Presentation on theme: "Population Chapter 2 An Introduction to Human Geography"— Presentation transcript:
1 Population Chapter 2 An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 10eJames M. RubensteinChapter 2PopulationPPT by Abe Goldman
2 Distribution of World Population Population concentrationsThe four largest population clustersOther population clustersSparsely populated regionsDry lands – Cold landsWet lands – High landsPopulation densityArithmetic densityPhysiological densityAgricultural density
3 AP HG Ch 2 notes: (INTRO)Why important to study pop.:a) pop. = 6 ½ bill., more than ever beforeb) increase rate in 2nd 1/2 of 20th cent. faster than ever b4c) *almost all of global pop. growth is inLDC’s…where they have least resourcesdemography: study of pop. characteristics: how pop. is distributed spatially by age, gender, fertility, health, occupation, etc.some problems = where is major pop. growth… why it is growing at differ. rates in differ. placesoverpopulation: # people in certain area & the ability of these people to have needed resources to live decently
4 World Population Cartogram This cartogram display countries by size of their population rather thantheir land area. (Only countries with 50 million or more people are named.)
6 KEY 1: Pop distribution basically = concentration & density Pop. Concentrations: 3/4 of people live on 5% of Earth's surface -----remember 71% of surf. = oceans, other areas are harsh5 major concentr. = E. Asia, S. Asia, SE Asia, W. Europe, Eastern N. Amer.similarities.: most near water, low-lying, fert. soil, temperate (warm, but not hot)climate & all betw. 10º & 55º N lat. , except for parts of SE AsiaHectares: 10,000 sq meters or acres
7 1) East Asia #1 in pop. (China, Koreas, Japan, Taiwan): 1/4 world pop 1) East Asia #1 in pop. (China, Koreas, Japan, Taiwan): 1/4 world pop. hereChina: #1 in pop., #3 in land area; most on river valleys & coasts; 3/4 rural--most farmersJapan: most in Tokyo, Osaka…Korea: most in Seoul3/4 of Japan. & S. Kor. = urban-most urban jobs in = industry or service2) South Asia: #2 in pop.; (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka)--3/4 of this pop. in India-most on coast or along Indus & Ganges Rivers; 1/4 cities most of pop. = rural farmers
8 World Population Distribution World population is very unevenly distributed across the Earth’s surface & it can be compared to climate distribution.
9 3) SE Asia: #4 pop. ; (Islands: Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Pap 3) SE Asia: #4 pop.; (Islands: Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Pap. New Guinea, & Philippines, + Thailand, Vietnam, etc.)-Indonesia = 4th most pop. country;--most are farmers in rural areasIn these 3 Asian areas = over 50% of world’s pop. on only 10% of world's land4) Europe: #3 pop.; 75% in cities; less than 20% farmers (many of farmers in S & E Eur.)Import most of food rather than produceThis led to lots of colonization (Amer., India, China, Africa, etc.) looking for resources & these resources = lots of manufacturing5) Eastern N. Amer.: #5; NE USA & SE Canadamostly urban… less than 5% = farmers
10 B) Sparsely pop. areas: too dry, wet, cold, high Ecumene: areas that are permanently settled--more were too harsh…innovations increase ecumene1) dry lands: 20% of Earth's surface; most in deserts: Sahara, Arabian, Gobi (N. Afr. SW & Centr. Asia) growing desert = desertification-little water for crops, etc., but many have oil2) wet lands: too much rain; most = Equatorial rain forests: excess rain + excess heat = poor agricul….but can grow some rice3) cold lands: area at & near N & S Poles; few plants & animals4) high lands: highest mtns. = steep, snow-covered-exceptions: parts of Latin Amer. & Africa wherehigher areas is better than lower hot/wet areas
11 Expansion of the Ecumene 5000 B.C.–A.D. 1900 ecumene, orthe portion ofThe Earth w/permanenthumansettlement,hasexpandedto covermost of theworld’s landarea.
12 C) Population density: look at it 3 ways… (Deja vu!!!) 1) arithmetic density (aka population density):-# people per unit of land…USA = 30 per sq. km. (77/sq mi)…but NY City (Manhattan) = 21,400/sq.km (55,400/sq.mi.)2) Physiological density: # people per unit of arable land: is a more meaningful measure b/c can show pressure on the land due to populationEX: Egypt: arithm. density = 70/sq.km; butphysiolg. density = 3,503/sq. km3) agricultural density: ratio farmers to arable land--lower agr. density = higher technology;-MDC's: usually lower agri. density, & LDC’s usually higher;-in MDC’s, lots of land & few farmers means more pop. to work in factories, etc.
