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CVFD Training – Hose Practices

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1 CVFD Training – Hose Practices
SFFMA Training Objectives: ,.02,.05,.06,.07,.08,.09,.10,.11,.13,.14

2 Fire Hose Produced in different diameters, each for specific purposes
Size refers to outside diameter Most commonly cut, coupled into pieces of 50 or 100 feet (15 or 30 m) (Continued) Firefighter I

3 Fire Hose Firefighter I

4 Intake Hose Used to connect fire department pumper or portable pump to water source Two groups Soft intake hose Hard intake hose Firefighter I

5 NFPA® Standards NFPA® 1961, Standard on Fire Hose, lists specifications for fire hose NFPA® 1963, Standard for Fire Hose Connections, lists specifications for fire hose couplings and screw threads (Continued) Firefighter I

6 NFPA® Standards NFPA® 1901, Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus, requires pumpers to carry varying sizes/amounts of hose Firefighter I

7 Fire Hose Damage — Mechanical
Slices, rips, abrasions on coverings Crushed/damaged couplings Cracked inner linings Certain practices prevent damage Firefighter I

8 Fire Hose Damage — Thermal
Excessive heat/direct flame contact can char, melt, weaken outer jacket and dehydrate rubber lining Inner linings can be dehydrated when hose hangs to dry too long Certain practices prevent damage Firefighter I

9 Fire Hose Damage — Organic
Rubber-jacket hose not subject to damage caused by living organism, but this is a problem on hose with woven jacket of natural fiber if stored wet Mildew, mold rot fibers of hose jacket, causing hose to rupture under pressure (Continued) Firefighter I

10 Fire Hose Damage — Organic
If outer jacket made of synthetic fibers, will resist organic damage Outer jacket of some natural-fiber hose has been chemically treated to resist mildew, mold; not always 100 percent effective Certain practices prevent damage Firefighter I

11 Fire Hose Damage — Chemical
Chemicals, chemical vapors can damage outer jacket on hose or cause rubber lining to separate from inner jacket When hose exposed to petroleum products, paints, acids, alkalis, may be weakened (Continued) Firefighter I

12 Fire Hose Damage — Chemical
Runoff water from fire may carry foreign materials that can damage hose Certain practices prevent damage Firefighter I

13 Washing Hose Method depends on type of hose
Hard rubber booster hose, hard intake hose, rubber-jacket collapsible hose Woven-jacket fire hose (Continued) Firefighter I

14 Washing Hose When jacket exposed to oil
Wash with mild soap/detergent using common scrub brush Make sure oil completely removed Thoroughly rinse with clear water (Continued) Firefighter I

15 Washing Hose Hose washing machines Can make care, maintenance easier
Wash almost any size fire hose up to 3 inches (77 mm) Flow of water into device can be adjusted as desired Movement of water assists in propelling hose through device (Continued) Firefighter I

16 Washing Hose Hose washing machines
Hoseline that supplies water can be connected to pumper or used from hydrant Higher water pressure equals better results Cabinet-type machine Courtesy of Thomas Locke and South Union Volunteer Fire Company. Firefighter I

17 Drying Hose Woven-jacket must be thoroughly dried before being reloaded on apparatus Methods depend on type of hose Should be in accordance with SOP, manufacturer’s recommendations Some may be placed on apparatus wet with no ill effects Firefighter I

18 DISCUSSION QUESTION How is hose washed in your department?
Firefighter I

19 Storing Hose After hose has been brushed, washed, dried, should be rolled and stored in suitable racks unless it is to be placed back on apparatus (Continued) Firefighter I

20 Storing Hose Hose racks
Located in clean, well-ventilated room or close to apparatus Can be freestanding on floor or mounted permanently on wall If mobile, can be used to store and move hose Firefighter I

21 Threaded Fire Hose Couplings
Consist of two major components Male — External threads Female — Internal threads (Continued) Firefighter I

22 DISCUSSION QUESTION Why is it important to be able to differentiate between the male and female couplings during search and rescue operations? Firefighter I

