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JDI / A3 Management Process Start with A3 B4 6S ! [Start with JDI (A3 Thinking) Before Six Sigma] Presenter Date Place Source material for this presentation
Safety Tip and Introductions Name Position Location Years of experience in the industry What is something nobody in this room knows about you? (keep it clean)
Learning Objective Learn how to utilize a systematic process to effectively solve small-scoped problems, requiring immediate action … more quickly.
Agenda 1) Group Discussion See and Solve Problems – 3 Improvement approaches Recap problem solving and the DMAIC framework Discover 7 elements of Just-Do-It (JDI) A3 thinking Review /explore Problem Solving Process 2) Document the Problem Solving Process Template layout / Component parts 3) Work through / document a Problem / develop a (JDI) A3 template Application 4) Share / Application Next steps
Problems are Normal, Inevitable Exposing and examining problems is desirable because they show us what can be improved. Problems are a source of valuable information about what is going right or wrong. Problem identification and resolution are important tools for managing a process, a unit, or an entire organization. Problems may be a sign that we have changed, need to change, or need to consider an alternative.
Seeing Problems Problem gathering methodology: Data Analysis Actual performance against targets (KPIs) Customer Surveys Observation of work flow Staff feedback Benchmarking
Solving Problems Process Excellence / Continuous Improvement methodology: Define the scope, problem statement, and opportunity. Measure how well process is performing and how it is measured. Analyze data collected on the process/ project and determine key process factors affecting variability. Improve the process and test strategies that reduce variation. Control processes to ensure continued performance.
Three Improvement Approaches Opportunity Identified Immediate Action Required JDI A3 Report Very Small Team Just-Do-It 2-6 hours of effort (2-4 hours of training) Kaizen Event Small Team Concentrated Effort 3-7 days of effort (1 week of training) Lean Six Sigma Project Cross-Functional Project Based 1-4 months of effort (2 weeks of training) Simpler ProblemComplex Problem
All Approaches Follow DMAIC model JDI / A3 = Basic problem solving tool, formalizes problem solving and documents how a problem was solved, minimal toolset (more about communication / culture change) Kaizen = Workshop based problem solving tool, team based, little more around toolset L6S = Project based problem solving tool, very team based, data driven, strong toolset
Kaizen Simple Issue Team of Days Lean Six Sigma Complex Issue Team of Months JDI / A3 “Just Do It” Team of Hours DMAIC model Illustrated DefineMeasureAnalyzeImproveControl Background / Current Situation Outcome / Goal Identification Root Cause & Recommendations Countermeasures Implemented 30 minutes 1-2 hours2-3 hours1+ hours Action Plan & Follow-ups Current Process Map High Level Metrics / Value Stream Map Waste Identification & Improvement Plan Risk Analysis & Implementation ½ -1 day 1 day 1+ days Sustainability & Measurement Requirements & Current Process Map Baseline Measurement Statistical Analysis & Solution Mapping Pilot & Implementation 1-2 weeks2-3 weeks1-2 weeks2-3 weeks1+ weeks Control Plan & Measurement
Recognize Important Problems and their Impact Elements in the Just-Do-It (JDI) / A3 Thinking Approach 1) Logical Thinking Process 2) Objectivity 3) Results 4) Synthesis, Distillation, and Visualization 5) Alignment 6) Coherency within and consistency across 7) Systems viewpoint
1) Logical Thinking Process “Unfortunate reality is that organizations face an infinite number of problems to solve, but only have a finite amount of resources available to attack them … “ This approach helps to: Address important details Consider numerous avenues Take into account effects of implementation Anticipate possible stumbling blocks Incorporate contingencies
2) Objectivity Don’t play the blame game! Start with your own picture of the situation. Make it explicit so you can share it with others. Verify picture is objective. (Collect quantitative facts about the problem) Discuss with others to verify it is accurate. Make appropriate adjustments. Objectivity is central component to this mind-set Continually test understanding of a situation for assumptions, biases, and misconceptions.
3) Results and Processes It’s about personal development and problem solving Processes used become paramount. How well do you … understand the problem? investigate alternatives? know how the proposal fits in a larger picture? Results certainly test one’s understanding … and achieving results accidently or by happenstance is of little long-term value as this process can be refined and repeated for better results.
3) Results and Processes (continued) Following process and not achieving results is equally ineffective. Results truly are a test of one’s understanding. Poor results not only fail to move the organization forward but also reflect a poor understanding, a situation that simply must be rectified.
