Presentation on theme: "Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC)"— Presentation transcript:
1Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) & Digital to Analog Converters (DACs)
2Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) Analog to Digital Conversion is theprocess by which analog signals areconverted to their digitized forms.ADC occurs via three steps:- Sampling.- Quantization.- Encoding.
3The idea of Sampling The analog signal is sampled at regular intervals of time.The sampling rate must be at least twice the highest frequency of the signal ( Nyquist Criterion).
4QuantizationQuantization is defined as the process of converting the continuous sample amplitude into a discrete amplitude. Thus by then, the signal will be discrete in both; time and amplitude.
5Quantization ErrorThe difference between the actual analog value and quantized digital value.
6EncodingEncoding is the process which assigns ones and zeros (stream of bits) for every quantization level.The number of bits assigned for each level (n) depends on the levels’ number (L) ; such that L= 2^n.
7Ideal ADCQ= Δ=quantization step = full scale / levels’ number.In an ideal analog-to-digital converter, the quantization error is uniformly distributed between –Δ/2 and Δ/2.The resolution of the ADC is the smallest detectable change in voltage.
8In our experiment ADC0804 , and the SAR ADC are explained. Types Of ADCsThere are many types of ADCs such as:Direct Conversion ADC.Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADC.Integrating ADCs: Single slope, dual slope, and ramp ADC.Sigma-Delta ADC (over sampled ADC).ADC0804 Analog to Digital Converter.In our experiment ADC0804 , and the SAR ADC are explained.
9ADC0804 Analog to Digital Converter ADC0804 is a 20-pin IC with an 8-bit resolution.The analog input voltage range is from 0 V to 5 V, with 15 mW power consumption and 100 us conversion time .
10SAR ADC It is one of the popular ADCs for 8-16 bits. It has moderate conversion speeds ; the conversion time is around 1 Us.It doesn’t consume a lot of power and its cost is low in comparison with the other types.On the other hand, it requires a sample and hold circuit and it can have missing output codes.
12Description of operation A successive approximation ADC works by using a digital to analog converter (DAC) and a comparator to perform a binary search to ﬁnd the input voltage.A sample and hold circuit (S&H) is used to sample the analog input voltage and hold (i.e. keep a non-changing copy) the sampled value whilst the binary search is performed.The binary search starts with the most signiﬁcant bit (MSB) and works towards the least signiﬁcant bit (LSB). For a 8-bit output resolution, 8 comparisons are needed in the binary search, taking a least 8 clock cycles.The sample and hold circuit samples the analog input on a rising edge of the sample signal. The comparator output is a logic 1 if the sampled analog voltage is greater than the output of the DAC, 0 otherwise.
13Example:Vref=5V, Vs=3.127V, 4-bits.(b1b2b3b4)Set b1=1 all b2b3b4=000 >> 1000Vdac=8*5/(2^4)=2.5V(Vdac=2.5)>(Vs=3.127) No!!b1=12. Set b2=1 all b3b4=00 >> 1100Vdac=12*5/(2^4)=3.75V(Vdac=3.75)>(Vs=3.127) Yesb2=03. Set b3=1 b4=0 >> 1010Vdac=10*5/(2^4)=3.125V(Vdac=3.125)>(Vs=3.127) No!!b3=14. Set b4=1 >>1011Vdac=11*5/(2^4)=3.4375V(Vdac=3.4375)>(Vs=3.127) Yesb4=0Final Result=1010
14Digital To Analog Conversion ( DAC) Digital to analog converter (DAC) is the device whichconverts digital signals to analog ones.Most of the DACs consist of a network of resistors and analog switches.The switches control the currents or voltages that are derived from a particular reference voltage and provide analog output current.
15In our experiment, R-2R DAC and the general purpose DAC are explained. Types Of DACsThere are many types of DACs such as:Weighted resistor DAC.R-2R DAC.General purpose DAC ( DAC 0800).Frequency to voltage converter.Pulse width modulation.In our experiment, R-2R DAC and the general purpose DAC are explained.
16R-2R DAC The Block diagram of R-2R DAC is as shown below: The analog output is given by the following equation:The highest resistance value is only 2R and thus requires an area inside the IC less 8 times than that of the weighted resistor DAC which highest resistance is 16R.
17The DAC analog output is represented by current The DAC analog output is represented by current. This current is the ratio of the input code to the full scale voltage (Vref) as given in the following equation:So, an operational amplifier is needed to convert the current to voltage level.
18The General Purpose ( DAC 0800) The block diagram of DAC 0800 is as shown below:It’s clear that it’s a 8-bit DAC with 16 pins IC.The conversion time is around 100ns.
19Bipolar/ Unipolar DACs For unipolar DACs, the output voltage is given by:For bipolar DACs, the output voltage is given by: