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Food Animal Cardiology M. S. Gill, DVM, MS. Initial examination  Complete physical examination important  With special attention given to: –Mucous membrane.

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Presentation on theme: "Food Animal Cardiology M. S. Gill, DVM, MS. Initial examination  Complete physical examination important  With special attention given to: –Mucous membrane."— Presentation transcript:

1 Food Animal Cardiology M. S. Gill, DVM, MS

2 Initial examination  Complete physical examination important  With special attention given to: –Mucous membrane color –Presence of jugular pulses –Edema

3 Jugular pulse

4 Jugular pulse & edema

5 Examination of the heart  Heart occupies ventral position in the thorax  Between the 3 rd and 6 th ribs  3/5’s of heart is on the left side

6 Examination of the heart  Auscultation  Heart sounds –S1, S2, S3, S4  Areas of auscultation of heart valves  Assessment of murmurs

7 Examination of the heart  S1 – beginning of ventricular systole (contracting myocardium and closure of AV valves)  S2 – closure of the semilunar valves  S3 – ventricular filling  S4 – atrial contraction  Normal sequence S4 – S1 – S2 – S3

8 Examination of the heart

9  Grading murmurs –Grade I –Grade II –Grade III –Grade IV –Grade V Grade I is not clinically significant. Grades IV and V are usually significant

10 Evaluation of the heart  Heart rate – should equal pulse –Tachycardia –Bradycardia  Rhythm –Most common arrhythmia in cattle is atrial fibrillation

11 Congenital cardiac defects  Early detection important –Expense –Genetic implications

12 Congenital cardiac defects  Ventricular septal defect* –Left to right shunt  Tetralogy of Fallot –Right to left shunt, cyanosis  Ectopia cordis  Patent foramen ovale  PDA

13 Vegetative endocarditis  Murmur  CHF may develop  Arcanobacter pyogenes or α-hemolytic strep in cattle, erysipelothrix or strep in swine  Lesions on valves are usually embolic in origin  Right AV valve usually affected

14 Vegetative endocarditis  Clinical signs –Poor doing animal –Exercise intolerance –CHF –Fluctuating fever  Clinical pathology –Severe leukocytosis  Diagnostics –Blood cultures –Echocardiography

15 Vegetative endocarditis  Large cauliflower-like or small verrucous lesions on heart valves, or,  Shrunken, scarred heart valves

16 Vegetative endocarditis

17  Treatment –Cephalosporins/penicillin to calves with omphalophlebitis –Long term, broad spectrum antibiotics to cattle with vegetative endocarditis –Prognosis poor

18 Pericarditis  Inflammation of the visceral and parietal pericardium  Most likely due to traumatic pericarditis – extension of traumatic reticuloperitonitis

19 Pericarditis  Pathophysiology –Penetration of pericardium by metallic foreign body fibrinous exudate effusion with splashing sounds compromised heart function CHF

20 Pericarditis  Clinical signs –Pain –Kyphosis –Abduction of elbows –Shallow respirations –T – º F –Fluid splashing cardiac sounds or friction rubs or muffled heart sounds –CHF may develop late in the course

21 Pericarditis  Most cows with pericarditis die in 1-3 weeks  Some develop chronic pericarditis  Leukocytosis – 16,000-30,000 WBC

22 Pericarditis  Pericardiocentesis –Centesis performed at the 4 th or 5 th intercostal space at the level of the elbow on the left side

23 Pericarditis

24  Fibrin deposition  Purulent exudate  Thickened pericardium / epicardium  Adhesions  Possible presence of metallic foreign body

25 Pericarditis  Treatment –Not very successful –Long term, broad spectrum antibiotics –5 th or 6 th rib resection (pericardiotomy) may be attempted but not very successful

26 Myocardial disease  Myocarditis –Inflammation of the myocardial wall (bacterial, viral, parasitic)  Cardiomyopathy –Dilated cardiomyopathy is the only form of clinical significance in large animals

27 Myocarditis  Bacterial –Staph, Clostridium, 2º to bacteremia or septicemia, pericarditis, endocarditis  Viral –FMD  Parasitic –Toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, sarcocystis

28 Myocarditis  May be incidental finding at necropsy  Treat primary condition – i.e., cow with mastitis

29 Cardiomyopathy  Toxicities: –Monensin, lasalocid –Gossypol –Cassia –Phalaris  Deficiencies –Vitamin E/Se (WMD or nutritional myodegeneration) –Copper deficiency

30 Cardiomyopathy  Other causes –Excess molybdenum –High sulfates –Lymphosarcoma – neoplastic infiltration of myocardium

31 Cardiomyopathy  Clinical signs – usually present with CHF  Treatment – poor prognosis – treat CHF

32 Cor pulmonale  Pulmonary hypertension, brisket disease, high altitude disease, or high mountain disease  Cor pulmonale reflects effect of lung dysfunction on heart, therefore, heart disease is secondary

33 Cor pulmonale  Pathophysiology: –Pulmonary hypertension right heart hypertrophy, dilatation or failure  Underlying cause is hypoxic vasoconstriction caused by –High altitude dwelling (> 6,000 feet) –Pulmonary disease (bronchopneumonia or lungworms)

34 Cor pulmonale  Clinical signs –Signs of CHF  Treatment –Remove from high altitude –Treat any primary lung disease –Reversible if treated early

35 Differentials for CHF  Vegetative endocarditis  Pericarditis  Myocarditis  Cardiac lymphosarcoma  Dilated cardiomyopathy  Cor pulmonale or brisket disease

36 Electrocardiography  Useful for diagnosis of arrhythmias  Base-apex lead –Normal ECG: Small positive P wave (may be notched) QRS complex is either rS or QS T is a positive monophasic or negative/positive biphasic wave

37 Normal cattle ECG

38 Atrial fibrillation  Most common arrhythmia in cattle  Absence of P waves, presence of f waves, ventricular tachycardia with irregular rhythm  Atria remain distended & quiver due to numerous independent fronts of depolarization  CHF unlikely

39 Atrial fibrillation  Organic – underlying heart disease  Functional - 2º to other abnormalities –GI disturbances, electrolyte abnormalities, pulmonary disease, brain disease

40 Atrial fibrillation  Most cases are functional  May be paroxysmal or established  May convert to normal sinus rhythm spontaneously  Treatment involves correcting underlying condition – quinidine has been used in some cases that don’t correct on own

41 Atrial fibrillation


43 Sinus arrhythmia

44 Premature ventricular contractions  Etiology –Primary myocardial disease –Secondary to increased sympathetic tone, hypoxia, anemia, uremia, acidosis, sepsis, hypokalemia or various drugs  Rate normal but rhythm irregular  QRS complex of a PVC is premature, bizarre, prolonged & of larger amplitude  Unifocal or multifocal  Treat underlying condition or lidocaine

45 PVC – multifocal or multiform

46 PVC - unifocal

47 Pericarditis

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