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Unit 1 Fighting with the Forces of Nature. Gordon Lightfoot Grammy Nominations 1968 Best Folk Performance 1971 Best Pop Performance Male 1977 Best Pop.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 Fighting with the Forces of Nature. Gordon Lightfoot Grammy Nominations 1968 Best Folk Performance 1971 Best Pop Performance Male 1977 Best Pop."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 1 Fighting with the Forces of Nature

2 Gordon Lightfoot Grammy Nominations 1968 Best Folk Performance 1971 Best Pop Performance Male 1977 Best Pop Vocal Performance Male Pre-reading Task: The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald

3 Pre-reading Task: The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald

4 legend n. 传说 gale n. 大风 hurricane n. 飓风 hatchway n. 舱口 cave in 坍塌 capsize v.( 使 ) 倾覆 chime vi.( 钟 ) 敲响 freighter n. 货船 tattletale n. 告密者, 搬弄是非的人 ; adj. 泄露实情的 slash v./n. 鞭打,猛砍 wire in 用电话通报 peril n. 极大的危险 (imminent danger) mansion n. 大厦 steam n. 愤怒,兴奋 mariner n. 水手 musty adj. 发霉的, 有霉味的 maritime adj. 海上的 cathedral n. 大教堂 Pre-Reading Task —Vocabulary

5 Pre-Reading Task Why did the crew fear the worst would happen to them? They all knew the dangers of November storms. The Edmund FitzgeraldSuperiorNovember The song is based on a true story of the sinking of a ship called ______________ that was caught in a storm on Lake ________ back in _________, 1975, with the loss of all on board.

6 Great Lakes

7 Pre-Reading Task — Brainstorming Can you think of other examples of nature showing its forces? Is nature conquerable? (You can refer to the quotations on Page 13.

8 Hurricanes One of the most awesome expressions of power that nature can create. With sustained wind speeds of 74 mph or more, they can rip a house from its foundation and even wipe out entire cities. ? But where and how are they created?But where and how are they created? When during the year will they most likely form?When during the year will they most likely form? What can we do if we are caught in one?What can we do if we are caught in one?

9 The word comes from the Japanese tsu (harbor) and nami (wave). Appropriate naming, as some 80 percent of all tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean and Japan has suffered many, some coming from as far away as South America. Tsunamis are often incorrectly called tidal waves, but tides have nothing to do with them (though the damage may be worse if a tsunami hits at high tide). Tsunami-1

10 According to researchers, there is a significant rise both in numbers of waves and in death tolls over the century. Up until now - the average per decade has been 57. The increase in tsunamis reported is due to improved global communications; the high death are partly due to increases in coastal populations. Tsunami-2

11 Tsunamis ~ Tidal Waves ~ Flooding Tsunamis are tidal waves formed by underwater earthquakes, underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions volcanic eruptions meteor impacts meteor impacts underwater landslides. underwater landslides. In deep water a tsunami may only be inches - or a few feet high. But when it reaches a shoreline that energy becomes a wall of water that can be a mile high.

12 Frequently Used Words Related to Forces of Nature casualty death toll survivorsvictims tsunami warning system earthquake monitoring international contributions international contributions evacuation team evacuation team smaller tremors smaller tremors 伤亡人数死亡人数幸存者受灾者海啸预警系统地震监控 国际援助 国际援助 撤运小组 撤运小组 小震动,小地震

13 潮汐波,浪潮震中 地震 地震 余震 余震 震级 震级 灾难 灾难 残骸 残骸 自然灾害 Frequently Used Words Related to Forces of Nature tsunami tidal waves epicenter earthquake/temblor (AmE) aftershock aftershock magnitude (Richter Scale) tragedy wreckage wreckage natural disaster

14 Text AThe Icy Defender 1.Cultural Notes 2.Text Analysis and Language Study 3.Summary: Comparison and contrast between Napoleon’s invasion of Russia and Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union 4.Exercises

15 Cultural Notes 1.What do you know about Napoleon and his wars against other nations? Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte Conqueror Conqueror French revolution French revolution one of the greatest military commanders conquering the larger part of Europe one of the greatest military commanders conquering the larger part of Europe the battle of Waterloo the battle of Waterloo Napoleonic Wars Napoleonic Wars

16 Napoleon is famed for his military successes. Starting as a second lieutenant in the French artillery, he rose quickly through the ranks until he became First Consul of France. (Later he crowned himself Emperor.)

