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Population Chapter 2 An Introduction to Human Geography

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1 Population Chapter 2 An Introduction to Human Geography
The Cultural Landscape, 10e James M. Rubenstein Chapter 2 Population PPT by Abe Goldman

2 Distribution of World Population
Population concentrations The four largest population clusters Other population clusters Sparsely populated regions Dry lands – Cold lands Wet lands – High lands Population density Arithmetic density Physiological density Agricultural density

3 AP HG Ch 2 notes: (INTRO) Why important to study pop.: a) pop. = 6 ½ bill., more than ever before b) increase rate in 2nd 1/2 of 20th cent. faster than ever b4 c) *almost all of global pop. growth is in LDC’s…where they have least resources demography: study of pop. characteristics: how pop. is distributed spatially by age, gender, fertility, health, occupation, etc. some problems = where is major pop. growth… why it is growing at differ. rates in differ. places overpopulation: # people in certain area & the ability of these people to have needed resources to live decently

4 World Population Cartogram
This cartogram display countries by size of their population rather than their land area. (Only countries with 50 million or more people are named.)

5 The Earth at Night… http://antwrp. gsfc. nasa

6 KEY 1: Pop distribution basically = concentration & density
Pop. Concentrations: 3/4 of people live on 5% of Earth's surface -----remember 71% of surf. = oceans, other areas are harsh 5 major concentr. = E. Asia, S. Asia, SE Asia, W. Europe, Eastern N. Amer. similarities.: most near water, low-lying, fert. soil, temperate (warm, but not hot) climate & all betw. 10º & 55º N lat. , except for parts of SE Asia Hectares: 10,000 sq meters or acres

7 1) East Asia #1 in pop. (China, Koreas, Japan, Taiwan): 1/4 world pop
1) East Asia #1 in pop. (China, Koreas, Japan, Taiwan): 1/4 world pop. here China: #1 in pop., #3 in land area; most on river valleys & coasts; 3/4 rural--most farmers Japan: most in Tokyo, Osaka…Korea: most in Seoul 3/4 of Japan. & S. Kor. = urban -most urban jobs in = industry or service 2) South Asia: #2 in pop.; (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka) --3/4 of this pop. in India -most on coast or along Indus & Ganges Rivers; 1/4 cities most of pop. = rural farmers

8 World Population Distribution
World population is very unevenly distributed across the Earth’s surface & it can be compared to climate distribution.

9 3) SE Asia: #4 pop. ; (Islands: Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Pap
3) SE Asia: #4 pop.; (Islands: Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Pap. New Guinea, & Philippines, + Thailand, Vietnam, etc.) -Indonesia = 4th most pop. country; --most are farmers in rural areas In these 3 Asian areas = over 50% of world’s pop. on only 10% of world's land 4) Europe: #3 pop.; 75% in cities; less than 20% farmers (many of farmers in S & E Eur.) Import most of food rather than produce This led to lots of colonization (Amer., India, China, Africa, etc.) looking for resources & these resources = lots of manufacturing 5) Eastern N. Amer.: #5; NE USA & SE Canada mostly urban… less than 5% = farmers

10 B) Sparsely pop. areas: too dry, wet, cold, high
Ecumene: areas that are permanently settled --more were too harsh…innovations increase ecumene 1) dry lands: 20% of Earth's surface; most in deserts: Sahara, Arabian, Gobi (N. Afr. SW & Centr. Asia) growing desert = desertification -little water for crops, etc., but many have oil 2) wet lands: too much rain; most = Equatorial rain forests: excess rain + excess heat = poor agricul….but can grow some rice 3) cold lands: area at & near N & S Poles; few plants & animals 4) high lands: highest mtns. = steep, snow-covered -exceptions: parts of Latin Amer. & Africa where higher areas is better than lower hot/wet areas

11 Expansion of the Ecumene 5000 B.C.–A.D. 1900
ecumene, or the portion of The Earth w/ permanent human settlement, has expanded to cover most of the world’s land area.

12 C) Population density: look at it 3 ways… (Deja vu!!!)
1) arithmetic density (aka population density): -# people per unit of land…USA = 30 per sq. km. (77/sq mi)…but NY City (Manhattan) = 21,400/ (55,400/sq.mi.) 2) Physiological density: # people per unit of arable land: is a more meaningful measure b/c can show pressure on the land due to population EX: Egypt: arithm. density = 70/; but physiolg. density = 3,503/sq. km 3) agricultural density: ratio farmers to arable land --lower agr. density = higher technology; -MDC's: usually lower agri. density, & LDC’s usually higher; -in MDC’s, lots of land & few farmers means more pop. to work in factories, etc.

