Presentation on theme: "OCTAVESM Process 4 Create Threat Profiles"— Presentation transcript:
1 OCTAVESM Process 4 Create Threat Profiles Software Engineering InstituteCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburgh, PASponsored by the U.S. Department of DefensePhase 1: Build Asset-Based Threat ProfilesProcess 4: Create Threat Profiles – During this process, the analysis team consolidates the information gathered during Processes 1 through 3, selects five critical assets, and defines the security requirements and threats to those assets.Materials Required:direct display projector or overhead for slides (optional)slides for Process 4 (optional)worksheets for Process 4Data Preparation ActivitiesProcess 4 requires data consolidation tasks prior to the workshop. One or more analysis team members can consolidate the data. It is not required that the entire team work on consolidating data.The data consolidation tasks areGroup Assets by Organizational Level (D4.1)Group Security Requirements by Organizational Level and Asset (D4.2)Group Areas of Concern and Impacts by Organizational Level and Asset (D4.3)For additional guidance about the data consolidation tasks, see the detailed Process Guidelines for Process 4.
2 OCTAVESMOperationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability EvaluationSMOperationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation and OCTAVE are service marks of Carnegie Mellon UniversityIntroductionThe risk assessment process in which your organization will be participating is Operationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation, or OCTAVE.OCTAVE is a self-directed information security evaluation being developed by Carnegie Mellon University.
3 Strategy and Plan Development OCTAVE ProcessPhase 1Organizational ViewCreate Threat ProfilesAssets Threats Current Practices Org. Vulnerabilities Security Req.Phase 3Strategy and Plan DevelopmentPlanningRisks Protection Strategy Mitigation PlansThis slide describes the OCTAVE process and where you are in the process.Build Asset-Based Threat Profiles (Phase 1) is the organizational view.Identify Infrastructure Vulnerabilities (Phase 2) is the technological view.Develop Security Strategy and Plans (Phase 3) is strategy and plan development.This workshop is for Process 4, Create Threat Profiles.The participants in this workshop are the core analysis team members as well as any supplemental personnel.At the beginning of the workshop, the leader will make sure that everyone knows his or her role. In addition, the leader will review what will be accomplished and will make sure that all necessary materials have been gathered and are ready for use.The leader will also make sure sure that everyone knows the projected time to conduct this process and this workshop is approximately hours.Tech. VulnerabilitiesPhase 2Technological View
4 Objectives of This Workshop To select critical assetsTo describe the security requirements for the critical assetsTo identify threats to the critical assetsIn this workshop, you will be generating the following:a set of critical assetsthe security requirements for the critical assetsthreats to the critical assets
5 Asset Something of value to the organization information systems softwarehardwarepeopleSelect Critical Assets (A4.1)An asset is something of value to the organization. An information security risk evaluation is focused on identifying the information that is important to meeting the mission of the organization. The only way to identify the most meaningful information is to ask the people who work in the organization (all levels of staff, mission-related staff, and support staff).Assets can fall into the following categories:information – documented (paper or electronic) information or intellectual assets used to meet the mission of the organizationsystems – information systems that process and store information. Systems are a combination of information, software, and hardware assets. Any host, client, server, or network can be considered a system.software – software applications (operating systems, database applications, networking software, office applications, custom applications, etc.)hardware – information technology physical devices (workstations, servers, etc.)people – the people in the organization, including their skills, training, knowledge, and experience
6 Critical AssetsThe most important information assets to the organizationThere will be a large adverse impact to the organization if one of the following occurs:The asset is disclosed to unauthorized people.The asset is modified without authorization.The asset is lost or destroyed.Access to the asset in interrupted.You will work as a team during this activity to select five critical assets.Critical assets are those that are believed to be the most important assets to the organization. The organization will suffer a large adverse impact if the security requirements of these assets are violated.Consider the following questions when selecting critical assets:Which assets will have a large adverse impact on the organization if they are disclosed to unauthorized people?Which assets will have a large adverse impact on the organization if they are modified without authorization?Which assets will have a large adverse impact on the organization if they are lost or destroyed?Which assets will have a large adverse impact on the organization if access to them in interrupted?As you consider the questions, review the information on the following worksheets:Asset Group worksheet (W4.1)Security Requirements Group worksheet (W4.2)Areas of Concern Group worksheet (W4.3)
7 Identifying Critical Assets Select up to five (5) critical assets.You should discuss the questions among yourselves. Remember that each of you brings a unique perspective to the discussion. When you come to a consensus and select the critical assets, the scribe will start an Asset Profile Workbook (WK) for each critical asset. Turn to the Critical Asset Information section of each Asset Profile Workbook.In addition to selecting critical assets, you must also document your rationale for selecting those assets. To determine the rationale, you need to understand what aspect of the asset is important. This is especially true for the more complex assets (systems) where the assets have multiple characteristics. By understanding the important aspect of the asset and documenting the information, you will be better able to define security requirements and threats later in this workshop. Answering the following question might help you determine what is important about the asset:Why is the asset critical to meeting the mission of your organization?When you come to a consensus, the scribe should record the rationale for each critical asset in the Critical Asset Information section of its Asset Profile Workbook.Note that there is also a place for a description of the asset. The description should include information elicited by the above question.When you come to a consensus, the scribe should add the brief description for each critical asset in the appropriate place in the Critical Asset Information section of its workbook.For additional guidance see the Process Guidelines for Process 4.