17 He led his armies to victory after victory, and by 1807 he ruled a territory that stretched from Portugal to Italy and north to the river Elbe.

18 But his attempts to conquer the rest of Europe failed; a defeat in Moscow in 1812 nearly destroyed his empire, and his 1815 loss to the Duke of Wellington at Waterloo finished the job. He was sent into exile on the island of St. Helena, where he died in 1821.

19 Part One (Paras 1--2) Main ideaMain idea Introduction—Both Napoleon’s and Hitler’s military campaigns failed because of the severity of the Russian winter Text Analysis & Language Study Text Analysis & Language Study

20

21 Part One devastating (L.5) raw (L. 5) bleak (L. 5) launch (L.7) might (L. 8) campaign (L.10) Text Analysis & Language Study Text Analysis & Language Study

22 Part Two (Paras 3--11) Main ideaMain idea Napoleon’s military campaign against Russia Text Analysis & Language Study Text Analysis & Language Study

23 conquest (L. 16) be/get bogged down (L. 22) engage (L. 24) take a gamble (L. 30) press on/ahead (L. 30) flee (L. 37) bide one’s time (L. 39) quarter (L. 41) drag on (L. 50) stroke(L. 54) limp (56) Text Analysis & Language Study Text Analysis & Language Study Part Two

24 Part Three (Paras ) Main idea Hitler’s military campaign against the Soviet Union Text Analysis & Language Study Text Analysis & Language Study

25 Hitler vs. Stalin Hitler vs. Stalin

26 The maps of the three plans of Operation Barbarossa (see next page)

27 Marcks Plan The initial German proposal for invasion of the Soviet Union: two army groups and primary strikes in the direction of Moscow and Kiev with a secondary attack toward Leningrad. The northern army group would push southward after reaching Moscow, linking up with the southern group at Kharkov.

28 OKH Plan The revised German Army High Command proposal for an invasion of the Soviet Union. It added weight to the attack toward Leningrad and called for a separate army group for this purpose. It also anticipated further eastward exploitation, independently, by the central and southern army groups.

29 Final Plan After consultations with Hitler, the final plan for Operation Barbarossa called for the diversion of forces from the central army group, after the capture of Smolensk, to support the northern army group in attacking Leningrad and only after achieving this would the central army group continue operations toward Moscow. The objectives of the southern army groups essentially remained the same.

30 The Biggest Mistakes of Hitler Timing of Barbarossa -- too late for summer season "Moscow could have been reached faster, paralysing the capital and capturing more troops. But these were dreams of ambitious commanders who were increasingly at odds with each other and had long lost any idea how Russia could be defeated – how the will of the leadership and the nation could be broken."

31 Part Three catch sb off guard (L. 71)bring to a halt (L. 91) render (L. 73)offensive (L. 92) casualty (L. 75) turn the tide against (L.102) close in (L. 76) reckon (L. 114) desperate (L. 78)toll (L. 116) siege (L.81) Text Analysis & Language Study Text Analysis & Language Study

32 Part Four (Paras 21) Conclusion—The elements of nature must be reckoned with in any military campaign Text Analysis & Language Study Text Analysis & Language Study

33 Part Four reckon (L. 114) toll(L. 116) Text Analysis & Language Study Text Analysis & Language Study

34 Text Organization: Comparison and contrast between Napoleon’s invasion of Russia and Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union

35 Invading country FranceGermany Country invaded Starter of war Starting time of invasion Strength of invading force prediction Russia Soviet Union NapoleonHitler Spring, /22/ ,000 The largest land campaign in history Quick victory, conquest of Russia in 5 weeks Blitzkrieg(lightin g war), lasting no longer than 3 months

