Directive How Does The Situational Approach Work?

17 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Strengths  Marketplace approval. Situational leadership is perceived as providing a credible model for training employees to become effective leaders.  Practicality. Situational leadership is a straightforward approach that is easily understood and applied in a variety of settings.  Prescriptive value. Situational leadership clearly outlines what you should and should not do in various settings.

18 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Strengths, cont’d.  Leader flexibility. Situational leadership stresses that effective leaders are those who can change their style based on task requirements and subordinate needs.  Differential treatment. Situational leadership is based on the premise that leaders need to treat each subordinate according to his/her unique needs.

19 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Criticisms  Lack of an empirical foundation raises theoretical considerations regarding the validity of the approach  Further research is required to determine how commitment and competence are conceptualized for each developmental level  Conceptualization of commitment itself is very unclear  Replication studies fail to support basic prescriptions of situational leadership model

20 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Criticisms, cont’d.  Does not account for how particular demographics influence the leader- subordinate prescriptions of the model  Fails to adequately address the issue of one- to-one versus group leadership in an organizational setting  Questionnaires are biased in favor of situational leadership

21 Chapter 5 - Situational Approach Application  Often used in consulting because it’s easy to conceptualize and apply  Straightforward nature makes it practical for managers to apply  Breadth of situational approach facilitates its applicability in virtually all types of organizations and levels of management in organizations


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