Para 1 People spend about one third of their lives asleep. 分數後面加上 of 就可接名詞 !
asleep?!sleepy?! adj. 睡著了的 adj. 睏的
asleep 通常只做補語，不可用來修飾後面 的名詞。 例： Normally I am asleep by 11 p.m. 例： Jack fell asleep on the train and missed his stop. 例： I was half asleep throughout the whole movie. 半睡半醒的 睡著 睡著了的
sleepy 例： A: "Aren't you sleepy?" B: "No, I took a nap this afternoon.“ 例： Ten years ago, this was a sleepy fishing village. adj. 想睡的 ; 睏 的 adj. very quiet, and not much happened there
sleeping adj. 睡覺中的；供睡覺的 例： Sleeping bags are great for camping. 例： If you have a sleeping problem, go to the doctor. Taking too many sleeping pills may eventually harm your health.
survive 也有及物用法： survive + Sth. ( 從 …… 中逃生 ) Most people believe it a miracle to survive a plane crash. survive + Sb. + by 年歲 ( 比某人活得久 ) My grandma survived my grandpa by ten years. survive on ( 以 …… 過活 ) Can you survive on five thousand dollars a month? Para 1 We can survive longer without food than without sleep. 此為不及物 動詞
Para 1 Sleeping is very important, so the bed is important. Scientists say that the first bed was probably some leaves.
Para 1 Now, of course, beds are much better than that, and we have lots of choices. An average bed today lasts about fifteen years, and most people change beds about five times in their life.
Para 1 Even with all the beds in the world, people still invent new ones. And some people are still searching for the perfect bed.
Para 2 For most of human history, people slept on layers of cloth, palm leaves, or furs. for 常接一段時間或距離 例： You'll have to wait for a few minutes - I'm not ready yet. 例： We drove for miles to find a place to stay overnight.
Para 2 They laid these on the floor. 及物動詞 放置；下蛋 指上句的 cloth 、 palm leaves 、 furs
lay (laid laid laying) 放置；下蛋 ( 及物, 直接接受詞 ) lie (lay, lain, lying) 躺；位於 ( 不及物, 先接介詞再受詞 ) lie (lied, lied, lying) 說謊 ( 不及物, 先接介詞再受詞 ) The carpenter laid his tool on the bench and start working. Our school lies on a hill, so it is named “ 山腰上的家 ”. The hen laid an egg this morning. I love to always lie on the couch watching TV Friday night. Don’t lie to me! I know where you were last night.
Para 2 In ancient Egypt, over three thousand years ago, the pharaohs were the first to raise their beds off the floor. be the first to + VR ( 第一個 做某事的人 ) 例： I was the first to know that Cynthia was pregnant. 如是 plural subject ， 還是用 the first
rise (rose, risen, rising) 上升 ; 增加 ( 不及物 ) arise (arose, arisen, arising) 起源於 (+from) ( 不及物 ) raise (raised, raised, raising) 舉起 ( 及物, 有受詞 ) arouse (aroused, aroused, arousing) 喚起 ( 及物, 有受詞 ) Housing prices have been rising by at least 5% each year. His fear of dogs arose from an experience of being bitten by one when he was six years old. The boy raised his hand to ask the speaker a question. The teacher tried everything she could to arouse her students’ interest.
Para 2 They slept on light beds made of wood. You could fold the bed and carry it. = that / which were made of wood heavy
Para 2 Archaeologists found beds like this in Tutankhamen’s tomb. archaeology n. [U] 考古學 archaeologist n. [C] 考古學家
Para 2 People back then did not think soft pillows were necessary. 在過去那時候 例： Back in the sixties and seventies, women wore flared pants and platform shoes.
Para 2 The Egyptians put their heads on headrests made of wood and the Chinese had ceramic headrests.
Para 3 After the year 100, only the rich had beds. Poor people still slept on the floor. The bed became a symbol of wealth. be/become a symbol of… = be symbolic of… =symbolize ( 象徵 …)
翻譯題： 在古代，龍象徵中國君王。 In ancient times, dragons symbolized the Chinese emperors.
翻譯題： 蛇在聖經是邪惡的象徵。 The snake is the symbol of evil in the Bible.
翻譯題： 白色是純潔的象徵。 The color of white is symbolic of innocence.
Para 3 One emperor of Rome had a silver bed. Beds were also a person’s most valuable possession.
Para 3 When Shakespeare died, he gave his second best bed to his wife. adj. 次 好的
翻譯題： 我姪女總是跟別人說我是她第二要好的朋友，因為 她最好的朋友是巧虎。 My niece always tells people that I am her second best friend, because her best friend is Chau Hu. =related
Para 3 Beds were so special that in England, when a rich person traveled to another person’s home, he took his bed with him. 如此...( 表原因 ) 以致於 …( 表結 果 )
so ＋ adj. ／ adv. ＋ that…clause （ so 的後面接形 容詞或副詞） He runs so fast that nobody can catch up with him. Dr. Wang is so good that everybody loves and respects him.
1)such ＋ a(an) ＋ adj. ＋單數可數名詞 +that …clause He is such a clever boy that everybody likes him. 2)such ＋ adj. ＋複數可數名詞＋ that…clause They are such interesting novels that I want to read them once again. 3) such ＋ adj. ＋不可數名詞＋ that…clause He has made such great progress that the teachers are pleased with him.