13 Arithmetic Population Density Fig. 2-4: Arithmetic population density: # of ppl per total land area. Highest densities found in parts of Asia & Eur.
14 Physiological Density Fig. 2-5: Physiological density is the number of people per arable land area. This is a good measure of the relation between population and agricultural resources in a society.
15 Distribution of World Population Growth Natural Increase (NIR)Fertility (TFR)Mortality (IMR + MMR)
16 Divide 15 by 1000 to get a % so it = 1.5% is NIR KEY 2: Where Has World's Pop. Increased?Important terms: (NOTE: crude means "basic", i.e., not specified by age, etc)a) crude birth rate (CBR): # live births per 1,000 per year:CBR = 20 means for every 1000 in a place, were 20 birthsb) crude death rate (CDR) # deaths in year per 1,000c) natural increase rate (NIR): % by which a pop. grows in a year…change CBR & CDR to %'s…To calculate NIR: CBR - CDR = _____?____then divide by to get NIREX: CBR = CDR = – 10 = 15 NI per 1000Divide 15 by 1000 to get a % so it = 1.5% is NIRCBR = CDR = NIR = = 1.2%
17 World Population Growth 1950–2000 Fig. 2-6: Total world population increased from 2.5 to 6 billion in this half century. The natural increase rate peaked in the early 1960s and has declined since, but the number of people added each year did not peak until 1990.
18 Natural increase:Begin. of 21st cent., world NIR = 1.4; i.e., world pop. is growing yearly by 1.4 %: now over 6.7 billion--pop. growth is down somewhat (was 77 million in 2000; was 87 mil 1989)-doubling time: # yrs. it will take for pop. to double--at 1.4%, our doubling time is now 51 yrs-but in to double…150 yrs.As CBR goes up, doubling time goes down; CBR down, dbl. time up; are inversely proportionalNIR is over 2.0% in most of Africa, Lat. Amer., & Mid East (LDC’s…ones who can’t afford it)
19 Natural Increase Rates **NIR is negative in Europe …means pop. is declining if you don't count immigrants**Remember! "N" = "natural")(NIR) = % of growth or decline in the pop. of a country per year (not including net migration). Countries in Africa & SW Asia have highest current rates; Russia & some European countries have negative rates.
20 Crude Birth Rates (CBR) The crude birth rate (CBR) is the total # of births in a country per 1,000 population per year. Lowest rates: in Europe.Highest rates: Africa & several Asian countries.
21 B) fertility: use CBR to study fertility; many sub-Saharan countries = CBR 40, but many Eurp. = less than 10-total fertility rate (TFR): avg. # of kids a woman will have thru her child-bearing yrs (about 15-49)-look at map (49) w/spatial association: showsTFR-TFR over 6 in some Sub-Saharan countries!C) mortality: one important way to measure & lookat = CDR; another way is infant mortality rate-IMR = of every 1,000 live births, # kids die b4 1yr. old-usually use per 1000, not %…but sometimes = %-W. Eurp. = lowest IMR's (USA high for MDC)-in some LDC's = 100…which means 10%babies born alive die b4 1 yr. old
22 Total Fertility Rates (TFR) The Total fertility rate (TFR) is the # of children an avg. woman in a society will have thru her childbearing years. Lowest rates: Europe. Highest: Africa & parts of Middle East.
23 Infant Mortality Rates (IMR) The infant mortality rate: # of infant deaths per 1,000 live births per year. Highest: found in some of the poorest countries of Africa & Asia.
24 IMR: strong indication of a country's health-care system. Why IMR: strong indication of a country's health-care system. Why? (When I ask you “why?”, etc., you need to KNOW this!)-though USA = MDC, IMR higher than Canada & most Euro. countries….Why?life expectancy: calculated at kid’s birth…means that child has a 50/50 chance of reaching a particular age-again, high in W. Eur. , low in sub-Saharan Afr.-MDC's: lower CBR's, TFR's, & IMR's…but higher life expectancy-LDC's: high CBR, TFR, & IMR, but low life expect.-CDR doesn’t have as wide a spread as CBR: 20 vs. 40 & LDC's actually bit lower than MDC's (p. 51)-this contradiction due to demographic transition
25 Avg. Life Expectancy at birth Life expectancy at birth: Avg. # of years a newborn infant can expect to live. Highest: generally in the wealthiest countries. Lowest: in the poorest countries.