13 Arithmetic Population Density
Fig. 2-4: Arithmetic population density: # of ppl per total land area. Highest densities found in parts of Asia & Eur.

14 Physiological Density
Fig. 2-5: Physiological density is the number of people per arable land area. This is a good measure of the relation between population and agricultural resources in a society.

15 Distribution of World Population Growth
Natural Increase (NIR) Fertility (TFR) Mortality (IMR + MMR)

16 Divide 15 by 1000 to get a % so it = 1.5% is NIR
KEY 2: Where Has World's Pop. Increased? Important terms: (NOTE: crude means "basic", i.e., not specified by age, etc) a) crude birth rate (CBR): # live births per 1,000 per year: CBR = 20 means for every 1000 in a place, were 20 births b) crude death rate (CDR) # deaths in year per 1,000 c) natural increase rate (NIR): % by which a pop. grows in a year…change CBR & CDR to %'s… To calculate NIR: CBR - CDR = _____?____ then divide by to get NIR EX: CBR = CDR = – 10 = 15 NI per 1000 Divide 15 by 1000 to get a % so it = 1.5% is NIR CBR = CDR = NIR = = 1.2%

17 World Population Growth 1950–2000
Fig. 2-6: Total world population increased from 2.5 to 6 billion in this half century. The natural increase rate peaked in the early 1960s and has declined since, but the number of people added each year did not peak until 1990.

18 Natural increase: Begin. of 21st cent., world NIR = 1.4; i.e., world pop. is growing yearly by 1.4 %: now over 6.7 billion --pop. growth is down somewhat (was 77 million in 2000; was 87 mil 1989) -doubling time: # yrs. it will take for pop. to double --at 1.4%, our doubling time is now 51 yrs -but in to double…150 yrs. As CBR goes up, doubling time goes down; CBR down, dbl. time up; are inversely proportional NIR is over 2.0% in most of Africa, Lat. Amer., & Mid East (LDC’s…ones who can’t afford it)

19 Natural Increase Rates
**NIR is negative in Europe …means pop. is declining if you don't count immigrants **Remember! "N" = "natural") (NIR) = % of growth or decline in the pop. of a country per year (not including net migration). Countries in Africa & SW Asia have highest current rates; Russia & some European countries have negative rates.

20 Crude Birth Rates (CBR)
The crude birth rate (CBR) is the total # of births in a country per 1,000 population per year. Lowest rates: in Europe. Highest rates: Africa & several Asian countries.

21 B) fertility: use CBR to study fertility; many sub-Saharan countries = CBR 40, but many Eurp. = less than 10 -total fertility rate (TFR): avg. # of kids a woman will have thru her child-bearing yrs (about 15-49) -look at map (49) w/spatial association: shows TFR -TFR over 6 in some Sub-Saharan countries! C) mortality: one important way to measure & look at = CDR; another way is infant mortality rate -IMR = of every 1,000 live births, # kids die b4 1 yr. old -usually use per 1000, not %…but sometimes = % -W. Eurp. = lowest IMR's (USA high for MDC) -in some LDC's = 100…which means 10% babies born alive die b4 1 yr. old

22 Total Fertility Rates (TFR)
The Total fertility rate (TFR) is the # of children an avg. woman in a society will have thru her childbearing years. Lowest rates: Europe. Highest: Africa & parts of Middle East.

23 Infant Mortality Rates (IMR)
The infant mortality rate: # of infant deaths per 1,000 live births per year. Highest: found in some of the poorest countries of Africa & Asia.

24 IMR: strong indication of a country's health-care system. Why
IMR: strong indication of a country's health-care system. Why? (When I ask you “why?”, etc., you need to KNOW this!) -though USA = MDC, IMR higher than Canada & most Euro. countries….Why? life expectancy: calculated at kid’s birth…means that child has a 50/50 chance of reaching a particular age -again, high in W. Eur. , low in sub-Saharan Afr. -MDC's: lower CBR's, TFR's, & IMR's…but higher life expectancy -LDC's: high CBR, TFR, & IMR, but low life expect. -CDR doesn’t have as wide a spread as CBR: 20 vs. 40 & LDC's actually bit lower than MDC's (p. 51) -this contradiction due to demographic transition

25 Avg. Life Expectancy at birth
Life expectancy at birth: Avg. # of years a newborn infant can expect to live. Highest: generally in the wealthiest countries. Lowest: in the poorest countries.