4) Synthesis, Distillation, and Visualization Template is brief by design. Point is to force synthesis of the learning acquired in course of researching the problem or opportunity and discussing it with others. Not all information obtained is equally salient. Must distill the synthesized picture to only the most vital points.
5) Alignment Communicate horizontally and vertically. Consider history, past remedies. Obtain practical consensus. Take concerns seriously. Individuals may need to sacrifice some of his or her interests for the greater group of the group/ organization.
6) Coherency Within and Consistency Across Establish logical flow. Theme or issue should be consistent with organization’s goals. Diagnosis of situation should be consistent with the theme. Root-cause analysis follows directly. Proposed remedies address root-causes. Implementation plan puts remedies into place.
7) Systems Viewpoint Before engaging in specific course of action, develop a deep understanding of: purpose of course of action how course of action furthers organizational goals, needs, and priorities how it fits into a larger picture and affects other parts of the organization Avoid a solution that solves a problem in one part of the organization only to create another in some other part of the organization.
Review of Problem Solving
What is the Process? 1)Grasp Current Situation 2)Identify Root Cause 3)Devise Countermeasures and Visualize Future State 4)Create Implementation Plan 5)Build Consensus and Create a Follow Up Plan 6)Discuss with Affected Parties 7)Obtain Approval 8)Execute implementation and follow-up
Review of Problem Solving Process 1) Grasp the Current Situation Gain thorough understanding of process or system that gave rise to the problem in the context where the problem occurred i.e. – key to resolving a problem is in a detail that no one has yet noticed… (for if anyone had, the problem would have been prevented!)
Review of Problem Solving Process 1) Grasp the Current Situation Clarifying the problem further involves finding out why the problem is a problem; that is what should be happening that is not; or what is not happening that should be? Going to ‘Gemba’ (actual place) to observe and to understand is an effective way to verify and update a person’s mental image of how the system works, making it more accurate to reality.
Review of Problem Solving Process 2) Identify Root Cause ASK: Why is this problem occurring? (Most obvious cause may not be the root cause!) Continue to Ask why? At least 5 times in the causation chain Continue this inquiry until recurrence can be prevented by addressing that cause When completed, problem solver has complete and coherent cause-effect chain that demonstrates an in-depth understanding of the problem in context, noting how root cause is linked to observed phenomenon.
Review of Problem Solving Process 3) Devise Countermeasures and Visualize Future State Brainstorm specific changes (countermeasures) to current system that addresses the root cause(s). These changes (countermeasures) should be designed to prevent recurrence of the problem. Give serious consideration to how the new system, process, or procedure will operate with the countermeasures implemented. Share envisioned change with key representatives of those groups that will be impacted by it.
Review of Problem Solving Process 4) Create a Plan List tasks required to realize and implement proposed countermeasures Who is responsible for that activity? When will that activity be completed? Exactly Who is going to do – What, Where, When, Why, and How … Create plan with team so that the persons listed in the implementation agree to carry out the tasks by the assigned date.
Review of Problem Solving Process 5) Follow-Up Include how the actual results will be verified against predicted outcomes After the change … how will we know the problem is taken care of? Follow-up is important! Follow-up determines whether implementation had any effect, if not – then, further work on the problem remains. Follow-up increases amount of learning that occurs. Follow-up by key individuals or managers shows organization is paying attention to problems and not just letting them slip through the cracks.
Review of Problem Solving Process 6) Discuss Learning and Ideas with Affected Parties Approach individuals again with whole picture. Diagram current situation and diagnosis of root cause through implementation and follow-up plans. Insure as much alignment as possible. Although problem solving may be led by an individual, the process must be carried out collaboratively with as broad an audience as is appropriate for the problem.
Review of Problem Solving Process 7) Obtain Approval This is an explicit learning / mentoring opportunity! Gives manager opportunity to mentor the problem solver. Aids in the following developmental processes: Enhances his/ her investigative/ reasoning skills Helps build communication Enforces and challenges rigor
Review of Problem Solving Process 8) Implement and Follow-Up Upon approval, implementation plan is executed! If results are satisfactory, new change is established as the standard process and results are disseminated to other groups that may have similar situations. If results are not satisfactory, team engages in an abbreviated problem-solving process to discover why the results were not satisfactory and to take corrective action.