36 Invading country France Germany Germany Initial resistance strategy Capture of the Russian capital Major battles Truce offer Refusing to stand and fight; retreating eastwards, burning crops and homes “scorch the earth”, fierce fight to defend major cities yesno Smolensk, Borodino, the Berezina River Leningrad, Stalingrad By Napoleon, rejected by the Czar no

37 Invading country FranceGermany Biggest enemy for the invading force Turning point Fate of the invading force War-starter’s fate Snow, freezing temperature Heavy rain, “general mud”, snow, freezing temperature October 1812, when Napoleon ordered a retreat 1943, when the Soviet troops pushed the German forces back Only 100,000 survived Heavy losses Napoleon abdicated and went into exile, his empire at an end Hitler committed suicide, his empire collapsing

38 devastating (L.5) 1) completely destructive: devastating storm/tsunami/war/hurricane 2) very good; able to obtain the desired result (infml): You look devastating tonight, my dear. His jokes were completely devastating. (=very funny). Devastate vt.Devastate vt. to destroy completely; make impossible to live in towns and villages devastated by a long war

39 1.(of weather) cold and wet a ~ winter day 2.(of food) not cooked ~ vegetables 3.in the natural state; not yet treated for use ~ silk/ cotton 4.(of a person) not yet trained; not experienced a ~ lad/ recruit/ youth; ~ to the work. 5.My sarcasm seemed to have touched him on the ~. touch/catch/get/rub/sting sb on the ~ to hurt (someone’s) feelings by mentioning a subject on which he is sensitive ( 触及某人痛处 ) raw (L. 5)

40 (of weather) cold and cheerless (of weather) cold and cheerless ~ and unpleasant weather (of places) without shelter from cold winds (of places) without shelter from cold winds a ~ hillside struck by the full force of the east wind (of future events) cold; cheerless; uninviting; discouraging (of future events) cold; cheerless; uninviting; discouraging The future of this firm will be very ~ indeed if we keep losing money. bleak (L. 5)

41 v. start; send (sth) on it’s coursev. start; send (sth) on it’s course ~ a satellite / rocket ~ oneself into work (on a teaching career) ~ a new business/an enterprise The UN was ~ed in 1945 with 51 member countries. ~ a new journal/an investigation ~ a strike/ an attack n.n. The ~ of the new campaign/movie Launch (L. 7)

42 n. power; strength; forcen. power; strength; force The army fought bravely, but it was crushed by the ~ of its powerful enemy. He tried with all his ~ to move the heavy rock from the road. military ~/the ~ of RAF (Royal Air Force) a man of ~/beyond one’s ~ with/by (all one’s) might and main ( 竭尽全力 ) mighty adj. having great power or strength; very great mighty adj. having great power or strength; very great a mighty blow/king A pen is mightier than a sword. might (L. 8)

43 to kill, destroy, or knock down, esp. in great numbersto kill, destroy, or knock down, esp. in great numbers The soldiers were mown down by fire from the enemy’s guns. mow down (L. 9)

44 n. a connected set of military actions with a particular purposen. a connected set of military actions with a particular purpose The ~ to seize Moscow was a complete failure. n. a connected set of actions intended to obtain a particular result in politics or businessn. a connected set of actions intended to obtain a particular result in politics or business The Leader of the Oppositions is on ~ in Scotland. The ~ is to promote the product in the college student market. v. to lead, take part in, or go on a campaignv. to lead, take part in, or go on a campaign Joan is ~ing for equal rights for women. campaign (L.10)

45 n. the act of conqueringthe act of conquering The year 2003 witnessed the ~ of Iraq by the USA. something conquered, esp. land gained in warsomething conquered, esp. land gained in war British ~s in Asia a person whose favor or love has been wona person whose favor or love has been won He’s one of pretty Jane’s many ~s. John seems to have made a real conquest of Janet. They’re always together. make a conquest (of) make a conquest (of) to win the love or favor of (someone) conquest (L. 16)

