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A comparative Study of Quantitative & Qualitative Longitudinal Action Research Case Studies ©2006 FHussin RMFelder RBrent New Directions in Educational.

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Presentation on theme: "A comparative Study of Quantitative & Qualitative Longitudinal Action Research Case Studies ©2006 FHussin RMFelder RBrent New Directions in Educational."— Presentation transcript:

1 A comparative Study of Quantitative & Qualitative Longitudinal Action Research Case Studies ©2006 FHussin RMFelder RBrent New Directions in Educational Research ERAS Conference Diversity for Excellence: Engaged Pedagogies May 2006 Singapore

2 FHHussin RMFelder RBrent A comparative Study of Quantitative & Qualitative Longitudinal Action Research Case Studies series of Ongoing Action Research studies part of a larger effort The Osmosis Project (TOP) Department of Curriculum & Instructional Technology University of Malaya Longitudinal Study on chemical engineering students five consecutive semesters using active and cooperative learning North Carolina State University Collaboration between:

3 Case:Longitudinal Study of Engineering Student Performance & Retention: A1 Success and Failure in the Introductory Course (Felder et al., 1993) A2 Differences between Students from Rural and Urban Backgrounds (Felder et al., 1994) A3 Gender Differences in Student Performance and Attitudes (Felder et al., 1995) A4 Instructional Methods and Student Responses to Them (Felder, 1995) A5 Comparisons with Traditionally-Taught Students (Felder et al., 1998) A6 The Effects of Personality Type on Engineering Student Performance and Attitudes (Felder et al., 2002)

4 Case:Ongoing Industry & Coursework based Action Research studies: B1 SMS & On-Job Osmosis Learning (Hussin, 2004) B2 Happy School - Alternative Learning Approaches (Hussin, 2006) B3 LeaP-FrOG - Learning Protocols for Free Online Groupwebs (FrOG) (Hussin, 2006) B4 Collaborative Immersion Live Industry Undergraduate Project Investigations (Cili-UPI) (Hussin, 2006) B5 Instructional Architecture - Alternative Framework for In-Situ Learning (Hussin, 2005)

5 FHussin RMFelder RBrent A comparative Study of Quantitative & Qualitative Longitudinal Action Research Case Studies achingc between:Collaboration

6 achingc what are the other forms of teaching ? …but before we look at

7 achingt other forms of teaching ? Arranging conditions to bring about learning as planned; changing the frequency of actions on a relatively permanent basis given a set of conditions. (Eshleman, 2001) definition

8 Refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and attitudes as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. (Wikipedia, 2006) definition ainingtr

9 A form of teaching that includes walking alongside the person you are teaching and inviting him or her to learn from your example. Informal relationships develop naturally between mentor and mentee, while formal mentoring refers to assigned relationships, often associated with organizational programs. (Wikipedia, 2006) ringment definition

10 Encompasses supervising, observing, and testing activities and appropriately reporting to responsible individuals; Providing an ongoing verification of progress toward achievement of objectives and goals; A frequent or continuous process of checking that codes are consistently being complied with. (CCC, 2005) definition mringnit

11 Sophisticated form of teaching which expands the learner’s awareness of the internal and external roadblocks and speed bumps in the way of reaching the goal; Assists in designing and supporting a learning environment which reinforces and drives the desired change; Context includes conversations of deep engagement which venture fearlessly into sensitive subjects; Solves problems and manifests change faster than the learner would have done alone; Helps learner reach fullest potential and achieve goals, by first helping define the goals, and then supports the learner in executing them by mapping out a strategy, staying on track, balancing work, family and social demands as well as leisure and spiritual activities. (Wikipedia, 2006) definition achingc

12 Case A:Primarily Quantitative Data Learning/Study Skills Inventory (LASSI) Scores Attitude, Motivation, Time management, Anxiety, Concentration, Information processing, Selecting Main Ideas, Study aids, Self testing, Test Strategies Demographics Gender, Ethnicity, Hometown, Father’s education, Mother’s education, Parent’s career choice, Mother’s employment Self-expectation Anxiety level, Self esteem, Self assessment Academic Performance Course marks, attrition rate from engineering Self assessment Reasons for degree choice, Confidence in degree choice, Prior knowledge of degree choice, Work commitments, Social commitments, Family commitments, Career planning Personality Profiling Myers-Briggs Type Indicators (MBTI) profiles: extrovert vs. introvert, sensor vs. intuitor, thinker vs. feeler, judger vs. perceiver

13 Case B:Primarily Qualitative Data Demographics Gender, Ethnicity, Hometown, Age, Mode of Transport, Socio-economic status, ICT facilities available Transaction Transcript Documentation (TTD) Rubric of measurable observations, speed & length of transaction, length of dialogue, structure of linguistics used, dialogue intent (overt influencing, enforce pacing, scaffolding, provoke reflection, establish rapport) Ongoing Periodic Formative Evaluation Depth of interpersonal relationships, Frequency of reflective thinking, Hierarchical boundaries broken, Tolerance towards outcome, Quality of work produced, Emotional Intelligence levels 360  all-rounded 24-7 Formative Evaluation Peer-to-peer evaluation, top-down and bottom-up evaluation, Logbook method, Free Online Groupweb (FrOG) messaging, Blogging, Short Messaging Service (SMS) Performance Output Prior & Post knowledge/performance, Creativity & Innovation, ICT skills quality, Multi- tasking ability Personality Profiling Big Five or Five Factors Model (FFM) (Wiggins, 1996), Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism Psychoticism, Extraversion & Neuroticism (PEN) (Eysenck,1990) Leonard Personality Inventory (LPI) (Yong, 2003) Openness, Analytical, Relational, Neutral, Decisive Psychological types (Jung, 1923/1971) Introversion, Extroversion, Sensing, Intuition, Thinking, Feeling, Judging, Perceiving

14 achingc

15 Sophisticated form of teaching which awareness the learner’s achingc c

16 deep engagement venturing fearlessly into sensitive & dangerous subjects achingc

17 designing & supporting a smosis achingc env i ronment learn i ng

18 Learn i ng smosis Absorption Env i ronment from

19 crossing barriers

20 micsyst achingc

21 Focuses on improving the effectiveness and survivability of a human system: usually a couple, group, family, team or community. A systemic coach assesses a system's functioning (systemic diagnosis) and goals (systemic goalwork) and coaches the members to develop an interactive coaching plan to achieve both individual and systemic goals. This begins with dissolving barriers between system members to enable resourceful communication on all aspects of the system. (Wikipedia, 2006) definition achingc micsyst

22 dissolving interactive to achieve both individual and group goalsachingc micsyst

23 thinking about thinking one of the highest levels of learning ability to examine one's own thinking processes and strategies; to consciously reflect and act on the resulting metacognitive knowledge to modify those processes and strategies; a metacognitive learner is in control of his learning process and his future learning. (Flavell,1976) achingc metacognition

24 thinking about thinking one of the highest levels of bjective research self-sustaining learninG thinking about thinking one of the highest levels of learning ability to examine one's own thinking processes and strategies; to consciously reflect and act on the resulting metacognitive knowledge to modify those processes and strategies; a metacognitive learner is in control of his learning process and his future learning. (Flavell,1976) metacognition

25 Action Research cyclical process where critical reflection is used to review the previous action and plan the next one, allowing simultaneous pursuit of learning and achieving (Lewin, 1946) methodology: The study of a social situation, involving the participants themselves as researchers, with intent to improve the quality of action within it bjective research

26 Learn i ng Env i ronment Participant-observation methodology: The researcher immerses in complete participation of all experiment activities and goes on to actively influence the direction of the group (O’Conner,2002) immersion bjective research

27 Participant-observation methodology: The researcher immerses in complete participation of all experiment activities and goes on to actively influence the direction of the group (O’Conner,2002) Covert Immersion methodology: Researchers are themselves participants immersed in the experiment, thus often requiring covert or undercover instructional delivery techniques immersion bjective research

28 Learn i ng Env i ronment Participant-observation methodology: The researcher immerses in complete participation of all experiment activities and goes on to actively influence the direction of the group (O’Conner,2002) Covert Immersion methodology: Researchers are themselves participants immersed in the experiment, thus often requiring covert or undercover instructional delivery techniques method research immersion

29 TeBLE Learn i ng Env i ronment Technology Based Learning Environment (Phillips,2002) A total, integrated and human systemic approach for planning & developing instruction. Covering diverse aspects from ethical considerations to policies and societal needs, it requires a diversity of flexible and comprehensive instructional skills including observation, analysis, and diagnosis. bjective research

30 Learning model

31 Acquisition of Skills and Knowledge for Humanistic e-Learning Protocols S A 4 K e H PL is a proposed model of learning protocols, involving Technology Based Learning Environments (TeBLE) and focusing on Interpersonal Relationships (IR) between learners and instructors, learners and learners, as well as learners and their learning environment. This framework uses humanistic approaches, including learning psychology and sociology.

32 SMS Short Messaging Service

33 Freeware Online-portals for Group-websites FrOG

34 Transaction Transcript Documentation T TD rubric of measurable observations time venue intent analysis speed length dialogue linguistics descriptor observation confidentiality communication task execution participant profile time venue intent speed length dialogue linguistics

35 Sociometry & Profiling

36 Sociometry (Moreno, 1934) diagrammatic analysis of Interpersonal Relationships (IR) & Task Execution (TE) (Hussin,2004) Profiling (Princeton, 2005) Analyze & document the learner’s prior knowledge recording learner behaviour & analyzing psychological characteristics in order to predict or assess potential performance bjective research

37 Active & cooperative Learning

38 Active & Cooperative Learning Learners are actively engaged in the learning process; Group members work together to solve problems Inductive approach with open-ended questions & problem formulation exercises; Thinking-aloud-pair-problem-solving (TAPPS) (Whimbey & Lochhead, 1982) Social Learning (Vygotsky, 1978) bjective research

