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**Answer "What If" Questions**

GRAPHS SPREADSHEETS Answer "What If" Questions CALCULATES

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**SPREADSHEET Graphs "What If" Calculate Formulas**

A computer application program that arranges data into rows and columns, usually used to work with numbers and calculations. Calculate Formulas

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**One of the main uses of spreadsheets is to forecast or to predict.**

Spreadsheets answer “What If” questions. Example: What if I made three more of my shots in the last game? What would my shooting percentage be?

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**SPREADSHEET Maximum Multiply Cells Sum Formulas Divide Minimum Average**

A spreadsheet is a calculator that you can use to model relationships in a problem. Maximum Multiply Cells Sum Formulas Divide Minimum Average Difference

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SPREADSHEET TERMS CELL - The intersection of a row and a column on a spreadsheet in which data can be entered. Cells are designated by their column letter and row number. Example: B4 ALWAYS put the column letter first, then the row number.

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CELL ADDRESS The name and location of a cell on a spreadsheet designated by the column letter and row number. A8

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**What is the cell address for the**

CELLS Column Letter Row Number What is the cell address for the 4th Row, 3rd Column?

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**ALWAYS PUT THE COLUMN LETTER FIRST**

Remember . . . ALWAYS PUT THE COLUMN LETTER FIRST THEN THE ROW NUMBER

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**RELATIVE CELL REFERENCE**

In a spreadsheet relative cell reference is similar to giving directions that explain where to go from a present location. It does this by specifying how far away a particular cell is from some other cell. Relative cell addresses follow the same directional instructions regardless of the starting position. Example: Four cells to the left of or three cells above

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**RELATIVE CELL ADDRESS Example: Place a sum formula in**

Cell E2 to total cells B2:D2. Grab the fill handle and drag the formula down to cell E4 Formula from E2 will be pasted into cells E3 and E4 when the fill handle is released Directions Given From Relative Cell Address - Put total in 5th column, adding what is in the 2nd - 4th column of each row.

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**ABSOLUTE CELL REFERENCE**

In a spreadsheet, a reference to a particular cell or group of cells that do not change, even if you change the shape or size of the spreadsheet, or copy the reference to another cell. Absolute cell reference always point to the same cell, no matter where the reference appears.

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**ABSOLUTE CELL REFERENCE**

Example: $A$3 $A$3 is an absolute cell reference that always points to the cell in the first column and the third row. You know it is an absolute cell reference because of the dollar symbol before and after the column heading.

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**Displays if formula is not correct**

#REF! Cell Reference Error Displays if formula is not correct If you attempt to paste a formula where there are not enough cells from the target cell to fulfill the required direction, the #REF! error message will appear in the cell.

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CELL RANGE A continuous group of selected cells. RANGE = B4:B15

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**IDENTIFYING A RANGE OF CELLS**

Range - A group or block of cells Example - A1:A5 Cells that are located in rows one through five in the first column,

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**COLUMN The vertical divisions of a spreadsheet**

Columns are labeled alphabetically

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**The lettered box at the top of a column.**

COLUMN HEADING The lettered box at the top of a column.

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RESIZING COLUMNS To quickly re-size a column so that you can see all the contents within the cells, place the mouse on the border between cell headers until the cursor shows arrows ( ) , then click and drag the column divider to make it wider.

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COLUMN CELL ADDRESS Data in a series of cells arranged in a column will have the same letter in the address. Example: A2:A4 Read as A2 to A4

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**The numbered box at the beginning of a row.**

The horizontal divisions of a spreadsheet which are labeled numerically. ROW HEADING The numbered box at the beginning of a row.

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ROW CELL ADDRESS To indicate a row of data, use the beginning cell address and the ending cell address with a colon in between. Example: A1:G1 (Notice a row will have the same number but a different letter)

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**DELETING ROWS AND COLUMNS**

To delete an entire row or column, click on the heading. Do not try to click and drag across the cells especially if it is a large spreadsheet.

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**DELETING MULTIPLE ROWS**

Multiple rows can be deleted at one time by clicking and dragging on the row headings.

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**Is C2,3,4 a correct column address?**

Quick Quiz Is C2,3,4 a correct column address?

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NO You must have a column letter and row number of the beginning cell and ending cell.

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**What would be the correct way to write this column address (C2,3,4)?**

QUICK QUIZ - QUESTION 2 What would be the correct way to write this column address (C2,3,4)?

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C2:C4 Data in a series of cells located in the third column (C) going from row 2 to row 4, should be written in this format. Remember to always include a column letter and row number with a colon in between.

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**What would be the cell address for the 2nd row, 8th column?**

QUICK QUIZ - QUESTION 3 What would be the cell address for the 2nd row, 8th column?

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H2 Even though the question said 2nd row-8th column, you still always put the column heading before the row number. When figuring the 8th column, just go down the alphabet to the 8th letter.