23 Threaded Fire Hose Couplings
Disadvantage — One male, one female necessary to make connection unless double-male or double-female adapter used (Continued) Firefighter I

24 Threaded Fire Hose Couplings
Intake hose Sometimes equipped with two-piece female hose couplings on each end Threaded hose couplings on large intake hose equipped with extended lugs providing handles for attaching to hydrant outlet/pump intake Shank — Portion of coupling that serves as point of attachment to hose (Continued) Firefighter I

25 Threaded Fire Hose Couplings
Lugs Aid in tightening, loosening couplings Aid in grasping coupling when making, breaking coupling connections Types (Continued) Firefighter I

26 DISCUSSION QUESTION Which lugs do you think are the best to use? Why?
Firefighter I

27 Threaded Fire Hose Couplings
Higbee cut Special type of thread design Eliminates cross-threading One rocker lug on each half has small indentation to mark where Higbee cut begins Firefighter I

28 Storz Couplings Referred to as sexless couplings
No distinct male/female components Identical to, may be connected to other Storz couplings of same size Designed to be connected/disconnected with quarter turn (Continued) Firefighter I

29 Storz Couplings Have lugs, slots built into swivel rings of each coupling for locking Must have locking devices if attached to large-diameter hose Firefighter I

30 Rules for Care of Fire Hose Couplings
Avoid dropping/dragging Do not permit vehicles to run over hose Inspect couplings when hose washed/ dried Remove gasket, twist swivel in warm, soapy water (Continued) Firefighter I

31 Rules for Care of Fire Hose Couplings
Clean threads to remove tar, dirt, gravel, oil Inspect gasket, replace if cracked/ creased Firefighter I

32 Cleaning Fire Hose Couplings
Hose-washing machines will not clean sufficiently Swivel part should be submerged in warm, soapy water and worked forward and backward (Continued) Firefighter I

33 Cleaning Fire Hose Couplings
Male threads should be cleaned with stiff brush Wire brush may be necessary Swivel gasket Expansion-ring gasket Firefighter I

34 DISCUSSION QUESTION What is a complete hose layout? Firefighter I

35 Hose Appliances Any piece of hardware used with fire hose to deliver water (Continued) Firefighter I

36 Hose Appliances Valves
Control flow of water in hoselines, at hydrants, at pumpers Ball valves Gate valves Butterfly valves Clapper valves (Continued) Firefighter I

37 Hose Appliances Valve devices
Allow number of hoselines operating on fire ground to be increased/decreased Wye appliances Siamese appliances (Continued) Firefighter I

38 Hose Appliances Valve devices Water thief appliances
Large-diameter hose appliances Hydrant valves (Continued) Firefighter I

39 DISCUSSION QUESTION What are some other names for hydrant valves?
Firefighter I

40 Hose Appliances Fittings (Continued) Firefighter I

41 Hose Appliances Intake strainers
Devices attached to drafting end of hard intake to keep debris from entering fire pump Guidelines for use Firefighter I

42 Hose Tools Hose roller Prevents damage to hose that can occur when dragged over sharp corners such as roof edges, windowsills (Continued) Firefighter I

43 Hose Tools Hose roller Consists of metal frame with two or more rollers Can be used for protecting rope from similar edges (Continued) Firefighter I

44 Hose Tools Hose jacket Can be installed on ruptured section of hoseline to temporarily close rupture (Continued) Firefighter I

45 Hose Tools Hose jacket Consists of hinged two-piece metal cylinder
Made in two sizes Encloses hose so can operate at full power Can be used to connect mismatched hose (Continued) Firefighter I

46 Hose Tools Hose clamp Can be used to stop flow of water in hoseline
(Continued) Firefighter I

47 Hose Tools Hose clamp Three types — Screw-down, press-down, hydraulic press Can injure firefighters/damage hose Several general rules for use (Continued) Firefighter I

48 Hose Tools Spanner Used to tighten/loosen couplings
May have other built-in features (Continued) Firefighter I

49 Hose Tools Hydrant wrench
Used to remove caps from hydrant outlets, open hydrant valves Equipped with pentagonal opening fitting most standard hydrant operating nuts May be equipped with spanner (Continued) Firefighter I