39 PEOPLE & PERCEPTION understanding of Learning Psychology

40 ancient Greek: psyche = soul & logos = word is the study of the mind, behavior & thought. It is largely concerned with humans, although the behavior and thought of animals is also studied; either as a subject in its own right (see animal cognition), or more controversially, as a way of gaining an insight into human psychology by means of comparison (comparative psychology). In ancient times psychology was the science of soul; and this science being the causative, and physiology the effective or consequential, no one was considered an informed or expert physiologist who was not previously trained in psychology. In modern days due to an almost utter ignorance of the inner nature of man, psychology has largely been based on physiology, if indeed not a vague type of physiology. of Learning Psychology

41 Anthropology knowledge of Man Sociology study of human behavior in society Theology knowledge of Nature & God Psychiatry specialist doctor in human behavior Philosophy seeking knowledge & wisdom of Learning Psychology

42 Dramaturgical Interviewing Role-playing social performance symbolic interaction

43 Dramaturgical-Interviewing (Goffman,1960) Role-playing one’s own biases in symbolic interaction or social performance when providing instruction bjective research

44 emotional intelligences capacity to perceive use emotions to facilitate thinking understand emotional meanings manage emotions

45 Emotional Intelligence (EI): (Goleman, 1995) (Salovey & Mayer 1990) 1.The capacity to accurately Perceive emotions. 2.The capacity to use emotions to facilitate Thinking. 3.The capacity to understand emotional Meanings. 4.The capacity to Manage emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. bjective research

46 Emotional Intelligence (EI): (Goleman, 1995) (Bradberry & Greaves, 2005) 1.Self-awareness: aware of your own strengths & weaknesses to maximize own potential 2.Self-management: Using awareness of your emotions to manage your response to different situations & people. 3.Social awareness: Understanding the perspectives of other people including their motivations, their emotions, and the meaning of what they do & say. 4.Relationship management: Using awareness of your own emotions & the emotions of others to manage relationships to a successful outcome. bjective research

47 precedent Learner skills “lower” levels of cognitivism learner can think about his own thinking, think how to improve it, and then work towards improving it.

48 precedent Coach skills “ higher ” levels of cognitivism sensitive to learner’s learning process able to actively facilitate that process by using her own metacognitive learning schema not crucial for instructor have more “knowledge” than the learner

49 research findings

50 Learner’s performance critical empowered intensity multi-tasking intellectual aptitudes creativity

51 Social performance independent collaborative cooperative interaction community proactive leadership

52 Learner’s perception confidence advanced self-sustaining motivation retrospection metacognition

53 External perception industry accelerated experience performance confidence potential mutual-benefit

54 research findings TopicCase ACase B Learner’s performance  higher creativity, critical skills, & retention  improved grades, performance & attitudes  high percentage graduate school  improved course-related intellectual discussion  learners are empowered to excel  high intensity multi-tasking  surfacing latent multiple intelligences  overcoming learning disability barriers (differing intelligences and learning aptitudes) Social performance  students rely on each other instead of lecturer  work independently  greater peer interaction/ sense of community  improved teamwork skills/cooperative attitude  quality student-faculty interactions  solicit active/collaborative/cooperative learning  crossing cultural inhibitors (age gaps, hierarchy, sensitivities, race, religion, culture, social input)  proactive effort to take on leadership role  intensive/productive learner-instructor relationship Learner’s perception  more positive view of academic experience  higher aptitude confidence for advanced study  long-term self-sustaining motivation (both work- related & personal achievement)  triggering deep retrospection / metacognition External perception  Industrial recruiters valued team project work  superior educational experience for instructor  problem-solving and study skills transferred to courses taught by other instructors  unique and long-lasting bond between instructor and students  accelerated career advancement  zero / minimal cost and infrastructure  superior performance resulting in higher confidence of learner’s potential/experience level  deep-rooted mutual-benefit long-term learner- instructor bond

55 conclusion

56 1 Longitudinal Action Research Improves Teaching Metacognition Explore relationships Reflect on Humanity The instructor really gets to know the students. The students form a community. The instructor has the chance to improve the experimental methods he/she is using. conclusion

57 2 Coaching Metacognition Imposes a Profound Responsibility on Instructors “Metacognitive coaching” efficient vehicle for “Hidden Curriculum” (Snyder, 1970) orchestrate holistic learning

58 3 Comparing Educational Research Studies in Different Disciplines Stimulates Insight Cross-disciplinary collaboration Dramatic advances toward intellectual maturity and self-realization conclusion

59 mistakes learning from your own

60 mistakes The man who is Abraham Lincoln incapable is incapable of anything. ” “ of making

61 A comparative Study of Quantitative & Qualitative Longitudinal Action Research Case Studies ©2006 FHussin RMFelder RBrent New Directions in Educational Research ERAS Conference Diversity for Excellence: Engaged Pedagogies May 2006 Singapore thank you


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