Documenting the Process A problem solving process is universal, but we can’t always write a report for each and every little problem. Questions to Answer: Is the situation difficult enough to warrant using a template to provide structure? Will there be on-going discussion for some time so this summary of the thought process has communication value? Will a person be well served in terms of development by drafting out a template? Is there a good reason to document and capture the knowledge in some fashion?
Template helps with Problem Solving The one-page template is meant to identify and communicate the critical project information and to facilitate decision-making. This information should fit on one page. It is customized to the Team Leader and application at hand. It can be characterized as a Lean tool best suited for solving relatively short-duration improvement activities.
Template helps with Problem Solving (continued) This process standardizes an approach for innovating, planning, problem-solving, and communicating with others. It places ownership squarely on the shoulders of the lead (author-owner) of the report, the individual whose initials appear in the upper right-hand corner of the paper. This person has taken or accepted responsibility to get decisions made and implemented.
Template layout is Universal, Simple, Easy Every issue that an organization faces can and should be captured on a single piece of paper. Like a resume, can be adapted in layout, style, and emphasis. The layout can be adapted to fit the requirements of each situation.
What does a template look like? Can be Handwritten
What does a template look like? (continued) Can be more Formal DRAFTDRAFT
What are the elements? Background - A brief description of the problem, highlighting the importance to the organization and the measures used. Current Situation - Visual depictions of the problem under consideration. Analysis - The analysis performed to determine root cause(s). Goal - A visual depiction of what the situation would need to be so that the problem did not occur.
What are the elements? (continued…) Recommendations - The solution that will be (or has been) implemented. Implementation Plan - Tasks, start dates, duration, responsibilities, and completion status. Follow Up - Post-implementation tasks to ensure solution benefits are maintained. Results Report - Charted progress to plan with implementation and measures.
Step-by-Step Theme or Title – Names the problem or issue at hand.
Step-by-Step Theme or Title – Names the problem or issue at hand. Owner/ Date – Identifies ‘Who’ owns this issue and the last document update or revision.
Step-by-Step Theme or Title – Names the problem or issue at hand. Owner/ Date – Identifies ‘Who’ owns this issue and the last document update or revision. Background – Establishes Business Context and Importance.
Step-by-Step Current Conditions – Describes what is currently known about the problem or issue.
Mapping Example Simple flowchart example (with data)
Mapping Example Value Stream Map Example (w/ Symbols) Value Stream Mapping is the process of identifying and charting the flows of information, processes, and physical goods across the supply chain from raw material to possession of the Customer.
Step-by-Step Current Conditions – Describes what is currently known about the problem or issue. Goals / Targets – Identifies desired outcome.
Step-by-Step Current Conditions – Describes what is currently known about the problem or issue. Goals / Targets – Identifies desired outcome. Analysis -Analyzes the situation. Why does the problem or need exist? What is the most likely or direct root cause of the problem?
Step-by-Step Proposed Countermeasures – Proposes some corrective actions to address the problem, close the gap, or reach a goal.
Step-by-Step Proposed Countermeasures – Proposes some corrective actions to address the problem, close the gap, or reach a goal. Plan – Who will do what, when, where ??
Step-by-Step Proposed Countermeasures – Proposes some corrective actions to address the problem, close the gap, or reach a goal. Plan – Who will do what, when, where ?? Follow-up – Creates a review / learning process and anticipates remaining issues.
Key Questions around the Problem / Issue Who is responsible for this issue? Who owns the process for addressing the problem (or realizing the opportunity or managing the project)? What is the business context? How did you decide to tackle this problem? What do you actually know and how do you know it?
What is Five Whys ? (Quick Review) Practice asking Why? repeatedly whenever a problem is encountered in order to get beyond the obvious symptoms so as discover root cause. Taiicho Ohno – (Toyota Motors executive) “Why save your brainstorming creativity for solutions that may solve the wrong problem? First brainstorm the cause of the problem …”
Group Exercise (Left Hand Side of Form) Decide on a Problem and complete the following: 1) Background “What are talking about and why?” 2) Current Conditions “Where do things stand now?” 3) Goal “What specific outcome is required?” 4) Analysis “Why does the problem or need exist?”
Additional Questions Have you identified the real problem? Did you go observe, and talk to the people who do the work to fully grasp the current situation? Did you clarify the true business objectives? Did you uncover the right (i.e., most meaningful) information to support the analysis?
Additional Questions Did you capture this material in the most clear and concise manner, i.e., one that clarifies true problems, invites analytical questions, and suggests direct countermeasures?