50 Hose Tools Rubber mallet — Strike lugs to tighten/loosen couplings
Hose bridge/ramp Helps prevent damage to hose Should be used where hose laid across street Can be positioned over small spills Can be used as chafing blocks (Continued) Firefighter I

51 Hose Tools Chafing blocks
Used to protect fire hose where subjected to rubbing from vibrations Useful where intake hose comes in contact with pavement May be wood, leather, old truck tires (Continued) Firefighter I

52 Hose Tools Hose strap, hose rope, hose chain
Used to carry, pull fire hose Provide more secure means to handle pressurized hose when applying water Firefighter I

53 Straight Roll Simplest
Starts at one end, usually male coupling; to complete roll hose toward other end When complete, female end exposed and male protected in center of roll (Continued) Firefighter I

54 Straight Roll Used in situations Easy loading of minuteman load
When loaded back on apparatus at fire When returned to quarters for washing When placed in storage Easy loading of minuteman load Methods to indicate need for repair/test Firefighter I

55 Donut Roll Used in situations where hose is likely to be deployed for use directly from roll (Continued) Firefighter I

56 Donut Roll Advantages over straight roll
Better control Hose rolls out easier Facilitates connecting to other couplings Can be performed by 1-2 firefighters Firefighter I

57 Twin Donut Roll Works well on 1½-inch (38 mm) and 1¾-inch (45 mm) hose
Creates compact roll that is easily transported, carried If couplings offset about 1 foot (0.3 m), can be coupled together after roll tied Firefighter I

58 Self-Locking Twin Donut Roll
Twin donut roll with built-in carrying loop formed from hose itself Loop locks over couplings to keep intact Length of carrying loop may be adjusted Firefighter I

59 DISCUSSION QUESTION Are there any hose rolls specific to your department or jurisdiction? Firefighter I

60 Hose Beds Hose compartments on fire apparatus Vary in size, shape
Sometimes built for specific needs Front of hose bed Rear of hose bed Split beds Firefighter I

61 Hose Loading Guidelines
Check gaskets, swivel before connecting couplings Keep flat sides of hose in same plane when two sections connected Tighten couplings hand-tight Remove kinks, twists when bent to form loop in hose bed (Continued) Firefighter I

62 Hose Loading Guidelines
Make short fold/reverse bend in hose during loading so couplings not too close to front or rear of hose bed and will not flip over when pulled out of bed (Continued) Firefighter I

63 Hose Loading Guidelines
Load large-diameter hose with all couplings near front of bed Do not pack too tightly; should permit gloved hand between folds Firefighter I

64 Accordion Load Derives name from manner in which it appears after loading Procedure Advantages Firefighter I

65 Horseshoe Load Named for way it appears after loading Procedure
Advantage Disadvantages (Continued) Firefighter I

66 Horseshoe Load In single hose load, may be started on either side
Steps for split hose bed Firefighter I

67 Flat Load Easiest to load Suitable for any size supply hose
Best way for large-diameter hose Advantage Disadvantage Courtesy of Sam Goldwater. (Continued) Firefighter I

68 Flat Load May be started on either side of single hose bed
In split hose bed, lay first length against partition with coupling hanging appropriate distance below hose bed Large-diameter hose Firefighter I

69 Finishes for Forward Lays
Designed to facilitate making hydrant connection Not as elaborate as finishes for reverse lays (Continued) Firefighter I

70 Finishes for Forward Lays
Straight finish Last length or two of hose flaked loosely back and forth across top of hose load Associated with forward- lay operation Hydrant wrench, gate valve, adapters strapped to hose near female coupling Firefighter I

71 Finishes for Reverse Lays
Reverse horseshoe finish Similar to horseshoe load One or two 100-foot (30 m) lengths of hose Can be used with any size attack hose Can be used for preconnected line Can be loaded in two or three layers Can be pulled from bed for arm carry (Continued) Firefighter I