26 Crude Death Rates (CDR) The crude death rate (CDR): total # of deaths in a country per 1,000 population per year. B/C wealthy countries are in a late stage of the demographic transition, they often have a higher CDR than poorer countries!!!!!
28 KEY 3: Demographic Transition: Why pop. increases at differ. rates in differ. places at differ. timesA) Demographic Transition: countries go thru 4 stages involving changes in CBR, CDR, & NIR-every country at 1 stage or another…& it is progressive: once go into a stage, you don't go back… so farStage 1: low growth: hi CBR, hi CDR, NIR about zero-in earliest humans, most all = same stage; CBR & CDR might vary from year to year, but hi on avg.-most all = hunter/gatherers for about 392,000 yrs.
29 Agri-Revol.: When humans began to grow foods & domesticate animals… 1st agricultural revolution: 8,000 BCE: happened in various places & pop. grew fasterAgri-Revol.: When humans began to grow foods & domesticate animals…No longer move & scrounge as they had b/c they had stable food sourcesStill stayed basically at Stg 1 Low growth…for about another 10,000 yrs.-still problems w/ climate (famine), wars, disease, etc
30 Stage 2: hi growth: hi CBR, lowering CDR, hi NIR Stg 2 comes in 2 sections:-2-a) pop. growth getting faster…….-2-b) growth slowing, but CBR/CDR gap still hiInnovation: a new idea or new way of doing something; can be technology or can be philosophical ideas-1750: Britain was 1st to come into Stg. 2 b/cwas 1st w/ Industrial RevolutionLater spread thru W. Europe……then USA
31 Process of improv.:a) indust. techn. (steam eng., massproduction, RR, later transportationinnovations)b) brought wealth….which broughthealth innova., sanitation, hygiene,sewers, etc…= healthier… whichmeans…less disease(Why did they improve these?)c) + food production w/ less labor = laborersfor other jobs…also health + food higher life expect.
32 Other Eur. countries & USA didn’t hit Stg 2 til about 1800 -Stg. 2 didn’t diffuse to most of Africa, Asia, & Lat. Amer. til about 1950…& then world pop. climbed!*USA & Eur. moved to stg 2 b/c of industr./tech rev.,BUT…others (Afr., Lat. Am., etc.) moved to stg 2 b/c of medical revolution in mid-20th cent.This meant improved med. practices = less diseases, less hardship = longer life & healthier life…(rid of TB, malaria, smallpox, etc.) = more having babies….
33 Stage 3: moderate growth: CBR, CDR both lower -CBR still higher than CDR, so pop. grow but not so fast-CDR dropping, but not as sharp as stg 2-most Eur. & N. Amer countries fromstg 2 stg 3 in early 20th century…--most Asian/Lat. Amer. recent-but most African still in stg 2Why do we move to stg 3?B/C ppl choose to have _____?____ WHY?
34 Stage 4: Low growth: CBR about = CDR --NIR approaching 0 = ZPG a) more babies survive (lower ___? __)b) less agric.--need less kidsc) more in cities…less “chores” use for kids-when Child Labor laws cut out factory jobs, kids no longer bring in $$..school required = more $$d) urban homes = less avg. space = crowdedStage 4: Low growth: CBR about = CDR--NIR approaching 0 = ZPG--ZPG can happen even if CBR bit higher than CDR: b/c some girls won’t reach fertil.:-so 2.1 TFR can = ZPG, unless lots ofimmigrants--most W. European countries in stg 4 & well below 2.1 TFR’s
35 The Demographic Transition Model The demogra. trans. in 4 stages:-1st hi B & D 2nd -- then D rates declines3rd -then in B rates decline4th --then low B & D rates. BUT pop. highest in Stg 4Pop. growth is most rapid in the 2nd stage.