注意：如果 such 後面的名詞前有 many 、 much 、 few 、 little 等詞所修飾的話，則不用 such 而用 so 。 例如： He had so many falls that he was black and blue all over. He had so little education that he was unfit for this job. There were so many people in the street watching the fire that firefighters could not get close to the building. had bruises
(U.2) Reynolds also runs workshops so that owners can be involved in building their own Earthships. 1) 所以 ; 因此 2)=in order that 為使 ; 以便 1 or 2?
Para 3 When a person stayed at a hotel for the night, he had to share a bed with strangers. stay…for the night ( 在 … 過夜 ) stay the night ( 在別人家過夜 ) E.g., You are welcome to stay the night if you want to. share Sth. with Sb. ( 與 Sb. 分享 Sth.)
Para 3 If a rich person came to the hotel, the manager threw poor traveler out of a bed to make room. make room (for…) 挪空間 ( 給 …) Let’s take these chairs away and make room for the new TV stand.
Para 3 All this sharing meant that beds were not very clean, and insects lived in them. Some people especially rich women, slept on a chair when they traveled.
Para 4 After 1750, beds became beautiful pieces of furniture. They were made of carved wood. A beautiful bed at that time could cost $ 1 million in today’s money. 不可數名詞, 要用量詞修飾 Sth. can cost $ in today’s money. ( 某物可叫價相當於現在的..($)..)
Para 4 The beds had four posts, one on each corner. Every time I buy a new book, I write my name on the right-hand corner of the first page. The drugstore is on the corner of Smith Street and Victoria Avenue. My grandfather is always sitting in his armchair in the corner of the living room watching TV.
Para 4 People used these to hang curtains around the bed. The curtains helped to keep the bed warm. Also, because you passed through one room to get to another, the curtains were good for privacy.
Para 5 Beds also became higher and higher. Queen Victoria slept on bed with seven mattresses on top of each other. S. become adj-er and adj-er ~ (S. 變得越來越 ~) with+ O.OC. S.V.
Para 5 Beds also became higher and higher. Queen Victoria slept on bed with seven mattresses on top of each other. S. become adj-er and adj-er ~ (S. 變得越來越 ~) with+ O.OC. S.V. 是介詞片語補 充修飾 O. [ 床有七層床墊， 層層相疊 ]
My grandpa sat smoking a pipe, with his dog sleeping at his feet. The young lady sat on the couch with her legs crossed. The girl looked at her boyfriend with eyes full of tears. Mrs. Chen stood in front of the blackboard, with a piece of chalk in her hand.
Para 5 She had steps beside the bed to reach the top. Mattresses usually had straw on the inside (for poor people) or feathers (for the rich). 此為名詞，表 “ 內部；裡面 ”
Para 5 After 1820, people slept on cotton mattresses with metal springs inside them. Beds made of metal became popular, too. The best beds were made of a yellow metal called brass. 此為介系詞, 後要接受詞
Para 5 Metal beds are better for your health than beds made of wood because they have fewer insects in them. That’s why hospital beds are metal today.
Para 6 In ancient Rome, people slept in their everyday clothes. In England, people did not wear clothes in bed. 在床上, 為片語, 不需加冠 詞。若為名詞用法就要 加冠詞 the/a(n)
Para 6 They wore a cap to keep their head and ears warm. Later, men wore nightshirts and women wore long nightdresses. It was only after 1890 that men started to wear pajamas. It is/was…that… 分裂句
Para 7 People had interesting ways to keep warm in bed. Many families shared one big bed. Some people had a small dog in bed to keep their feet warm.
Para 7 Sometimes, people warmed the bed before they got into it. They warmed stones, wrapped them in cloth, and put them in the bed. Later, they used bottles with hot water inside. 此為副詞用法
Para 7 One English prime minister, William Gladstone, filled his bottle with tea in case he was thirsty at night. fill A (up) with B ( 用 B 裝滿 A) be full of = be filled with ( 充滿著 …) Her bag is full of/ is filled with gifts for her family and friends.
Para 8 Some people in Asia cultures prefer to sleep on the floor. They sleep on a thick mattress of cloth layers called a futon.
would rather + V than + V2...( 寧可 … 也不願 …) = would prefer + to V rather than + V2... Peter would rather relax on the beach than go shopping with his wife. → Peter would prefer to relax on the beach rather than go shopping with his wife.
除了 would rather ， prefer 也可以用來表示「寧可、偏好」。 但是， prefer 不能像 would rather 直接接原形動詞，而是要接名 詞、動名詞、不定詞。例如： ‧ Danny prefers to play computer games. → Danny prefers playing computer games. → Danny prefers computer games. prefer N/Ving to N/Ving ‧ I prefer coffee to tea. → I like coffee better than tea.
Para 8 Some people in Asia cultures prefer to sleep on the floor. They sleep on a thick mattress of cloth layers called a futon. =which/that is called
Para 7 They can roll up the futon and put it away during the day. Some people put their futon on a low frame rather than (=instead of 而非..)on the floor. 在白天 = by day 在晚上 = at night = by night My sister works at the hospital, so she sleeps by day and works by night.
Para 7 Then it looks a lot like a Western-style bed. 形容詞 + -style (…… 風格的 ) buffet-style dinner American-style management Japanese-style interior design antique-style coffee table
Para 8 Beds today come in every size and shape. We have round beds, king-size beds, bunk beds, adjustable beds, waterbeds, airbeds, and futon. Are you feeling sleepy yet? Sweet dreams! V. 有，可供購買、選擇