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CHAPTER 10 (UNDERSTANDING MEATS & GAME) MEAT CUTTING

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1 CHAPTER 10 (UNDERSTANDING MEATS & GAME) MEAT CUTTING
Gilbert Noussitou 2010

2 Breeds of Cattle Angus, Highland, Afrikaner, Indu-Brazilian, Ankole, Limousin, Balancer, Maine-Anjou, Beefalo, Marchigiana, Beefmaster, Miniature, Belgian Blue, Murray Grey, Belted Galloway, Nelore, Blonde d'Aquitaine, Normande, Braford, Pinzgauer, Brahman, Polled-Hereford, Brangus, Red Angus, Braunvieh, Red Brangus, British White, Red Poll, Bue Lingo, Romagnola, Canadienne, Salers, Charolais, Santa Gertrudis, Chiangus, Senepol, Chianina, Shorthorn, Commercial, Simbrah, Corriente, Simmental, Devon, South Devon, Dexter, Tarentaise, Droughtmaster, Texas Longhorn, Galloway, Tuli, Gelbvieh, Wagyu (Kobe Beef), Gyr, Watusi, Hereford, Zebu, Hybridmaster Gilbert Noussitou 2010

3 Composition of Protein in Meat
Oxygen carrying & storing proteins (water soluble) Muscle fiber (filaments) Connective tissues hemoglobins myoglobins etc. albuminoids (30%) Fibrils myosin + actin (50%) elastins reticulins collagens (20%) Gilbert Noussitou 2010

4 Muscle Composition Muscle tissue: Marbling: Connective tissue
Approx. 72% water, 20% protein, 7% fat, 1% minerals Marbling: inter & intra-muscular fat Marbling adds tenderness & flavour to meat Connective tissue Collagens Gilbert Noussitou 2010

5 Muscle Tissue Gilbert Noussitou 2010

6 Crosscut of Muscle Fibers
Gilbert Noussitou 2010

7 Inspection of Meats All meat produced for public consumption in Canada is subject to health inspection under C.F.I.A. supervision Inspections ensure strict sanitary guidelines Inspections guarantee products are wholesome & fit for human consumption Gilbert Noussitou 2010

8 Grading of Meats Grading is a voluntary system
Two parts to the grading system: Quality grades: Muscle Marbling Yield assessments: ratio of edible meat to bone & fat Branding Programs: (product is not graded) Some purveyors & retailers have developed their own labeling system to provide quality assurance information Gilbert Noussitou 2010

9 Grading of Meats (cont’d)
Quality Grading takes into account 5 factors: Animal’s age (bone ossification) Colour of the meat Conformation of the muscling Fat colour Sex of the animal Gilbert Noussitou 2010

10 Grading of Meats: Beef Beef Canada Prime AAA, AA and A B1, B2, B3, B4
D and E Grade & Yield Stamps Note: Approximately 82% of beef production in Canada is grade A or higher Gilbert Noussitou 2010

11 Grading of Meats: Veal Veal:
Based on muscle formation, flesh colour & fat deposits A1, A2, A3 and A4 B1, B2, B3 and B4 C1 and C2 Milk-fed or grain-fed is not taken in consideration in the grading Minimum weight is 80 kg (176 lbs) Gilbert Noussitou 2010

12 Grading of Meats: Pork Pork is graded only for trading and export purposes Producers are paid according to the fat to lean ratio Lean to fat ratio must be between 54.7% and 63.4% Of the 12 grades, Canada Yield Class is the most desirable Gilbert Noussitou 2010

13 Grading of Meats: Sheep
Grading is done for the producer, most lamb is sold ungraded Most sheep marketed as spring lamb or genuine spring lamb Spring lamb is 5 to 12 months old and weights 13.5 to 29.5 kg (30 to 65 lbs) The fat will be white and the flesh dark pink Gilbert Noussitou 2010

14 Aging Meats When animals are slaughtered, their muscles are soft and flabby. Within 6-24 hours, rigor mortis sets in, causing the muscles to contract and stiffen. Rigor mortis dissipates in hours while under refrigeration. All meats are allowed to age or rest long enough for rigor mortis to dissipate. Gilbert Noussitou 2010

15 Aging Meats Natural enzymes break down the fibrous, connective tissue in the muscle, tenderizing it Most of the tenderizing activity occurs in the first 10 to 14 days. Because refrigerated storage is expensive, only the high priced loin and rib cuts are aged (wet or dry) In today’s modern processing plants, carcasses are broken down and vacuum-sealed in plastic bags within 48 to 72 hours. Much of this beef will show up in a grocery store meat case within 2 to 4 days after harvest. Gilbert Noussitou 2010

