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Paloma Valles. This is the volume of oxygen that is absorbed by the body per minute and supplied to the tissues VO2 max This is the maximum rate at which.

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Presentation on theme: "Paloma Valles. This is the volume of oxygen that is absorbed by the body per minute and supplied to the tissues VO2 max This is the maximum rate at which."— Presentation transcript:

1 Paloma Valles

2 This is the volume of oxygen that is absorbed by the body per minute and supplied to the tissues VO2 max This is the maximum rate at which oxygen can be absorbed by the body and supplied to the tissues. As the intensity of exercise increases, VO2 rises, until VO2 max is reached

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4 Glycogen: a polysaccharide stored in muscle fibers. It can be broken down to supply glucose for respiration and muscle contraction. It is used during periods of intense/long-duration exercise used for glucose storage Myoglobin: a respiratory pigment found in some muscles. It acts as an oxygen store by combining with O2 in areas of high concentration and breaks down when the oxygen levels are low. used for oxygen storage, for use during exercise

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6 Muscle contraction requires a supply of energy. It is obtained by converting ATP to ADP. The ADP that is produces must be converted back into ATP, for muscle contraction to continue. There are 3 ways of doing this: 1.)Creatine phosphate 2.)Anaerobic cell respiration 3.)Aerobic cell respiration

7 Aerobic Respiration: Can produce ATP continuously with the use of oxygen Anaerobic Respiration: Requires ATP at such a rapid rate that O2 cannot be supplied quickly enough Anaerobic respiration produces ATP for short periods of time (2 minutes), lactate is produced and H+ ions accumulate preventing the exercise continuing Creatine Phosphate: Muscles contain stores of CP which can be used to phosphorylate ADP Creatine Phosphate + ADP > ATP + creatine This allows ATP to be produced 8-10 seconds

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9 -They are taken by body builders to increase muscle mass -May cause weight gain by water retention (may impair performance) -Can increase concentration of creatine in muscle in athletes with naturally low concentrations. -Only small doses of creatine are needed to reach maximal concentrations. -There is evidence of an increase in maximum intensity over short distances -Endurance involving aerobic respiration not increased

10 At start of exercise: Glycolysis (anaerobic means of ATP provision) is primed by hormones and neurotransmitters -Low/moderate intensity: energy demands are met increasingly by fat (muscle triglycerides/plasma free fatty acids) -high intensity: energy from carbohydrate-derived fuels predominates (muscles extract more energy per litre of O2 consumed if carbs are used: 5kcal vs 4.86kcal from mixture of fat and carb)

11 Lactate: Produced during anaerobic respiration and is passed to the liver to create oxygen debt Oxygen Debt: If large amount of lactate builds up a large amount of oxygen is needed to repay the debt

12 Anaerobic respiration ----> lactate ----> absorbed from blood and converted into Pyruvate.... Then either……….converted to glucose by the liver OR absorbed by mitochondria and used in aerobic respiration in the mitochondrion, using oxygen taken in during deep ventilations after exercise

13 flash-cards/ flash-cards/


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