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**How would you identify the row that is highlighted below?**

QUICK QUIZ - QUESTION 4 How would you identify the row that is highlighted below?

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**A7:G7 A7 TO G7 would identify this row of data.**

Remember to always include a column heading first then the row number. Notice that a row always has the same number.

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Quick Quiz - Question 5 How can you highlight column B without clicking and dragging the entire column?

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**Click on the column heading (B).**

Remember to highlight an entire column or row, click on the column or row headings.

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**What will display in the cell if you have a cell reference error?**

Quick Quiz - Question 6 What will display in the cell if you have a cell reference error?

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#REF! If you attempt to paste a formula where there are not enough cells from the target cell to fulfill the required direction #REF! will be displayed in the cell telling you that you have an error in the formula.

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QUICK QUIZ - QUESTION 7 What symbol do you add to a target cell address to establish it as an absolute cell reference?

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$ Putting a dollar sign in a cell address, references that particular cell and it does not change even if you move it to another cell. Example: $A$3 Once established as the target cell it will always point to the cell that is in the first column, third row.

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**The active cell selected. A cell is activated by highlighting it.**

CURRENT CELL The active cell selected. A cell is activated by highlighting it. To highlight cells that are not together . . . Click in the first cell you want to select Then hold down the open apple key and click in the other cells that you want to highlight

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**Spreadsheets provide commands to help copy or generate data quickly.**

FILL CELLS Spreadsheets provide commands to help copy or generate data quickly. Examples: Fill Right - Copies contents of cells to the right of an active cell Fill Down - Copies contents of cells below the active cell

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**Examples of fill series**

Generates a series of values based on the value in the active cell. Examples of fill series Other examples of fill series If you type Jan., then the spreadsheet can provide the command to fill right with Feb., Mar. etc.

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**FORMATTING A SPREADSHEET CELL**

Refers to changing the way the information is displayed in a cell STYLE Applies many formatting changes at once. Example: A combination of shading, borders, etc. to give the spreadsheet a distinctive look

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**Changes the cell data type of one or more selected cells.**

MODIFYING CELL TYPE Changes the cell data type of one or more selected cells. Cell types in NCDesk CAUTION: If you can not change the cell type, the data in the cell is not valid for the new cell type (i.e.,changing to money when dates are in the cell).

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**CELL TYPES IN NCDESK Text - Words**

Whole Number - Numbers without decimals Decimal Number - Numbers with decimals Money - Use when displaying money $14.96 Date (MM/DD/YYYY) - Displays month, day, and year 10/23/2009 Date (YYYY) - Displays year only True/False- Creates check boxes for yes/no Header - Distinguishes as the cell heading Function - Information Only

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**Numbers in a spreadsheet can be formatted by the command Format, Cells**

FORMATTING CELLS Numbers in a spreadsheet can be formatted by the command Format, Cells Examples: To show how dates will be displayed 3/14/2006, Mar 14, 2006, 3/14, 3/14/06, Mar - 06, Mar - 06, Mar To show how many decimal places will be displayed , , , To show how time will be displayed 1:30 PM, :30, :30

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CELL PROTECTION Once a spreadsheet has been created, you can protect cells so they can not be easily changed. Example: Creating a monthly budget The budget template may have how much you plan to spend each month protected so that it will not change and then you could add how much you actually spent.

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GRID Blank setup of rows and columns in a spreadsheet on which data is to be entered.

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**GRAPH/CHART A visual representation of numerical data.**

Presents complex relationships clearly.

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TYPES OF CHARTS

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PIE CHART Used to show percents

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**Can choose a horizontal or vertical bar chart**

BAR CHARTS Used to compare data Can choose a horizontal or vertical bar chart

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**Used to show trends over time Makes patterns and trends identifiable.**

LINE CHART Used to show trends over time Makes patterns and trends identifiable.

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**Used to show relationships Not a chart choice in NCDesk**

SCATTER PLOTS Used to show relationships Positive - dots slope from lower left to upper right Negative - dots slope from upper left to lower right A line of best fit can be drawn in order to study the relationship between the variables. Not a chart choice in NCDesk .

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**MAKING CHARTS IN SPREADSHEETS**

Highlight the cells that contain the data you want included in the chart. Click on the icon representing the type of chart that you want or go to data, chart and then choose the chart type. If the questions ask for labels, add chart title and label the axes and then click ok.

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LABELING A CHART Remember to only add titles if directed to do so by the test question. After clicking ok, go on to the next question - do not click on the undo chart button

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**TIME FOR ANOTHER QUICK QUIZ**

What type of chart would you choose to show trends over time?

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LINE GRAPH

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**Is a scatter plot a choice of charts to make in NCDesk?**

QUESTION 2 Is a scatter plot a choice of charts to make in NCDesk?