36 D-T Model w/ explanations, details…\Remember that D-T model looks at GROWTH rate (NIR) more than total population.
37 --in USA, not quite at stg 4 b/c of diversity of pop. -Lat-Americans & Af-Americans have higher TFR’s; but Eur-Amer. tend to have TFR’s more like Euro.--social customs also enter in ? of stages…EX: families on farms: mom stays home & dad works at home & they have more kids…hands to work chores-as more women go to work & as families more in urban areas, have less kids
38 1) CDR there result of hi pollution (few controls) Some E. Eur. countries have negative NIR b/c CDR higher than CBR…this is 1 of results of old communist system1) CDR there result of hi pollution (few controls)2) CBR result of strong fam.-planning…&3) pessimism… (Why bring kids to this?)-may change later…but if not could have a Stg 5…Note: a) at begin. of Stg 1, CBR & CDR both high(about per 1,000--at Stg 4, both low (+ - 10/1000)b) BUT…total pop. in Stg 4 much higherthan it is in Stg 1
39 England= good EX: of demog. trans. & stages: WHY? Has good info for last 1000 yrs (kept records early), stable history & boundaries, & not lots of migration earlier to affect pop.Stg 1) low growth til 1750: b4 this pop. up & down... (Black Death dropped pop. in 1300’s, famine, etc.)Stg 2) hi growth: : CBR still hi, but CDR lowering-techn. innova. = more food, more $$$ invested in health…..stayed stg. 2 about 125 yrsStg 3) Mod. Growth: early 1970’s-sharp CBR drop from 33 to 15; CDR fell some…19 to 12Stg 4: Lo growth: early ‘70’s to now:--CBR betwn & CDR betwn 10-12Engl. pop. grown about 1 mill. since 1970, BUT mainly thru immigration…NOT natural increase
40 Demographic Transition in England England was one of the first countries to experience rapid population growth in the mid-eighteenth century, when it entered stage 2 of the demographic transition.
41 Note that in England CBR & CDR dropped from about 40 to about 12 (stg. 1 stg.4)--but pop. up from 6 mill. (stg.1) to 50 mil (stg4)B) Population pyramids: use age & gender to show pop. w/in 5 yr. age groupings(youngest = 0 – 4yrs at pyramid base)-gives info RE: M vs. F & groups that might have specific needs or indications…Pyramid Shape comes mainly from the CBR of the communityStg. 2 country: Hi CBR w/ lot of kids so wide baseStg. 4: larger older pop., wider top
42 1) age distribution: age structure of pop. is important -dependency ratio: # of those too old or too young to work, so they depend a lot on the other part of the pop.-divide pop. in 3 sections…0-14, , 65- & older-about 1/3 under 15 in Stg. 2, LDC’sIn stg. 4 countries, only about 1/3 = dependent-only about 1/5 under 15 in those MDC’s at or near stg 4-large % of kid pop. = strain on resources for schools, health care, daycare, etc.
43 % of Pop. under 15 (part of the ___?__ ratio) About 1/3 of world population is under 15, but the % bycountry varies: Most of Africa + some Asian: Over 40%Much of Europe: Under 20%
44 In stg 4, ppl 65+ are larger % than in stg In stg 4, ppl 65+ are larger % than in stg. 2 b/c longer life expectancy (see p. 58…lower rt. fig.)-in Europe over 65 = > 15%, but sub-Sahr.Africa = < 2%-is called the “graying” of the pop. (Eur. & N.Am.)-this can make CDR of stg 3 & 4 countries higher than stg 22) sex ratio: # of males per 100 females w/in pop.-more males born than females…but males have higher death rates-Eur. & N. Amer, sex ratio = 95:100; rest of world = 102:100-in US, M vs. F under 15 yrs: 105:100-at about 30, more F …& by 65, F = 60% of pop.-migration affects sex ratio: males more likely to migrate, so if hi immigration rates, usually more males
45 1) View pyramids on p. 63…make notations about shapes & why they have a specific shape 2) Study the 3 examples of countries in various stages of transi. Make notes about WHY each has the shape it has…
46 Population Pyramids in U.S. Cities Fig. 2-16: Population pyramids can vary greatly, with different fertility rates (Laredo vs. Honolulu), or among military bases (Unalaska), college towns (Lawrence), and retirement communities (Naples).
48 Rapid Growth in Cape Verde Fig. 2-17: Cape Verde, which entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in about 1950, is experiencing rapid population growth. Its population history reflects the impacts of famines and out-migration.
49 Moderate Growth in Chile Fig. 2-18: Chile entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in the 1930s, and it entered stage 3 in the 1960s.
50 Low Growth in DenmarkFig. 2-19: Denmark has been in stage 4 of the demographic transition since the 1970s, with little population growth since then. Its population pyramid shows increasing numbers of elderly and few children.