Countermeasures vs Solutions Detectives refer to cases as “closed” (meaning suspect identified and handed over to authorities…) not “solved” With JDI, this wording recognizes that even apparent ‘solutions’ inevitably create new problems. “They are merely temporary responses to specific problems that will serve until a better approach is found or conditions change.” Once a countermeasure is in place, it will create a new situation … 1. Steven J. Spear, “Learning to Lead at Toyota,” Harvard Business Review, September-October
Set-Based Decision-Making Consider assessment of a set of countermeasures rather than just one approach. By exploring a range of potential choices, you can uncover a broader and more meaningful database for analysis. Through quick, simple trials, costs can be reduced by preventing large projects from having to make large-scale change late in the process as a result of choosing a weak approach early on.
Set-Based Decision-Making (continued …) The responsibility of the individual developing the options is not to create the ideal ‘solution’ that can be iterated to perfection, rather it is to help everyone involved in the work to develop the fullest understanding of the current situation and the most effective set of countermeasures. Sometimes… Leaders have to prevent people from making decisions too quickly. [Jumping to conclusions…]
Group Exercise (Right Hand Side of Form) Continue with Your Problem Analysis: 5) Recommendations “What do you propose and why?” 6) Plan “How will you implement?” 7) Follow-up “How will you ensure on-going success?”
DMAIC (revisited) … has proven itself to be one of the most effective problem–solving methods ever used because it forces teams to use data: to confirm nature and extent of problem to identify true causes of problem to find solutions that evidence shows are linked to the causes to establish procedures for maintaining the solutions even after the project is done
Group Exercise (Right Hand Side of Form) Continue with Your Problem Analysis: 5) Recommendations “What do you propose and why?” 6) Plan “How will you implement?” 7) Follow-up “How will you ensure on-going success?”
Problem Solving is Hard Work Can you … show how your proposed actions will address the root causes of the performance problems? justify why your proposed actions are necessary? Have you … continued to go to the “actual place” (Gemba) in gathering new information and countermeasures?
Problem Solving is Hard Work Have you … explored every reasonable alternative countermeasure? produced viable alternatives based on productive conversations… – w/ everyone doing the work? – w/ customers of the process? – w/ stakeholders of the process?
Link to I/O Analysis (Inputs/ Outputs) Has problem solving shifted from quick fixes to root-cause counter-measures? Does the current Template / Plan reflect the input of the key people involved with the work? Do counter-measures have support? Do you see where your Thought Process / Template (and the work it encompasses) fit into the work / processes of colleagues below and above you?
Link to D-M-A-I-C phases Use JDI / A3 Template to gather and share knowledge. – Define project scope, problem statement, goals, and targets. – Measure extent of problem. Where? And how much? – Analyze specific issues, conditions, and occurrences. – Improve and address gaps in current situation. – Control and follow-up to enable, assure, and sustain success.
In the Final Analysis … Are you making a conscious effort to use the review process as a way of sharing your learning with your team members and with other individuals? Have you captured and communicated key details of what your team has learned? Have you considered a wide set of potential scenarios and consequences of the changes – and developed follow-up activities to address them?
In the Final Analysis … Is your problem / theme ripe for another round or should you turn your attention elsewhere? Is your team gaining capability of JDI / A3 thinking? Are they bringing problems and ideas forward, or waiting for assignments? Are issues and problems being revisited repeatedly? This indicates matters are not being dealt with at the root cause. Are staff still jumping to solutions?
Do’s and Don'ts … Don’t worry about whether to use pen or pencil or even a computer. Hand-written is just fine. Don’t get hung up on formal elements. The ‘Template / Plan’ should be determined by analysis and questions as they relate to the problem. Work the problem. Do get your message across. Make it easy by following a logical flow. Do get messy. Pass it around, mark it up! Use the JDI / A3 Template to control meetings and lock down agreements. Learn from the practical knowledge gained. Leverage your improvement.
In Closing Our purpose was not about generating more paperwork, but was about - creating and utilizing a process (and a mindset) uncompromising in its dedication to continuous improvement. diligently applying this process, thinking, and tool set which will dramatically improve the effectiveness of those involved in problem solving. When spread throughout the organization, A3 Thinking will quickly result in a culture of genuine on-going improvement !
One More Point The measure of success is not whether you have a tough problem to deal with, but whether it is the same problem you had last year…
Thank You for Your Attention Thoughts ? Questions?