8 Security Requirements Outline the qualities of an asset that are important to protect:confidentialityintegrityavailabilityRefine Security Requirements for Critical Assets (A4.2)You will work as a team during this activity to create or refine security requirements for your critical assets. Security requirements outline the qualities of an asset that are important to protect. This helps to form a basis for a protection strategy. Recall that the following are the types of security requirements examined during OCTAVE:confidentiality - the need to keep proprietary, sensitive, or personal information private and inaccessible to anyone who is not authorized to see itintegrity – the authenticity, accuracy, and completeness of an assetavailability – when or how often an asset must be present or ready for use
9 Identifying Security Requirements Describe the security requirements for each critical asset.Decide which of the security requirements is most important for each critical asset.Select a critical asset. Turn to the Security Requirements for Critical Assets section of that asset’s Asset Profile Workbook (WK). As you think about security requirements for the critical asset, review the information for that asset contained on the following worksheets:Security Requirements Group worksheet (W4.2)Areas of Concern Group worksheet (W4.3)Remember that if you selected a critical asset that was not identified as an important asset during the earlier workshops, you will not have areas of concern or security requirements information on the above worksheets, and you will have to create security requirements without the benefit of this additional information.When you come to a consensus, the scribe should write the security requirements for the critical asset in the appropriate place in the Security Requirements for Critical Assets section of the workbook.Next, you need to identify the most important security requirement for the critical asset. When you come to a consensus, the scribe should note which security requirement is most important in the Security Requirements for Critical Assets section of the workbook.Move on to the next critical asset. Continue with this activity until you have described the security requirements for all critical assets and have recorded them in the appropriate Asset Profile Workbook.For additional guidance see the Process Guidelines for Process 4.
10 Threat An indication of a potential undesirable event Identify Threats to Critical Assets (A4.3)A threat is an indication of a potential undesirable event. It refers to a situation where a person could do something undesirable or where a natural occurrence could cause an undesirable outcome.An alternative definition for threat is any circumstance or event with the potential to harm an information system through unauthorized access, destruction, disclosure, modification of data, and/or denial of service.
11 Threat Properties Asset Access (optional - only relevant for human actors)ActorMotive (optional - only relevant for human actors)OutcomeIn addition each threat has the following specific properties:asset – something of value to the organizationactor – who or what may violate the security requirements (confidentiality, integrity, availability) of an assetmotive (optional) – defines whether the actor’s intentions are deliberate or accidentalaccess (optional) – how the asset will be accessed by the actor (network access, physical access)outcome – the immediate outcome (disclosure, modification, destruction, loss, interruption) of violating the security requirements of an assetNote that motive and access are optional. They apply only to human actors. Thus, motive and access are used for the following categories of threat: human actors using network access and human actors using physical access.
12 Threat Sources Human actors using network access Human actors using physical accessSystem problemsOther problemsA threat profile defines the range of threats that can affect an asset. Threat profiles contain categories that are grouped according to source. The following list shows the threat categories that are considered in OCTAVE:human actors using network access - These are network-based threats to your critical assets. These threats can be deliberate or accidental in nature.human actors using physical access - These are physical threats to your critical assets. These threats can be deliberate or accidental in nature.system problems – These are problems with your IT systems. Examples include hardware defects, software defects, unavailability of related systems, viruses, malicious code, and other system-related problems.other problems – These are problems that are outside of your control. These can include natural disasters (e.g., floods and earthquakes) that can affect your organization’s IT systems, unavailability of systems maintained by other organizations, and interdependency issues. Interdependency issues include problems with infrastructure services, such as power outages, broken water pipes, and telecommunication outages.