46 bog down to (cause to) sink (as if) into a BOG ; be unable to make progressto (cause to) sink (as if) into a BOG ; be unable to make progress The car (got) bogged down in the mud. We were bogged down with a lot of work. be bogged down in/ by difficultiesbe bogged down in/ by difficulties The talks with the men (got) bogged sown on the questions of working hours. Industrial production has bogged down be/get bogged down (L. 22)

47 v.attack; begin fighting with sb.v.attack; begin fighting with sb. They ~d the enemy (in the battle). ~ a new secretary~ a new secretary I’ve ~d a room in the hotel.I’ve ~d a room in the hotel. He ~d (himself) to pay back the money.He ~d (himself) to pay back the money. She ~s everyone with her pretty girlish ways.She ~s everyone with her pretty girlish ways. The old lady ~d herself in making clothes for her neighbors’ children.The old lady ~d herself in making clothes for her neighbors’ children. I will engage for John’s good behavior should you decide to employ him.I will engage for John’s good behavior should you decide to employ him. Can you believe a 9 year-old-boy is engaging in presidential election?Can you believe a 9 year-old-boy is engaging in presidential election? engage (L. 24)

48 take a risk He took a gamble on a legacy of a thousand pounds and used it to start a factory. Laid off, she took a gamble investing all her money in stocks. He gambled his savings to start a small store. I’ll gamble my life on his honesty. take a gamble (L. 30)

49 gamble at cardsgamble at cards gamble on the result of a racegamble on the result of a race gamble in stocks/ on the stock exchangegamble in stocks/ on the stock exchange gamble with one’s lifegamble with one’s life I wouldn’t gamble on Jane’s footing the bill, if I were you.I wouldn’t gamble on Jane’s footing the bill, if I were you. He’s gambled away all his money, and now has nothing left.He’s gambled away all his money, and now has nothing left. take a gamble (L. 30)

50 continue doing sth. in a determined way; advance with courage or without delay Let’s press on with our work. The new president of our university seems to be keen to press on with educational reform. Though faced with great difficulties, he is determined to press on. press on/ahead/ forward (with sth.) (L. 30)

51 He was so determined to win the game that he pressed too hard and made some silly mistakes. He pressed his way through the crowd. So many people pressed round the famous actress that she couldn’t get to her car. Pressing business matters prevented him from taking a holiday. My friends gave me a pressing invitation. They were so pressing that I couldn’t refuse them. press on/ahead/ forward (with sth.) (L. 30)

52 to escape (from) by hurrying awayto escape (from) by hurrying away They all fled (from) the burning ship. The enemy troops fled in utter confusion. He fled the kidnappers and phoned the police. flee starvation flee for neutral ports flee to Europe flee from responsibility Mists fled before the rising sun. flee one’s country into exile flee (fled) (L. 37)

53 wait usually for a long time, until the right moment; wait patiently for a chancewait usually for a long time, until the right moment; wait patiently for a chance He seems to be doing nothing, but really he’s just biding his time. He bided his time until Harvard University offered him a professorship. bide one’s time (L. 39)

54 provide lodgings for (esp. soldiers)provide lodgings for (esp. soldiers) –That night, together with a high official, I was ~ed with a peasant. –He ~ed his men on the inhabitants. –The were ~ed throughout the war in Smith’s hotel. quarter (L. 41)

55 move slowly and with effort; continue endlessly and tediouslymove slowly and with effort; continue endlessly and tediously Time flies in holidays, but when school begins the days ~ ~. The meeting just seems to drag on and on. He dragged out his words as if he had all day to say a sentence.He dragged out his words as if he had all day to say a sentence. He dragged out the meeting with long speeches.He dragged out the meeting with long speeches. He dragged out an unhappy existence in prison for many years.He dragged out an unhappy existence in prison for many years. drag on (L. 50)