26 Crude Death Rates (CDR)
The crude death rate (CDR): total # of deaths in a country per 1,000 population per year. B/C wealthy countries are in a late stage of the demographic transition, they often have a higher CDR than poorer countries!!!!!


28 KEY 3: Demographic Transition:
Why pop. increases at differ. rates in differ. places at differ. times A) Demographic Transition: countries go thru 4 stages involving changes in CBR, CDR, & NIR -every country at 1 stage or another…& it is progressive: once go into a stage, you don't go back… so far Stage 1: low growth: hi CBR, hi CDR, NIR about zero -in earliest humans, most all = same stage; CBR & CDR might vary from year to year, but hi on avg. -most all = hunter/gatherers for about 392,000 yrs.

29 Agri-Revol.: When humans began to grow foods & domesticate animals…
1st agricultural revolution: 8,000 BCE: happened in various places & pop. grew faster Agri-Revol.: When humans began to grow foods & domesticate animals… No longer move & scrounge as they had b/c they had stable food sources Still stayed basically at Stg 1 Low growth…for about another 10,000 yrs. -still problems w/ climate (famine), wars, disease, etc

30 Stage 2: hi growth: hi CBR, lowering CDR, hi NIR
Stg 2 comes in 2 sections: -2-a) pop. growth getting faster……. -2-b) growth slowing, but CBR/CDR gap still hi Innovation: a new idea or new way of doing something; can be technology or can be philosophical ideas -1750: Britain was 1st to come into Stg. 2 b/c was 1st w/ Industrial Revolution Later spread thru W. Europe……then USA

31 Process of improv.: a) indust. techn. (steam eng., mass production, RR, later transportation innovations) b) brought wealth….which brought health innova., sanitation, hygiene, sewers, etc…= healthier… which means…less disease (Why did they improve these?) c) + food production w/ less labor = laborers for other jobs …also health + food  higher life expect.

32 Other Eur. countries & USA didn’t hit Stg 2 til about 1800
-Stg. 2 didn’t diffuse to most of Africa, Asia, & Lat. Amer. til about 1950…& then world pop. climbed! *USA & Eur. moved to stg 2 b/c of industr./tech rev., BUT…others (Afr., Lat. Am., etc.) moved to stg 2 b/c of medical revolution in mid-20th cent. This meant improved med. practices = less diseases, less hardship = longer life & healthier life…(rid of TB, malaria, smallpox, etc.) = more having babies….

33 Stage 3: moderate growth: CBR, CDR both lower
-CBR still higher than CDR, so pop. grow but not so fast -CDR dropping, but not as sharp as stg 2 -most Eur. & N. Amer countries from stg 2  stg 3 in early 20th century… --most Asian/Lat. Amer. recent -but most African still in stg 2 Why do we move to stg 3? B/C ppl choose to have _____?____ WHY?  

34 Stage 4: Low growth: CBR about = CDR --NIR approaching 0 = ZPG
a) more babies survive (lower ___? __) b) less agric.--need less kids c) more in cities…less “chores” use for kids -when Child Labor laws cut out factory jobs, kids no longer bring in $$ required = more $$ d) urban homes = less avg. space = crowded Stage 4: Low growth: CBR about = CDR --NIR approaching 0 = ZPG --ZPG can happen even if CBR bit higher than CDR: b/c some girls won’t reach fertil.: -so 2.1 TFR can = ZPG, unless lots of immigrants --most W. European countries in stg 4 & well below 2.1 TFR’s

35 The Demographic Transition Model
The demogra. trans. in 4 stages: -1st hi B & D 2nd -- then D rates declines 3rd -then in B rates decline 4th --then low B & D rates. BUT pop. highest in Stg 4 Pop. growth is most rapid in the 2nd stage.

36 D-T Model w/ explanations, details…\Remember that D-T model looks at GROWTH rate (NIR) more than total population.

37 --in USA, not quite at stg 4 b/c of diversity of pop.
-Lat-Americans & Af-Americans have higher TFR’s; but Eur-Amer. tend to have TFR’s more like Euro. --social customs also enter in ? of stages… EX: families on farms: mom stays home & dad works at home & they have more kids…hands to work chores -as more women go to work & as families more in urban areas, have less kids

