Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect 08 - 1 Internet Protocol - Continued.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect 08 - 1 Internet Protocol - Continued."— Presentation transcript:

1 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Internet Protocol - Continued

2 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Networks with Loops Learning strategies can fail, causing packets to circulate until maximum hop count Need method to generate a spanning tree –touches every node only once –has no closed loops

3 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Perlman Spanning Tree Algorithm Developed for LAN bridges Each bridge blocks redundant ports Deleted ports unblocked upon link failure Algorithm –node with lowest identifier is “root” –root node forwards through all ports –each LAN has designated port “nearest” root –smallest identifier breaks ties

4 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example Network

5 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example Network The network has two loops –one through the “60” network –one through the “80” network Root distances to networks are as follows: –“10” (d=0)– “60” (d=2, 3) –“20” (d=1) – “70” (d=3) –“30” (d=2)– “80” (d=1, 3) –“50” (d=2)

6 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Procedure The longer route to the “60” network through B4 is “pruned” by designating Port 3 as the route from B3. The longer route to the “80” network through B4 is “pruned” by designating Port 3 as the route from B1. Ports 3 and 4 of B4 are blocked

7 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Spanning Tree of Network

8 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Routing Table for B1

9 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Distance Vector Routing Typically used with RIP protocol Bellman-Ford algorithm

10 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Bellman-Ford Algorithm Find the shortest paths to the source vertex, given metric = 1 Assign cost to node(s) contacted Find next shortest path, to unassigned node and assign cost to it Continue until all nodes have costs assigned

11 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example Network

12 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Initial Routing Table for R1

13 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect New Routing Information

14 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Path of Length =1

15 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Path of Length =2

16 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Path of Length =3

17 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Path of Length =4

18 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Link State Routing Typically used with OSPF Dijkstra algorithm

19 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Dijkstra’s Algorithm Computes shortest path from “root” node to all other nodes (routers) Method: –maintain list U of nodes with shortest paths assigned –maintain list V of neighbors of U list (1-hop) –choose shortest path from V and move to U

20 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example Network

21 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example Network

22 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Dijkstra Algorithm - Step 1

23 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example Network

24 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Dijkstra Algorithm - Step 2

25 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example Network

26 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Dijkstra Algorithm - Step 3

27 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example Network

28 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Dijkstra Algorithm - Step 4

29 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example Network

30 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Dijkstra Algorithm - Step 4

31 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Reverse Path Forwarding Assumptions –each router stores shortest paths to all nodes –each router stores next-hop to all nodes Algorithm –source broadcasts multicast packet –each router retransmits packets on all outgoing ports except incoming only if incoming packet was from next-hop node to source

32 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example

33 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example

34 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example

35 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example

36 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example

37 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example

38 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example

39 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect Example

40 4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect RPF Tree from R1


Download ppt "4/12/2015© 2009 Raymond P. Jefferis IIILect 08 - 1 Internet Protocol - Continued."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google