56 any of a series of repeated movements;any of a series of repeated movements; single successful or effective action or occurrence;single successful or effective action or occurrence; blowblow an unexpected piece (of luck)an unexpected piece (of luck) She can’t swim yet but has made a few ~s with her arms. With a ~ of its wings the birds flew away. She drew his face with a few ~s. He’s really competent, solving all the problems at a ~. That was his first ~ of good fortune. by some ~ of fate/have a ~ of good (bad) luck stroke(L. 54)

57 At the twelfth ~, we welcomed the new yearAt the twelfth ~, we welcomed the new year He arrived on the ~ of 12.He arrived on the ~ of 12. He had a ~ and was unable to walk for the rest of his life,He had a ~ and was unable to walk for the rest of his life, be killed by a ~ of lightningbe killed by a ~ of lightning A backhand ~ in tennis ( 反手击球 )A backhand ~ in tennis ( 反手击球 ) The minimum wage would be raised by 20% at a ~.The minimum wage would be raised by 20% at a ~. With a ~ of the president’s pen, I was out of college.With a ~ of the president’s pen, I was out of college. stroke(L. 54)

58 walk with an uneven step, one foot or leg moving less well than the otherwalk with an uneven step, one foot or leg moving less well than the other When getting off the bus, I slipped and hurt my ankle and had to ~. He walks with a ~.He walks with a ~. The heat was too much for her; she went ~ and fell to the ground.The heat was too much for her; she went ~ and fell to the ground. Cf.stagger have trouble standing or walking; move unsteadily on one’s feet I was so tired I could hardly stagger to my feet. limp (L. 56)

59 take sb by surprisetake sb by surprise –His proposal at the subway station caught her off guard and she was at a loss, too embarrassed to say anything. –Eisenhower’s troops were caught off guard and badly defeated by Rommel in the first days of the fighting in February on/ off one’s guard on/ off one’s guard –Be on your guard against thieves. guard against guard against –You must wash your hands when preparing food to guard against spreading infection. catch sb. off guard (L. 71)

60 cause to be (same as make)cause to be (same as make) –His fatness ~s him unable to see his toes. –Millions of people were ~ed homeless and destitute by the recent tsunami. to give (esp. help/advice)to give (esp. help/advice) –You have ~ed me a service. –~ aid/ assistance –She needed him to hear her out and ~ advice. render (L. 73)

61 a person who is killed or injured in war or in an accidenta person who is killed or injured in war or in an accident There were more than 100 casualties in the train crash. The first reports of the tsunami told of more than one 100,000 casualties but the precise number is not known. casual casual a person employed for a short period of time John’s a casual, he can’t find a proper job anywhere. casualty (L. 75)

62 to surround gradually and usu. from all sidesto surround gradually and usu. from all sides The people ran away when the enemy army began to close in. Night is closing in. to have fewer hours of daylightto have fewer hours of daylight The days are beginning to close in now that it’s autumn. close in (on/upon) (L. 76)

63 (of a state of affairs) very difficult and dangerous(of a state of affairs) very difficult and dangerous Our country was once in a ~ state due to the wrong policy of Great Leap. (of a person) ready for any wild act because of loss of hope(of a person) ready for any wild act because of loss of hope a ~ criminal He was ~ for work to provide food for his children. (of an action) wild or dangerous; done as a last attempt(of an action) wild or dangerous; done as a last attempt a last ~ effort to win desperate (L. 78)

64 an operation by an army surrounding a defended place to force it to yield, by repeated attacks, blocking of its supplies, etc.an operation by an army surrounding a defended place to force it to yield, by repeated attacks, blocking of its supplies, etc. ~ warfare ( 围攻战 ) be in/ under a state of ~ ( 处于被围状态 ) stand/ withstand a ~ (抵住围攻) lift a state of ~ (解除围困状态) The terrorists gave themselves up after a 24-hour ~ lay ~ to ( 围攻 ) raise a ~ siege (L.81)

65 stop completelystop completely We were brought to a halt by a storm. bring a halt to the nuclear arms race come to a halt come to a halt The car came to a halt just in time to prevent an accident. The car came to a halt just in time to prevent an accident. Cf.come to the aid (L.11) go into exile (L. 61) bring to a halt (L. 91)