38 1) CDR there result of hi pollution (few controls)
Some E. Eur. countries have negative NIR b/c CDR higher than CBR…this is 1 of results of old communist system 1) CDR there result of hi pollution (few controls) 2) CBR result of strong fam.-planning…& 3) pessimism… (Why bring kids to this?) -may change later…but if not could have a Stg 5… Note: a) at begin. of Stg 1, CBR & CDR both high (about per 1,000 --at Stg 4, both low (+ - 10/1000) b) BUT…total pop. in Stg 4 much higher than it is in Stg 1

39 England= good EX: of demog. trans. & stages:
WHY? Has good info for last 1000 yrs (kept records early), stable history & boundaries, & not lots of migration earlier to affect pop. Stg 1) low growth til 1750: b4 this pop. up & down... (Black Death dropped pop. in 1300’s, famine, etc.) Stg 2) hi growth: : CBR still hi, but CDR lowering -techn. innova. = more food, more $$$ invested in health…..stayed stg. 2 about 125 yrs Stg 3) Mod. Growth: early 1970’s -sharp CBR drop from 33 to 15; CDR fell some…19 to 12 Stg 4: Lo growth: early ‘70’s to now: --CBR betwn & CDR betwn 10-12 Engl. pop. grown about 1 mill. since 1970, BUT mainly thru immigration…NOT natural increase

40 Demographic Transition in England
England was one of the first countries to experience rapid population growth in the mid-eighteenth century, when it entered stage 2 of the demographic transition.

41 Note that in England CBR & CDR dropped from about 40 to about 12
(stg. 1  stg.4) --but pop. up from 6 mill. (stg.1) to 50 mil (stg4) B) Population pyramids: use age & gender to show pop. w/in 5 yr. age groupings (youngest = 0 – 4yrs at pyramid base) -gives info RE: M vs. F & groups that might have specific needs or indications… Pyramid Shape comes mainly from the CBR of the community Stg. 2 country: Hi CBR w/ lot of kids so wide base Stg. 4: larger older pop., wider top

42 1) age distribution: age structure of pop. is important
-dependency ratio: # of those too old or too young to work, so they depend a lot on the other part of the pop. -divide pop. in 3 sections…0-14, , 65- & older -about 1/3 under 15 in Stg. 2, LDC’s In stg. 4 countries, only about 1/3 = dependent -only about 1/5 under 15 in those MDC’s at or near stg 4 -large % of kid pop. = strain on resources for schools, health care, daycare, etc.

43 % of Pop. under 15 (part of the ___?__ ratio)
About 1/3 of world population is under 15, but the % by country varies: Most of Africa + some Asian: Over 40% Much of Europe: Under 20%

44 In stg 4, ppl 65+ are larger % than in stg
In stg 4, ppl 65+ are larger % than in stg. 2 b/c longer life expectancy (see p. 58…lower rt. fig.) -in Europe over 65 = > 15%, but sub-Sahr.Africa = < 2% -is called the “graying” of the pop. (Eur. & N.Am.) -this can make CDR of stg 3 & 4 countries higher than stg 2 2) sex ratio: # of males per 100 females w/in pop. -more males born than females…but males have higher death rates -Eur. & N. Amer, sex ratio = 95:100; rest of world = 102:100 -in US, M vs. F under 15 yrs: 105:100 -at about 30, more F …& by 65, F = 60% of pop. -migration affects sex ratio: males more likely to migrate, so if hi immigration rates, usually more males

45 1) View pyramids on p. 63…make notations about shapes & why they have a specific shape
2) Study the 3 examples of countries in various stages of transi. Make notes about WHY each has the shape it has…

46 Population Pyramids in U.S. Cities
Fig. 2-16: Population pyramids can vary greatly, with different fertility rates (Laredo vs. Honolulu), or among military bases (Unalaska), college towns (Lawrence), and retirement communities (Naples).

47 Copy items below & answer:
a) Cape Verde: Stg 2 hi growth… --possible reasons why? --major problems? b) Chile: Stg 3: moderate growth… --poss. reason why? c) Denmark: Stg 4 low growth: --poss. reasons why?

48 Rapid Growth in Cape Verde
Fig. 2-17: Cape Verde, which entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in about 1950, is experiencing rapid population growth. Its population history reflects the impacts of famines and out-migration.

49 Moderate Growth in Chile
Fig. 2-18: Chile entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in the 1930s, and it entered stage 3 in the 1960s.

50 Low Growth in Denmark Fig. 2-19: Denmark has been in stage 4 of the demographic transition since the 1970s, with little population growth since then. Its population pyramid shows increasing numbers of elderly and few children.