51 One is the EU, one Asia, one a retirement community
53 D) Demographic trans. & world pop. growth (p. 62) 2nd half of 20th century world pop. zoomed b/c few countries were in the 2 stgs. w/ slower pop growth which are what?? (___ & ____Most were into 2nd (hi) or 3rd (moderate)Some seem stuck in 2nd…maybe 3rd….To move to 3rd or 4th need 2 big "break-aways" from the past…Techn. innovationsChanging social customs that allow for drop in CBR-almost all are getting the techn. innov. (agric., medicine, etc.) that brings the drop in CDR--but many slow to alter customs that keep CBR high--resist situations that foster birth control measures-keeps many from moving to Stg. 3… & then to 4th
54 Eur & N. Am. went thru Indust. Rev. on way to 3rd or 4th Major difference betwn. Eur. & N-Amer. & those now in Stg.2:Eur & N. Am. went thru Indust. Rev. on way to 3rd or 4thso…econ. changes 1st more $$$ more improvements social changes stg 3 ….then 4Today's LDC's: Stg. 2 came from outside investment……little/no investment of their ownGood EX: Sri Lanka: from 1946 to 1947, CDR dropped 43%b/c internat. organizations supplied them w/ DDT (insecticide)-sent DDT… trained S-L ppl to spray for mosquitoes ……reduced malaria deathsCDR dropped…but no econ. advances-had MORE ppl…no more $$ or technol. revolutionsSo…same economy & customs….but w/ hi CBR (& less dying) …so way more ppl…w/o jobs
55 Eur. & N. Amer.:Took about 100+ yrs to go from stg 2 3Today's LDC's:Tough to get to stgs. 3 or 4 w/o the time Eur/N. Amer had to devel. & adjustMany Asian + Lat. Amer. LDC's now have moved to stg 3 ….now have a declining pop. (EX: Chile)But Africa has not made this break w/ the past &…hasn’t moved forward…WHY?? MANY reasons…involving…-History -Customs -Disease-Geography -Women -ClimatesB/C of these…Some African countries MAY become 1st to go BACK to Stg. 1… which has never happened b4
56 Engl. was in Stg 2 of demogr. trans. b/c of Industr. Rev. K- 4: Why world may face overpopulation problems:Thomas MalthusEnglish economist, 1798 theory said the world would run out of food in the future due to several factors:pop. was increasing faster than food productionpredicted a great famine about 100 yrs from then (1798)his theory: pop. increases geometrically (X) but food production increases arithmetically (+) So….…1 person to 1 food unit…2 to 2…4 to 3…8 to 4…16 to 5...Engl. was in Stg 2 of demogr. trans. b/c of Industr. Rev.-Malthus said ppl needed "moral restraint“ (??) to control CBR…unless war, famine, diseases, or other disasters increased CDR
57 In Malthus' day, MDC's had the increasing pop…not LDC's as it is now…(LDC’s were still Stg. 1) Later ppl didn't think about LDC's gaining from med. techn., but not from wealth & that pop. would snowballNow have “Neo-Malthusians”…who say Malthus was right …but missed part …Say we’ll have shortages of clean air, water, suitable farmland, food AND fuel resourcesSaid these would = civil violence & wars in future b/c of conflict over resourcesThough Africa has increased econ. devel., increased pop. more, so econ. growth hasn’t helped--worse off than 1-2 decades ago
58 Critics of Malthus: various arguments against his ideas… Engels said M.'s idea were capitalistic…-said world has resources for all…but are unequally distributed…& some use more than their shareOthers say pop. growth can stimulate food prod.:Growth = more customers & encourages more techno. growthOthers say Malthus is too pessimistic b/c he assumed food supply is fixed…& doesn’t allow for the principles of _?_:-ppl choose to expand food & other resources
59 Last 50 yrs. have not supported Malthus’ ideas…b/c… 1) food prod. is up b/c of techn…grow more faster-new techniques, new strains of rice, etc., = better2) pop. growth increased, but food prod. grew faster3) we do have problems w/ those who can't afford or get access to food-but these are distribution problems, not inability to produce (which is the NEWER theory)4) also Mal.'s predictions of global growth were off-said by 2000 would be 10 billion but only 6.7 bill.5) he didn’t foresee cultural, econ. & tech. changes-didn't see the demogr. transition Stgs. 3 & 4
60 Food Population, 1950–2000Malthus vs. Actual Trends Said pop.would grow fasterthan foodProductionBut …food productionexpandedfaster thanpop. in the 2nd halfof the 20th century.