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**NO You can only make pie, vertical bar, horizontal bar,**

and line charts in NCDesk.

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**What type of chart is used to show percents?**

QUESTION 3 What type of chart is used to show percents?

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PIE CHART

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**What is the first step in making a chart from spreadsheet data?**

QUESTION 4 What is the first step in making a chart from spreadsheet data?

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**HIGHLIGHT THE DATA To make a chart . . . Highlight data**

Choose chart type Add labels if given Click ok

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**WHICH CELL TYPE WOULD YOU CHOOSE TO CREATE A YES/NO CHECK BOX?**

QUESTION 5 WHICH CELL TYPE WOULD YOU CHOOSE TO CREATE A YES/NO CHECK BOX?

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TRUE/FALSE In NCDesk to create a yes/no check box go to DATA, MODIFY CELL TYPE, and then CHOOSE CELL TYPE TRUE/FALSE.

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**THREE TYPES OF DATA CAN BE ENTERED INTO A SPREADSHEET**

LABEL - data entered as text, like a word or a letter VALUE - a number entered into a cell FORMULA - A mathematical equation consisting of numbers, other cell designators, and symbols for mathematical operations.

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**VALUES AND COLUMN WIDTH**

If a value is too wide to fit in a column, the spreadsheet will display number signs (#####). To remove the number signs and display the value, you must widen the column.

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**THREE ELEMENTS OF A FORMULA**

It must begin with an equal sign (=) to distinguish it from a label or value. The equal sign tells the computer to perform a calculation. It must have operators (an instruction like +, -, *, or /) It must have operands (what the instructions operate on, i.e. values)

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**EXAMPLES OF FORMULAS FORMULA RESULT =B4+B5**

Find the sum of the contents of cells B4 and B5 =B4-B5 Find the difference between the contents of cells B4 and B5 =B4*B5 Multiply cells B4 and B5 =B4/B5 Divide cell B4 by B5 =SUM(B4:B10) Add cells B4:B10 =AVG(B4:B10) Calculate the average of B4:B10

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**CREATING A FORMULA IN A SPREADSHEET**

Highlight the operands Activate (click in) the cell where the formula will go Type the formula Press return

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FORMULA HINT If you are asked to put in a formula and you can not figure out how to do it, activate another cell that already has a formula in it and look at the formula in the data entry bar at the top of the spreadsheet. CAUTION - Make sure the formula is the same operator that is being requested. For example, if the question ask for you to put in a formula that would multiply cells, make sure the formula you looked at was multiplying cells. DO NOT copy the same formula, you must type the correct cells that are being used.

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FORMULA HINT EXAMPLE If you were asked to put a formula in cell D4 to figure total tokens . . . Activate cell D2 by clicking in it Look in the data entry bar for the formula Activate cell D4 and type the formula that corresponds to the correct operands Type =(B4*C4)

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**Formulas that are already built into the spreadsheet program.**

FUNCTIONS Formulas that are already built into the spreadsheet program. Go To Insert, Function Or Choose the f(x) button Functions in NCDesk

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**NCDESK FUNCTIONS Sum - Totals the values in a series of cells**

Average - Averages values in a series of cells - Gets the MEAN value Minimum - Gets the smallest value in a series of cells Maximum - Gets the largest value in a series of cells

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**APPLYING A FUNCTION (2) Insert function (1) Activate the cell**

(3) Choose the function (5) Click ok (4) Select column or row

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**What symbol lets you know that a formula will follow?**

FINAL QUICK QUIZ What symbol lets you know that a formula will follow?

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= Formulas begin with an equal sign and must include operators and operands.

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**WHAT FUNCTION WOULD YOU CHOOSE IF YOU WANTED TO FIND THE SMALLEST VALUE IN A SERIES OF CELLS?**

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**The function minimum will get the smallest value in a series of cells.**

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**WHAT FUNCTION WILL ALLOW YOU TO TOTAL THE VALUES IN A SERIES OF CELLS.**

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SUM Values in cells contained in rows or columns can be totaled by using the sum function.

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**WHAT FUNCTION WOULD YOU CHOOSE TO FIND THE MEAN VALUE IN A SERIES OF CELLS?**

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AVERAGE Getting the mean of a series of numbers is another way of saying, getting the average.

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**WHAT APPLICATION WOULD YOU USE AS AN ACCOUNTANT TO CALCULATE A COMPANIES PROFITS AND EXPENDITURES?**

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SPREADSHEET A spreadsheet keeps data in organized rows and columns and is used to work with numbers and calculations.

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**What appears in a cell if the value is too wide to fit in the column?**

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(####) Number signs indicate that the column is not wide enough to fit the data. To remove the number signs and display the value, increase the column width.

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**Technology Coordinator Harnett County Schools**

Beth Blanchard Technology Coordinator Harnett County Schools

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