51 One is the EU, one Asia, one a retirement community


53 D) Demographic trans. & world pop. growth (p. 62)
2nd half of 20th century world pop. zoomed b/c few countries were in the 2 stgs. w/ slower pop growth which are what?? (___ & ____ Most were into 2nd (hi) or 3rd (moderate) Some seem stuck in 2nd…maybe 3rd…. To move to 3rd or 4th need 2 big "break-aways" from the past… Techn. innovations Changing social customs that allow for drop in CBR -almost all are getting the techn. innov. (agric., medicine, etc.) that brings the drop in CDR --but many slow to alter customs that keep CBR high --resist situations that foster birth control measures -keeps many from moving to Stg. 3… & then to 4th

54 Eur & N. Am. went thru Indust. Rev. on way to 3rd or 4th
Major difference betwn. Eur. & N-Amer. & those now in Stg.2: Eur & N. Am. went thru Indust. Rev. on way to 3rd or 4th so…econ. changes 1st  more $$$  more improvements  social changes  stg 3 ….then 4 Today's LDC's: Stg. 2 came from outside investment… …little/no investment of their own Good EX: Sri Lanka: from 1946 to 1947, CDR dropped 43% b/c internat. organizations supplied them w/ DDT (insecticide) -sent DDT… trained S-L ppl to spray for mosquitoes … …reduced malaria deaths CDR dropped…but no econ. advances -had MORE ppl…no more $$ or technol. revolutions So…same economy & customs….but w/ hi CBR (& less dying) …so way more ppl…w/o jobs

55 Eur. & N. Amer.: Took about 100+ yrs to go from stg 2  3 Today's LDC's: Tough to get to stgs. 3 or 4 w/o the time Eur/N. Amer had to devel. & adjust Many Asian + Lat. Amer. LDC's now have moved to stg 3 ….now have a declining pop. (EX: Chile) But Africa has not made this break w/ the past &…hasn’t moved forward… WHY?? MANY reasons…involving… -History -Customs -Disease -Geography -Women -Climates B/C of these… Some African countries MAY become 1st to go BACK to Stg. 1… which has never happened b4

56 Engl. was in Stg 2 of demogr. trans. b/c of Industr. Rev.
K- 4: Why world may face overpopulation problems: Thomas Malthus English economist, 1798 theory said the world would run out of food in the future due to several factors: pop. was increasing faster than food production predicted a great famine about 100 yrs from then (1798) his theory: pop. increases geometrically (X) but food production increases arithmetically (+) So…. …1 person to 1 food unit…2 to 2…4 to 3…8 to 4…16 to 5... Engl. was in Stg 2 of demogr. trans. b/c of Industr. Rev. -Malthus said ppl needed "moral restraint“ (??) to control CBR…unless war, famine, diseases, or other disasters increased CDR

57 In Malthus' day, MDC's had the increasing pop…not LDC's as it is now…(LDC’s were still Stg. 1)
Later ppl didn't think about LDC's gaining from med. techn., but not from wealth & that pop. would snowball Now have “Neo-Malthusians”…who say Malthus was right …but missed part … Say we’ll have shortages of clean air, water, suitable farmland, food AND fuel resources Said these would = civil violence & wars in future b/c of conflict over resources Though Africa has increased econ. devel., increased pop. more, so econ. growth hasn’t helped --worse off than 1-2 decades ago

58 Critics of Malthus: various arguments against his ideas…
Engels said M.'s idea were capitalistic… -said world has resources for all…but are unequally distributed…& some use more than their share Others say pop. growth can stimulate food prod.: Growth = more customers & encourages more techno. growth Others say Malthus is too pessimistic b/c he assumed food supply is fixed…& doesn’t allow for the principles of _?_: -ppl choose to expand food & other resources

59 Last 50 yrs. have not supported Malthus’ ideas…b/c…
1) food prod. is up b/c of techn…grow more faster -new techniques, new strains of rice, etc., = better 2) pop. growth increased, but food prod. grew faster 3) we do have problems w/ those who can't afford or get access to food -but these are distribution problems, not inability to produce (which is the NEWER theory) 4) also Mal.'s predictions of global growth were off -said by 2000 would be 10 billion but only 6.7 bill. 5) he didn’t foresee cultural, econ. & tech. changes -didn't see the demogr. transition Stgs. 3 & 4

60 Food Population, 1950–2000Malthus vs. Actual Trends
Said pop. would grow faster than food Production But … food production expanded faster than pop. in the 2nd half of the 20th century.