72 Finishes for Reverse Lays
Reverse horseshoe finish (Continued) Firefighter I

73 Finishes for Reverse Lays
Skid load finish Folding last three lengths of hose into compact bundle on top of rest of load Begins by forming 3+ pull loops extending beyond end of hose load Rest of hose accordion-folded across hose used to form pull loops (Continued) Firefighter I

74 Finishes for Reverse Lays
Firefighter I

75 Preconnected Hose Loads for Attack Lines
Primary lines used for fire attack by most departments Connected to discharge valve, placed in area other than main hose bed Range from feet (15-75 m) Can be carried in several places Firefighter I

76 Preconnected Flat Load
Adaptable for varying widths of hose beds Often used in transverse beds Similar to flat load for large supply hose except Preconnected Loops provided to aid in pulling from bed Firefighter I

77 Triple Layer Load Begins with hose folded in three layers
Designed to be pulled by one person Disadvantage Can be used for all sizes attack lines Often preferred for larger lines Firefighter I

78 Minuteman Load Designed to be pulled, advanced by one Advantage
Pays off shoulder as firefighter advances toward fire Well suited for narrow hose bed Disadvantages Firefighter I

79 Booster Hose Reels Used for booster lines
May be mounted in any of several places on apparatus Should be loaded one layer at a time in an even manner May be hand- or power-operated Firefighter I

80 DISCUSSION QUESTION What hose loads are used in your department?
Firefighter I

81 Guidelines When Laying Hose
Do not ride in standing position to lay hose when apparatus moving Drive apparatus at speed no greater than one that allows couplings to clear tailboard as hose leaves bed Lay hose to one side of roadway Firefighter I

82 Forward Lay (Continued) Firefighter I

83 Forward Lay Hose laid from water source to fire
Used when source is a hydrant and pumper must be positioned near fire Hose beds should be loaded so first coupling off is female Operation (Continued) Firefighter I

84 Forward Lay Advantages Disadvantages
Information for firefighter at hydrant Making hydrant connection Using four-way hydrant valves Firefighter I

85 Reverse Lay (Continued) Firefighter I

86 Reverse Lay Hose laid from fire to water source
Used when pumper must first go to fire location so size-up can be made before laying supply line Most expedient way to lay hose if apparatus must stay close to water (Continued) Firefighter I

87 Reverse Lay Hose beds should be loaded so first coupling off hose bed is male Has become standard method for setting up relay pumping operation when using 2½-inch or 3-inch (65 or 77 mm) hose as supply line (Continued) Firefighter I

88 Reverse Lay Long lays of large hose may require pumper at hydrant to increase pressure in supply hose Most direct way to supplement pressure, set up drafting operations Disadvantages (Continued) Firefighter I

89 Reverse Lay Procedures if operation involves two pumpers
Does not require four-way hydrant valve Also used when pumper arrives at fire and must work alone for extended time (Continued) Firefighter I

90 Reverse Lay Making hydrant connections with soft intake hose
Making hydrant connections with hard intake hose Firefighter I

91 Split Lay (Continued) Firefighter I

92 Split Lay Any of a number of ways to lay multiple supply hoses with a single engine Various types If equipped with sexless couplings, direction of lay is unimportant May other options when hose bed is divided Firefighter I

93 Pulling Preconnected Hoselines
Preconnected flat load Minuteman load Triple layer load Firefighter I

94 Other (Not Preconnected) Hoselines
Usually 2½-inches (65 mm) or larger Wyed lines Shoulder loads from flat/horseshoe loads Shoulder loads from accordion or flat loads Firefighter I

95 Working Line Drag One of quickest, easiest ways to move fire hose at ground level Use limited by available personnel Firefighter I

96 Advancing Hoselines Difficult when deploying up or down stairways, from standpipes, up ladders, deep into buildings Easier when uncharged Firefighter I

97 Guidelines When Advancing Hoseline into Burning Structure
Bleed air from charged hoselines before entering Position nozzle operator, all members of hose team on same side of hoseline Check doors for heat before opening (Continued) Firefighter I