13 Threat ProfileA threat profile contains a range of threat scenarios for the following sources of threats:human actors using network accesshuman actors using physical accesssystem problemsother problemsThe threat profile is visually represented using asset-based threat trees.A threat profile defines the range of threats that can affect an asset. Threat profiles contain categories that are grouped according to source. The following list shows the threat categories that are considered in OCTAVE:human actors using network accesshuman actors using physical accesssystem problems (for systems under your control)other problems (problems due to conditions out of your control)Threats can be visually represented in a tree structure. One tree exists for each threat category. Review the threat trees in the Threat and Risk Profiles section of the Asset Profile Workbook (WK).Note that there is one additional field in the trees – impact. Threat trees contain all fields with the exception of impact. A risk is the threat plus the resulting impact. The tree in this section of the workbook is actually a risk tree. However, during this activity, you will be addressing only the following properties: asset, access, actor, motive, and outcome. Thus, you will be addressing threats. Impact will be addressed during a subsequent workshop.
14 Human Actors - Network Access disclosure modification loss/destruction interruptionaccidentaldeliberateoutsideinsidenetworkassetThis viewgraph shows the asset-based threat tree for human actors using network access.asset access actor motive outcome
15 Human Actors - Physical Access disclosure modification loss/destruction interruptionaccidentaldeliberateoutsideinsidephysicalassetThis viewgraph shows the asset-based threat tree for human actors using physical access.asset access actor motive outcome
16 System Problems asset actor outcome disclosure modification loss/destruction interruptionsoftware defectsviruseshardware defectssystem crashesassetThis viewgraph shows the asset-based threat tree for system problems (for systems under your control).asset actor outcome
17 Other Problems asset actor outcome disclosure modification loss/destruction interruptionnatural disastersthird partyproblemspower supply problemstelecommunications problems or unavailabilityassetThis viewgraph shows the asset-based threat tree for other problems (problems due to conditions out of your control).The following notes belong with the next slide:Select a critical asset. Turn to the Threat and Risk Profiles section of that asset’s Asset Profile Workbook (WK).Review the areas of concern that affect the critical asset (from the Areas of Concern Group worksheet). For each area of concern, decide which threat tree applies. Then decide which branches of the threat trees should be marked. Note that an area of concern could be mapped to multiple branches. When you come to a consensus, the scribe should mark the appropriate branches of the threat tree in the workbook. Complete the applicable branches for all of the critical asset’s areas of concern.Next you will need to address the unmarked branches. This activity is a gap analysis. Remember that the areas of concern were elicited during earlier workshops. It is unlikely that all threats for an asset would be elicited during those workshops.asset actor outcome
18 Identifying ThreatsReview the areas of concern for the critical asset.Use the threat profile to identify threats to each critical asset.Consider the following questions when you are reviewing the unmarked branches of a threat tree:For which remaining branches is there a non-negligible possibility of a threat to the asset? (Mark these branches in the Threat and Risk Profiles section.)For which remaining branches is there a negligible possibility or no possibility of a threat to the asset? (Do not mark these branches in the Threat and Risk Profiles section.)When you come to a consensus, the scribe should mark the appropriate branches of the threat tree in the workbook. Remember to consider all branches for each threat tree.Move on to the next critical asset. Continue with this activity until you have completed all of the threat trees for all critical assets and marked them accordingly in the appropriate Asset Profile Workbook.After you have completed all of the threat trees, look at the outcomes across the threat profile. Compare the outcomes with the security requirements and address any gaps that exist.For additional guidance see the Process Guidelines for Process 4.
19 Summary We have completed the following in this workshop: selected critical assetsdescribed the security requirements for the critical assetsidentified threats to the critical assetsSummaryYou have completed the workshop for creating threat profiles. The next workshop is part of Phase 2 of OCTAVE (Identify Infrastructure Vulnerabilities). During Phase 2, you will start to examine your infrastructure’s technology components for weaknesses.The leader of this workshop should review what was covered during this workshop. In addition, any issues/action items that were identified during the workshop should be addressed. One action item will be to complete the data consolidation task after the workshop.In this workshop, you identified the following:a set of critical assetsthe security requirements for the critical assetsthreats to the critical assetsThe leader of the next workshop should make sure that everyone knows when it will occur.Data Additions After Process 4Process 4 requires data consolidation tasks after the workshop. One or more analysis team members can consolidate the data. It is not required that the entire team work on consolidating data. The data consolidation task isAdd Areas of Concern to Asset Profile Workbook (X4.1)For additional guidance about the data consolidation task, see the Process Guidelines for Process 4.