61 SO…How do we reduce NIR?? Even if Malthus was wrong about pop. situation there are areas w/ these problems Those in stg 2 (hi growth) can reduce 1 of 2 ways… 1) go back to stg 1: higher CDR more equal to CBR 2) move to stg 3 or 4 by lowering CBR to the CDR 1) Higher CDR: could come from spread of disease esp. AIDS -95% of AIDS deaths are in LDC's! Africa: more than 2 mill. per yr….esp. southern -Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, & Zimbabwe: -1/5 of all deaths there caused by AIDS… -25% of pop. is infected -CDR here rose in '90's from 13 to 21… -life expect. dropped from 55 yrs. to 40 yrs. Higher CDR could push Africa back to stg 1 Demog. trans.

62 Other diseases in other LDC's may lead to higher CDR
1/3 of kids’ deaths in most LDC's is from poor sanitation & its results dysentery (diarrhea = dehydration = death) & other infections Another 1/3 die from diseases MDC-kids don't get b/c of immunizations: EX: measles, polio, TB, diphtheria, tetanus,etc

63 Tuberculosis Death Rates, 2000
TB death rate: an indicator of country’s ability to invest in health care …It’s still 1 of the world’s largest infectious-disease killers.

64 HIV/AIDS Prevalence Rates, 2002
Highest HIV infection rates are in sub-Saharan Africa. India & China have large numbers of cases, but lower infection rates (%)

65 Epidemiological Transition: 4 stages:
Stage 1: Stage of pestilence & famine: nature’s way of holding pop. in check (EX: Black Plague) Stg 2: stg. of receding pandemics: #’s lessen, but still in crowded areas (EX: Cholera in large cities) Stg. 3 & 4: steady decrease in infectious diseases ...but increase in chronic degenerative & human-created diseases EX’s: cancers & cardiovascular-disease (smoking, diet, pollution, etc.)…age related Stg. 5? MAYBE.. return to infectious & parasitic disease? 3 reasons: 1-evolution of drug resistant microbes 2-poverty in LDC’s 3- Increased travel & exposure

66 2 ways to lower CBR: Long-run method + short-run method
So…1 way to adjust = higher CDR…not too nice ..A better way? 2) lower birth rates: v. few want to see pop. contained by higher CDR… lowering CBR is better choice… 2 ways to lower CBR: Long-run method + short-run method a) Long-run method: economic development alternative: Changes in society… Wealthier = more able to spend $$ on educat. & health-care…promotes lower CBR One key: women: women in school have more opportunities & choices, better control of lives…dollar-wise & reproductive-wise Better health-care = lower IMR & women more likely to have less kids cause know kids likely to survive b) But in short run: Distribute of birth con. methods: Putting resources into family planning methods in LDC's = a quicker way to drop CBR LDC’s demand for B-C is greater than the supply -We need to get more out there quickly & cheaply

67 Bangladesh: W. using contraceptives: 1975: 6% ... 2000: 50%
Now in many LDC's 2/3 of W use bir. contr. But in Africa (& parts of Asia) only about 1/4 use… Why? Women: low status…little/no education or econ. control -- W’s hi-status comes from hi # of kids --Also gives M hi-status b/c shows virility & power --Some cultures view birth control use against their religious or political beliefs Many religions disapprove of some or all B-C devices: including some of these…. (usually fundamentalists of the relig..) -Roman Catholics Muslims -fundamentalist Protestants Hindus Last 8 yrs.: US govt. has withheld $$ for all B-C in many LDC’s b/c of a possibility of abortion…even if only for mother’s life, etc. …Big political issue in US Pres. Obama has overturned this policy already Most experts agree controlling CBR is best way, but LDC's & international family planning organizations have limited $$$ to make it a reality

68 Use of Family Planning Both the extent of family planning use & the
methods used vary widely by country & culture.

69 Crude Birth Rate Decline, 1981–2001
CBR’s declined in most countries between 1981 & 2001 (BUT…the # of births per year increased from 123 to 133 mill.).

70 Cholera in London, 1854 distribution of cholera cases & water pumps
By mapping the distribution of cholera cases & water pumps in Soho, London, Dr. John Snow identified the source of the waterborne epidemic.

71 SARS Infections in China, 2003
China had 85 % of the world's SARS cases in 2003. In China, the infection was highly clustered in Guangdong Province, Hong Kong, & in Beijing.

72 Historical Pop. growth

73 NIR graph

74 Growth since Industrial Revolution & Projected thru 2050


76 Population pyramid for Williamsburg, VA WHY???

77 Get into groups: What can these pyramids tell you??
A B-1, B-2, B C-1, C-2




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