61 SO…How do we reduce NIR??Even if Malthus was wrong about pop. situation there are areas w/ these problemsThose in stg 2 (hi growth) can reduce 1 of 2 ways…1) go back to stg 1: higher CDR more equal to CBR2) move to stg 3 or 4 by lowering CBR to the CDR1) Higher CDR: could come from spread of disease esp. AIDS-95% of AIDS deaths are in LDC's!Africa: more than 2 mill. per yr….esp. southern-Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, & Zimbabwe:-1/5 of all deaths there caused by AIDS…-25% of pop. is infected-CDR here rose in '90's from 13 to 21…-life expect. dropped from 55 yrs. to 40 yrs.Higher CDR could push Africa back to stg 1 Demog. trans.
62 Other diseases in other LDC's may lead to higher CDR 1/3 of kids’ deaths in most LDC's is from poor sanitation &its results ..like dysentery (diarrhea = dehydration = death) & other infectionsAnother 1/3 die from diseases MDC-kids don't get b/c ofimmunizations: EX: measles, polio, TB, diphtheria, tetanus,etc
63 Tuberculosis Death Rates, 2000 TB death rate: an indicator of country’s ability to invest in healthcare …It’s still 1 of the world’s largest infectious-disease killers.
64 HIV/AIDS Prevalence Rates, 2002 Highest HIV infection rates are in sub-Saharan Africa. India &China have large numbers of cases, but lower infection rates (%)
65 Epidemiological Transition: 4 stages: Stage 1: Stage of pestilence & famine: nature’s way of holding pop. in check (EX: Black Plague)Stg 2: stg. of receding pandemics: #’s lessen, but still in crowded areas (EX: Cholera in large cities)Stg. 3 & 4: steady decrease in infectious diseases...but increase in chronic degenerative & human-created diseases EX’s: cancers & cardiovascular-disease(smoking, diet, pollution, etc.)…age relatedStg. 5? MAYBE.. return to infectious & parasitic disease?3 reasons:1-evolution of drug resistant microbes2-poverty in LDC’s3- Increased travel & exposure
66 2 ways to lower CBR: Long-run method + short-run method So…1 way to adjust = higher CDR…not too nice ..A better way?2) lower birth rates: v. few want to see pop. contained by higher CDR… lowering CBR is better choice…2 ways to lower CBR: Long-run method + short-run methoda) Long-run method: economic development alternative: Changes in society…Wealthier = more able to spend $$ on educat. & health-care…promotes lower CBROne key: women: women in school have more opportunities & choices, better control of lives…dollar-wise & reproductive-wiseBetter health-care = lower IMR & women more likely to have less kids cause know kids likely to surviveb) But in short run: Distribute of birth con. methods:Putting resources into family planning methods in LDC's = a quicker way to drop CBRLDC’s demand for B-C is greater than the supply-We need to get more out there quickly & cheaply
67 Bangladesh: W. using contraceptives: 1975: 6% ... 2000: 50% Now in many LDC's 2/3 of W use bir. contr.But in Africa (& parts of Asia) only about 1/4 use…Why? Women: low status…little/no education or econ. control-- W’s hi-status comes from hi # of kids--Also gives M hi-status b/c shows virility & power--Some cultures view birth control use against their religious or political beliefsMany religions disapprove of some or all B-C devices: including some of these…. (usually fundamentalists of the relig..)-Roman Catholics Muslims-fundamentalist Protestants HindusLast 8 yrs.: US govt. has withheld $$ for all B-C in many LDC’s b/c of a possibility of abortion…even if only for mother’s life, etc. …Big political issue in USPres. Obama has overturned this policy alreadyMost experts agree controlling CBR is best way, but LDC's & international family planning organizations have limited $$$ to make it a reality
68 Use of Family Planning Both the extent of family planning use & the methodsused varywidely bycountry &culture.
69 Crude Birth Rate Decline, 1981–2001 CBR’s declined in most countries between 1981 & 2001(BUT…the # of births per year increased from 123 to 133 mill.).
70 Cholera in London, 1854 distribution of cholera cases & water pumps By mapping thedistribution ofcholera cases &water pumpsin Soho, London,Dr. John Snowidentified thesourceof the waterborneepidemic.
71 SARS Infections in China, 2003 China had 85 %of the world'sSARS cases in2003.In China, theinfection washighly clusteredin GuangdongProvince,Hong Kong,& in Beijing.