66 N. a continued attack, usu. with large military forcesN. a continued attack, usu. with large military forces launch an all-out ~ against the enemy a propaganda ~ against the government take the offensive begin to attack take the offensive begin to attack Adj. causing offence; unpleasantAdj. causing offence; unpleasant ~ remarks/ advertisements to women a sight to ~ to look at Cf.defensive offensive (L. 92)

67 change what looks like defeat into victory (over)change what looks like defeat into victory (over) The appearance of Joan of Arc turned the tide of war. swim/ go with / against the tideswim/ go with / against the tide to act in accordance with/ opposition to a general current of thought, custom, or what most other people are doing turn the tide (L.102)

68 to consider; regardto consider; regard Yao ming is ~ed (to be) the number one center in NBA. The foundation of P.R. China is ~ed from Oct. 1 st be ~ed with be ~ed with George W. Bush is surely the one who has to be ~ed with when people are trying to maintain world peace. reckon (L. 114)

69 reckon in reckon in Have you ~ed the cost of the postage in the total. Have you ~ed in the cost of postage? reckon with reckon with If you hit the child again you’ll have me to ~ with. reckon without reckon without When he decided to go he ~ed without Mary, who refused to let him. reckon on reckon on You can always ~ on me (to help you). We’re ~ing on a large profit/ being half an hour late. You can’t ~ on seeing him. reckon (L. 114)

70 the number of people or animals killed or injured in particular circumstances;the number of people or animals killed or injured in particular circumstances; money paid for the use of a bridge or roadmoney paid for the use of a bridge or road The death and injury ~ in the tsunami is on the rise. The village is allowed to charge ~s for the use of the bridge. cause damage, injuries or deaths (often followed by of/on )cause damage, injuries or deaths (often followed by of/on ) The flood took a ~ of 2 million lives. His hard work has taken its ~ on his health. toll (L. 116)

71 wait usually for a long time, until the right moment; wait patiently for a chancewait usually for a long time, until the right moment; wait patiently for a chance He seems to be doing nothing, but really he’s just biding his time. He bided his time until Harvard University offered him a professorship. bide one’s time (L. 39)

72 I. Directions: For each of the following sentences there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence. 1.The battle of Waterloo was ________ to Napoleon because he was totally defeated and was not able to build up his armies again. A. clashingB. striking C. devastatingD. assaulting Exercises for Unit 1 Exercises for Unit 1C

73 2.Despite his ____ literary style, this young man earned the acknowledgement of professional critics. A. rawB. fierce C. bleakD. offensive 3.It might be another _____ year for this company if it fails to come up with any effective reform policies. A. limpB. bleak C. offensiveD. devastating 4.McDonald’s is about to ______ a new advertising campaign to promote its new hamburger. A. stretchB. hunch C. renderD. launch A B D

74 5.The United States’ military showed the world its _____ when it completed its war with Iraq in just two months. A. empireB. conquest C. mightD. alliance 6.The National SAFE KIDS Foundation/Association ______ for fire safety, car safety and home safety to both adults and children. A. reckonsB. renders C. campaignsD. launch 7.The Spanish ______ of South America was both long and deadly. A. conquestB. stroke C. exileD. casualty C C A

75 8._____ in Iraq, the United States has turned to the United Nations for help, embraced diplomacy with North Korea and only reluctantly sent small numbers of US troops to help a West African peacekeeping mission in Liberia. A. Bogged downB. Reckoned with C. Engaged withD. caught off 9.He had to _____ himself in his writing these days as the deadline was one week earlier than he thought A. engageB. render C. reckonD. devastate 10. He ___________ and invested his money in the volatile US stock exchange rather than buying stable US treasury bonds. A. took a tollB. pressed ahead C. took a gambleD. got bogged down C A A

76 11.Slowed by sickness and starvation, the army _______ toward the battle front. A. pressed onB. took a gamble C. reckoned withD. took a toll 12.During World War Two, lots of Jews ____ for neutral ports in order to avoid persecution by the Nazis. A. launchedB. engaged C. boggedD. fled 13.Don’t jump at the first opportunity. It’s better to ___ your time and wait for a better offer. A. bideB. retreat C. bogD. siege A A D