16 Aging Methods Dry Aging Wet Aging Gilbert Noussitou 2010

17 Aging Meats Dry Aging Done by hanging the meat for 10 to 28 days in temperature & humidity controlled rooms Two things happen: Moisture evaporates creating a greater concentration of ‘beefy’ flavor & taste. Natural enzymes break down the fibrous, connective tissue in the muscle, tenderizing it. Increased aging adds to the shrinkage and trim loss due to the drying and surface mold with the advent of vacuum packaging along with increased efficiencies in beef processing and transportation, dry aging is not very common. Gilbert Noussitou 2010

18 Meat can be "wet aged" in a vacuum-sealed plastic bag
Aging Meats Wet Aging Meat can be "wet aged" in a vacuum-sealed plastic bag Cryovac® is a registered trade mark It improves tenderness but the meat will not have the characteristic “dry aged” flavor. Gilbert Noussitou 2010

19 “Kuroge Wagyu" (Kobe Beef)
Gilbert Noussitou 2010

20 What is Kobe Beef? Considered the most exclusive beef in the world.
Technically speaking, there's no such thing as `Kobe beef`, it is merely the shipping point for beef from elsewhere in Japan. "Kobe beef" comes from the ancient province of Tajima, now named Hyogo Prefecture, of which Kobe is the capital. Real connoisseurs, still refer to it as Tajima beef. This beef comes from an ancient stock of cattle called "kuroge Wagyu" (black haired Japanese cattle). Cont’d…. Gilbert Noussitou 2010

21 What is Kobe Beef? Cont’d
Today, ‘Kobe beef’ is raised on only 262 small farms, most of which pasture fewer than five cows, and the largest of which run only 10 to 15 animals. Each animal is pampered like a spoiled child. Their diets are strictly controlled and during the final fattening process, cattle are fed hefty quantities of sake and beer mash. Each animal gets a daily massage. The theory is that mellow, relaxed cows make better beef. Gilbert Noussitou 2010

22 “Kuroge Wagyu" (Kobe Beef)
Is it true that Kobe beef in Japan are fed on beer and massaged to make them tender? Both things take place, but not for the reasons we've been led to believe. Beer is fed to the cattle during summer months when the interaction of fat cover, temperature and humidity depresses feed intake. Beer seems to stimulate their appetite. It's merely part of the overall management program designed to keep the cattle on feed in the heat of the summer. The massaging is done to relieve stress and muscle stiffness. It's believed that the eating quality of the meat is affected positively by keeping the cattle calm and content. Gilbert Noussitou 2010

23 “Kuroge Wagyu" (Kobe Beef)
Why do they brush the cattle with sake? Brushing cattle with sake is another practice which creates great interest. Some producers in Japan believe that haircoat and softness of skin are related to meat quality. It's believed brushing the haircoat with sake improves the appearance and softness of the animal and is therefore of economic importance. Gilbert Noussitou 2010

24 Purchasing and Storing Meats Purchasing Meats
Several factors determine the cuts of meat your food service operation should be using Menu Menu price Quality Gilbert Noussitou 2010

25 Purchasing and Storing Meats Purchasing Meats cont’d
Once you have determined your needs, consider: Employee skills: Do you have a person who can efficiently break down meats into needed cuts? The menu: Can you use the bones, meat and trimmings in something else? Storage: Do you have ample refrigeration and/or freezer space? Cost: Consider labour costs and trim usage; in-house fabrication requires lots of labour, ready-to-use cuts may be more economical? Gilbert Noussitou 2010

26 Purchasing and Storing Meats Storing Meats
Meat products are highly perishable and potentially hazardous foods Temperature control is essential Fresh meats: store at -1°C to +2°C (30-35° F) Frozen meats: store at minimum -18°C (0°F) or colder. Optimum freezer storage is -45°C (-50°F) Gilbert Noussitou 2010

