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What is a spreadsheet? A spreadsheet is a program used for performing calculations on a table divided into rows and columns. Cells in a spreadsheet can contain text, numbers or formulas. Lines between the columns and rows divide the page up into boxes, which are called cells. Cells are identified by their column letter and row number, this is known as the cell reference. Spreadsheets 3 2 1 DCBA COLUMNS ROWS D3

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What information can a spreadsheet contain? Text (Label) Spreadsheet headings Numbers (Value) An number you enter Formulas (sum) Calculation you create

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Features of Spreadsheets Spreadsheets have all the features common to General Purpose Packages. They also have special features which are common to spreadsheets. o Formula o Formatting o Cell Attributes & Cell Protection o Insert rows and columns o Replication o Calculation o Charting o Functions o Relative and Absolute Referencing

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Formula Allows the user to carry out calculation on the spreadsheet. 15£0.40Sweets4 20£0.50Soft Drink3 10£0.30Crisps2 TotalQty SoldPriceItem1 DCBA =B2*C2 =B3*C3 =B4*C4 £3.00 £10.00 £6.00 Spreadsheet formulae can include the common operations: + Addition - Subtraction * Multiplication / Division Always start a formula with an equals sign!

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Formatting This is how the user changes the ways the spreadsheets looks. Change column width. Make a column as wide or as narrow as you want. Alignment Choose to align the contents of any cell - left, right, centred Cell Attributes Changing the way the spreadsheet cell displays data. You can apply a different set of attribute to a cell. Cell Protection Allows the user to protect or lock the contents of a cell. Useful if your Spreadsheet is going to be used my someone else.

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Replication Replication simply means to copy the contents of one cell into another. Used for copying formulae. The spreadsheet ‘fill down’ command is one method of replication. This saves the user a great deal of time, and reduces your chances of making a mistake.

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Automatic & Manual Calculation When the user changes a value in a spreadsheet cell any other cells in that document whose values are affected by that value are changed. This is Automatic Calculation. Some spreadsheets allow you to turn off automatic calculation, preventing this updating until you tell it to. This is Manual Calculation.

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Charting Drawing a graph from a set of numerical data, from a spreadsheet. Common types of charts: o Bar Chart o Pie Chart o Line Graph

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Functions Spreadsheets are used for calculations, they often have extra functions built in. ( just like a calculator) SUM AVERAGE MAX MIN SUM FUNCTION This function is used for totalling a column of figures. 4 303 402 301 DCBA =A1+A2+A3=SUM(A1..A3)

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AVERAGE Function The average formula calculates the average value of the identified cells and places the result in the appropriate place. =AVERAGE(A1:C1) MAX Function Returns the largest value in a set of values =MAX (C4:C14) Gives the highest number within the range C4 to C14 MIN Function Returns the lowest value in a set of values =MIN (C4:C14) Gives the lowest number within the range C4 to C14

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IF Function (Credit) The IF function is very powerful when you use it in a spreadsheet cell. It allows the user to make choices, depending on the values placed in other cells. A10 = IF (D5>1200, 500, 200) If the value of cell D5 is greater than 1200, then place the value 500 in A10, otherwise place 200 in cell A10. A10 = IF (D5>50, “PASS”, “FAIL”) If the value of cell D5 is greater than 50, then place PASS in A10, otherwise place FAIL in cell A10.

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Relative and Absolute References (Credit) When a formula in a spreadsheet is changed relative to its position, during copying or replication is relative referencing. Example: =A2 + B2 =A3 + B3 =A4 + B4 A cell reference in a spreadsheet which remains the same when copied (replicated) to another cell is absolute referencing. Absolute referencing allows the formula to return to a specific cell in a spreadsheet. Example: =A2 + $B$2 =A3 + $B$2 =A4 + $B$2 This example the formula will always return to cell B2

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6 5 4 3 2 1 DCBA =B6*C6150.4Kit Kat =B5*C5130.6Mars Bars =B4*C4200.5Juice =B3*C3100.3Crisps Cash SalesQuantityNet PriceItem Tuck Shop Sales Relative Referencing

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6 5 4 3 2 1 DCBA =B6+C6=B6*$B$1£0.4Kit Kat =B5+C5=B5*$B$1£0.6Mars Bars =B4+C4=B4*$B$1£0.5Juice =B3+C3=B3*$B$1£0.3Crisps Gross Price VatNet PriceItem 17.50%Vat Rate Absolute Referencing Always returns to the cell that has been referenced. Using the $ symbol to show that absolute referencing is in operation.

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Working with Spreadsheets S S T : S P R E A D S H E E T S SST 2 Objectives 1.Perform data entry tasks 2.Use formulae and functions in worksheet calculations.

Working with Spreadsheets S S T : S P R E A D S H E E T S SST 2 Objectives 1.Perform data entry tasks 2.Use formulae and functions in worksheet calculations.

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