77 14.Stuck by the snow storm, the captain had to suspend the march and ______ his men with the villagers. A.feedB. quarter C. tatterD. abdicate 15.This seminar seems to be _______ on and on and it just won’t end. A.pressingB. fleeing C. renderingD. dragging 16.With one _______ of the visa officer’s pen, my application to America was rejected. A. strokeB. stretch C. tollD. casualty B A D

78 17.I have to walk with a ____ because I hurt my ankle in training yesterday. A. limpB. tactic C. strokeD. exile 18.Some people are still wondering why and how the United States of America was ________ guard by the terrorist attack of Sept. 11. A. bogged downB. pressed on C. caught offD. reckoned with 19.The chairman was forced to bring the meeting to a ____ because there was too much arguing in the room. A. borderB. stroke C. tideD. halt C A D

79 20.There are many Chinese idioms that cannot be _______ into English. A. reckonedB. bided C. launchedD. rendered 21.You had better throw away the fish - What an _______ smell! A. devastatingB. swollen C. tatteredD. offensive 22.Napoleon’s army suffered heavy ________ in the battle of Russia. A. tacticsB. severity C. casualtiesD. alliances C D D

80 23.The United States government is committed to turning the _____ against malaria, which claims the life of an African child every 30 seconds. A. bideB. counterattack C. tideD. conquest 24.Darkness is ________ in on us. We’ve never felt so helpless and desperate. A. retreatingB. pressing C. takingD. closing 25.With no food, the hikers, who lost their way in the desert, were driven to _________. A. desperationB. declaration C. severityD. casualty A D C

81 26.Before the _____ ended, the citizens were almost starving. A. siegeB. stroke C. tideD. conquest 27.Though the president is an idiot, he is in command of the most powerful military on earth and is therefore someone to be ________ with. A. devastatedB. reckoned C. scorchedD. rendered 28. The war took a heavy ______ of the nation’s population. A.occupationB. alliance C. tollD. invasion A B C

82 II. Directions: Please fill in the blanks with the words or phrases from Text A: 1.As the manager of the company, you should not ______ ______ your responsibility in the affair. 2.The girl’s attention was __________ by the display of the new shoes in the shop windows and has no time to __________ in our talk. 3. The talk between the two countries was _________ _________ in political and economic issues because of the great difference. retreat from engaged bogged down engage

83 4.We are unwilling to _____ _____ _____ opening a restaurant in this part of the city. 5.It is believed that illegal search is a(n)___________of people’s civil rights. 6.The criminal who was still drinking in a pub was _____ _____ _____ when the policemen rushed in and arrested him. take a gamble invasion caught off guard

84 7.Time seems to ______ ______ when you have nothing to do. 8.Tom always daydreams that he could make a fortune_____ ______ ______. 9.The old engineer ___________ the young workers not only in words, but also by deeds. drag on at a stroke instructed

85 13.The war between the two countries produced many __________ in both sides. 14.In order to finish the task in time, we have to _____ _____ in the face of difficulties. 15.It is _____ today. Put on your scarf and gloves before you go out. casualties press on raw

86 III. Translation 1. 就这次交通事故而言, 驾驶员粗心大意是造成事 故的主要原因. The carelessness of the driver is the main cause in the case of this traffic accident. 2. 人们终于明白以牺牲环境来发展经济是多么愚蠢. It is finally realized how foolish it is to develop our economy at the cost of environment.

87 3. 由于质量低劣, 这项工程被停了下来. The project was brought to a halt because of its poor quality. 4. 由于他在战斗中的英雄行为, 他被人们认为是最 勇敢的战士之一. Because of (thanks to) his heroic deeds in the war, he was reckoned as one of the bravest soldiers. 5. 在处理这些问题时, 必须考虑时间, 天气以及资金 等因素. The factors such as time, weather and funds must be reckoned with when we deal with these problems.


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