27 Preparation Preparing Meats Marinating: wet and dry Barding Larding
Gilbert Noussitou 2010

28 Cutting Meat Beef Gilbert Noussitou 2010

29 Beef Primals Gilbert Noussitou 2010

30 Front Quarter Gilbert Noussitou 2010

31 Front Quarter Cross-cut Shank Short Ribs Stew Brisket
Gilbert Noussitou 2010

32 Prime Rib Rib Steaks Prime Rib Roast Rib Eye Steak
Gilbert Noussitou 2010

33 Hind Quarter Gilbert Noussitou 2010

34 Short Loin Steaks Gilbert Noussitou 2010

35 Other Steaks Steak Tartare Filet Mignon Gilbert Noussitou 2010

36 Other Steaks Skirt Steak Hanger Steak (Onglet) Flank Steak
Gilbert Noussitou 2010

37 Applying Various Cooking Methods
Dry heat cooking methods Most appropriate for tender meats Broiling, grilling, roasting, sautéing, pan-frying Moist heat cooking methods Recommended for less tender meats Simmering, braising, stewing Gilbert Noussitou 2010

38 Pork Side Gilbert Noussitou 2010

39 Lamb Primals Gilbert Noussitou 2010

40 Veal Primals Gilbert Noussitou 2010

41 ORGAN MEATS Variety Meats or Offals
Gilbert Noussitou 2010

42 Organ Meats Also known as Variety Meats or Offals
Edible parts of an animal not included in the regular cuts Regarded as delicacies in many parts of the world Some enjoy a growing popularity in North America Many are rich in minerals and other essential nutrients Gilbert Noussitou 2010

43 Organ Meats Separated into 2 groups: Glandular:
Liver, Kidneys, Sweetbreads, Brains Muscular: Heart, Tongue, Tripe, Oxtail Gilbert Noussitou 2010

44 Organ Meats Glandular Liver:
Available from beef, veal/calf, pork & lamb Beef liver is quite large with a stronger flavour Veal liver is the most tender; with a relatively mild flavour, making it the most palatable Pork liver has a rather pronounced flavour; it is mostly used in pâtés & sausages Lamb liver is popular in Europe; it is tender & mild in flavour Liver should be skinned & deveined, soaked in milk (optional) & sautéed or pan-fried. Do not over-cook! Gilbert Noussitou 2010

45 Organ Meats Glandular Kidneys:
Veal & lamb kidneys are the most in demand Veal & Lamb kidneys are mild & tender, most often sautéed or broiled Beef kidneys are larger, tougher and stronger in flavour; they are most often braised Pork kidneys are also tender and relatively mild but most often used in pâtés & sausages Kidneys should be skinned, deveined & soaked in cold water added with a little salt Gilbert Noussitou 2010

46 Organ Meats Glandular Sweetbreads: 2 glands from veal & lamb are used:
the thymus gland (neck sweetbread) the pancreas (heart sweetbread) Beef sweetbreads are not palatable; the gland becomes tougher and dry as the animal grows older Lamb sweetbreads are excellent but very small and not often seen on menus. Sweetbreads should be cleaned, soaked, blanched, trimmed & pressed Naturally tender, they are usually sautéed or braised Gilbert Noussitou 2010

47 Organ Meats Glandular Brains:
Inexpensive but not readily available; very perishable Veal and lamb brains are most commonly used Brains are very rich; mostly made of fatty tissue Should be soaked in cold water & cleaned of outer membrane they are first poached in a white court-bouillon Can be served poached, sliced, sautéed, pan-fried or deep-fried Gilbert Noussitou 2010

48 Organ Meats Muscular Heart:
Available from beef, veal, pork & lamb; generally tough, especially from larger animals Should be trimmed of connective tissues & arteries; can be soaked in cold water to remove excess blood Usually braised (or stewed) to tenderize Gilbert Noussitou 2010

49 Organ Meats Muscular Tongue :
Available from beef, veal, pork & lamb; generally tough, especially from larger animals Should be trimmed of connective tissues & arteries; can be soaked in cold water to remove excess blood Fresh, it is usually simmered or braised to tenderize A popular sandwich item when cured (pickled/corned) or smoked Gilbert Noussitou 2010

50 Organ Meats Muscular Tripe:
Tripe is the muscular lining of the stomach of beef: plain (blanket); from the first stomach honeycomb; from the second stomach bible or book; from the third stomach Tripe is usually bleached (or scalded), but it can be found ‘cleaned’ or ‘green’ Available fresh or pickled Usually braised (or stewed) until tender Gilbert Noussitou 2010

51 Organ Meats Muscular Oxtail: The skinned tail of steer or heifer
Should be cleaned and blanched Cooked by simmering, braising or stewed until tender Contains a large amount of collagens which gives lots of body (gelatine) to the cooking liquids Gilbert Noussitou 2010


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