98 Guidelines When Advancing Hoseline into Burning Structure
Stay low, avoid blocking ventilation openings Chock self-closing doors open Check for, remove kinks from line Firefighter I

99 Advancing Hose Up Stairway
Should be advanced up stairways uncharged when conditions allow Lay uncharged hose against outside wall to keep stairs clear as possible, avoid sharp bends and kinks in hose If possible, position firefighter at every turn/point of resistance Firefighter I

100 DISCUSSION QUESTION Why should hose be uncharged when advancing up a stairway? Firefighter I

101 Advancing Hose Down Stairway
Advancing uncharged hoseline easier than charged Advancing uncharged line recommended only when no fire, very minor fire (Continued) Firefighter I

102 Advancing Hose Down Stairway
Excess hose should be flaked outside stairwall Firefighters must be positioned at corners, pinch points Firefighter I

103 Advancing Hose From Standpipe
Getting hose to upper floors of high-rise buildings can be challenging One solution is to have hose rolls or packs on apparatus ready to carry aloft and then connect to standpipe system (Continued) Firefighter I

104 Advancing Hose From Standpipe
Hose must be brought to fire floor over aerial ladder or by interior stairway Crews normally stop one floor below fire floor and connect to standpipe If standpipe in enclosed stairwell, it is acceptable to hook up on fire floor (Continued) Firefighter I

105 Advancing Hose From Standpipe
Steps once at standpipe connection Be alert for pressure-relief devices and follow SOPs for removal/connection If using certain sizes of hose, place gated wye on standpipe outlet (Continued) Firefighter I

106 Advancing Hose From Standpipe
2½-inch (65 mm) attack line may be used depending on size, nature of fire Extra hose should be flaked up stairs toward floor above fire During pickup operations, carefully drain water to prevent unnecessary damage Firefighter I

107 Advancing Hose Up Ladder
Easier and safer with uncharged line Advancing charged line Operating hoseline from ladder Firefighter I

108 Controlling Loose Hoseline
Very dangerous because it may flail about or whip back and forth Firefighters, bystanders may be seriously injured or killed Methods for controlling Firefighter I

109 Replacing Burst Sections
Hose clamp or kink can be used to stop flow of water when replacing burst section of hose Two additional sections of hose should be used to replace any one bad section Firefighter I

110 Operating Small Handlines — One-Firefighter Method
Only used during overhaul after fire or for very small outdoor nuisance fires Requires hoseline to be straight at least 10 feet (3 m) behind nozzle Firefighter should hold nozzle with one hand and hose with the other Firefighter I

111 Operating Small Handlines — Two-Firefighter Method
Usually needed when nozzle must be advanced Nozzle operator duties Backup firefighter duties Firefighter I

112 Operating Large Handlines — One-Firefighter Method
NOT recommended when nozzle is connected to large handline May be used during exposure protection/overhaul operations if master stream device unavailable (Continued) Firefighter I

113 Operating Large Handlines — One-Firefighter Method
Large loop formed that crosses over line behind nozzle Firefighter sits on intersection where hose crosses and directs stream (Continued) Firefighter I

114 Operating Large Handlines — One-Firefighter Method
To reduce fatigue, nozzle operator can use hose strap or utility strap looped over shoulder or reduce nozzle flow if conditions allow Does not permit much maneuvering Firefighter I

115 Operating Large Handlines — Two-Firefighter Method #1
Uses means of anchoring hose because of nozzle reaction Nozzle operator duties Backup firefighter duties Firefighter I

116 Operating Large Handlines — Two-Firefighter Method #2
Uses hose rope tools or utility straps to assist in anchoring hose Nozzle operator duties Backup firefighter duties Firefighter I

117 Operating Large Handlines — Three-Firefighter Method
In all cases, positioning of nozzle operator same as for two-firefighter method (Continued) Firefighter I

118 Operating Large Handlines — Three-Firefighter Method
Some departments prefer first backup firefighter to stand behind nozzle operator with third firefighter kneeling on hose behind second firefighter Another method is for all firefighters to use hose straps and remain standing Firefighter I

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