Gilbert Noussitou 201012-6 Crosscut of Muscle Fibers
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-7 Inspection of Meats All meat produced for public consumption in Canada is subject to health inspection under C.F.I.A. supervision Inspections ensure strict sanitary guidelines Inspections guarantee products are wholesome & fit for human consumption
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-8 Grading of Meats Grading is a voluntary system Two parts to the grading system: –Quality grades: Muscle Marbling –Yield assessments: ratio of edible meat to bone & fat Branding Programs: (product is not graded) –Some purveyors & retailers have developed their own labeling system to provide quality assurance information
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-9 Grading of Meats (cont’d) Quality Grading takes into account 5 factors: 1) Animal’s age (bone ossification) 2) Colour of the meat 3) Conformation of the muscling 4) Fat colour 5) Sex of the animal
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-10 Grading of Meats: Beef Beef –Canada Prime –AAA, AA and A –B1, B2, B3, B4 –D and E Note: Approximately 82% of beef production in Canada is grade A or higher Grade & Yield Stamps
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-11 Grading of Meats: Veal Veal: –Based on muscle formation, flesh colour & fat deposits –A1, A2, A3 and A4 –B1, B2, B3 and B4 –C1 and C2 Milk-fed or grain-fed is not taken in consideration in the grading Minimum weight is 80 kg (176 lbs)
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-12 Grading of Meats: Pork Pork is graded only for trading and export purposes Producers are paid according to the fat to lean ratio Lean to fat ratio must be between 54.7% and 63.4% Of the 12 grades, Canada Yield Class is the most desirable
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-13 Grading of Meats: Sheep Grading is done for the producer, most lamb is sold ungraded Most sheep marketed as spring lamb or genuine spring lamb Spring lamb is 5 to 12 months old and weights 13.5 to 29.5 kg (30 to 65 lbs) The fat will be white and the flesh dark pink
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-14 Aging Meats When animals are slaughtered, their muscles are soft and flabby. Within 6-24 hours, rigor mortis sets in, causing the muscles to contract and stiffen. Rigor mortis dissipates in 48-72 hours while under refrigeration. All meats are allowed to age or rest long enough for rigor mortis to dissipate.
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-15 Aging Meats Natural enzymes break down the fibrous, connective tissue in the muscle, tenderizing it Most of the tenderizing activity occurs in the first 10 to 14 days. Because refrigerated storage is expensive, only the high priced loin and rib cuts are aged (wet or dry) In today’s modern processing plants, carcasses are broken down and vacuum-sealed in plastic bags within 48 to 72 hours. Much of this beef will show up in a grocery store meat case within 2 to 4 days after harvest.
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-17 Aging Meats Dry Aging Done by hanging the meat for 10 to 28 days in temperature & humidity controlled rooms Two things happen: –Moisture evaporates creating a greater concentration of ‘beefy’ flavor & taste. –Natural enzymes break down the fibrous, connective tissue in the muscle, tenderizing it. Increased aging adds to the shrinkage and trim loss due to the drying and surface mold with the advent of vacuum packaging along with increased efficiencies in beef processing and transportation, dry aging is not very common.
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-18 Aging Meats Wet Aging Meat can be "wet aged" in a vacuum- sealed plastic bag Cryovac® is a registered trade mark It improves tenderness but the meat will not have the characteristic “dry aged” flavor.
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-20 What is Kobe Beef? Considered the most exclusive beef in the world. Technically speaking, there's no such thing as `Kobe beef`, it is merely the shipping point for beef from elsewhere in Japan. "Kobe beef" comes from the ancient province of Tajima, now named Hyogo Prefecture, of which Kobe is the capital. Real connoisseurs, still refer to it as Tajima beef. This beef comes from an ancient stock of cattle called "kuroge Wagyu" (black haired Japanese cattle). Cont’d….
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-21 What is Kobe Beef? Cont’d Today, ‘Kobe beef’ is raised on only 262 small farms, most of which pasture fewer than five cows, and the largest of which run only 10 to 15 animals. Each animal is pampered like a spoiled child. Their diets are strictly controlled and during the final fattening process, cattle are fed hefty quantities of sake and beer mash. Each animal gets a daily massage. The theory is that mellow, relaxed cows make better beef.
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-22 “Kuroge Wagyu" (Kobe Beef) Is it true that Kobe beef in Japan are fed on beer and massaged to make them tender? Both things take place, but not for the reasons we've been led to believe. Beer is fed to the cattle during summer months when the interaction of fat cover, temperature and humidity depresses feed intake. Beer seems to stimulate their appetite. It's merely part of the overall management program designed to keep the cattle on feed in the heat of the summer. The massaging is done to relieve stress and muscle stiffness. It's believed that the eating quality of the meat is affected positively by keeping the cattle calm and content.
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-23 “Kuroge Wagyu" (Kobe Beef) Why do they brush the cattle with sake? Brushing cattle with sake is another practice which creates great interest. Some producers in Japan believe that haircoat and softness of skin are related to meat quality. It's believed brushing the haircoat with sake improves the appearance and softness of the animal and is therefore of economic importance.
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-24 Purchasing and Storing Meats Purchasing Meats Several factors determine the cuts of meat your food service operation should be using –Menu –Menu price –Quality
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-25 Purchasing and Storing Meats Purchasing Meats cont’d Once you have determined your needs, consider: –Employee skills: Do you have a person who can efficiently break down meats into needed cuts? –The menu: Can you use the bones, meat and trimmings in something else? –Storage: Do you have ample refrigeration and/or freezer space? –Cost: Consider labour costs and trim usage; in-house fabrication requires lots of labour, ready-to-use cuts may be more economical?
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-26 Purchasing and Storing Meats Storing Meats Meat products are highly perishable and potentially hazardous foods Temperature control is essential Fresh meats: –store at -1°C to +2°C (30-35° F) Frozen meats: –store at minimum -18°C (0°F) or colder. –Optimum freezer storage is -45°C (-50°F)
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-41 ORGAN MEATS Variety Meats or Offals
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-42 Organ Meats Also known as Variety Meats or Offals Edible parts of an animal not included in the regular cuts Regarded as delicacies in many parts of the world Some enjoy a growing popularity in North America Many are rich in minerals and other essential nutrients
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-43 Organ Meats Separated into 2 groups: –Glandular: Liver, Kidneys, Sweetbreads, Brains –Muscular: Heart, Tongue, Tripe, Oxtail
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-44 Organ Meats Glandular Liver: –Available from beef, veal/calf, pork & lamb –Beef liver is quite large with a stronger flavour –Veal liver is the most tender; with a relatively mild flavour, making it the most palatable –Pork liver has a rather pronounced flavour; it is mostly used in pâtés & sausages –Lamb liver is popular in Europe; it is tender & mild in flavour –Liver should be skinned & deveined, soaked in milk (optional) & sautéed or pan-fried. Do not over-cook!
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-45 Organ Meats Glandular Kidneys: –Veal & lamb kidneys are the most in demand –Veal & Lamb kidneys are mild & tender, most often sautéed or broiled –Beef kidneys are larger, tougher and stronger in flavour; they are most often braised –Pork kidneys are also tender and relatively mild but most often used in pâtés & sausages –Kidneys should be skinned, deveined & soaked in cold water added with a little salt
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-46 Organ Meats Glandular Sweetbreads: –2 glands from veal & lamb are used: the thymus gland (neck sweetbread) the pancreas (heart sweetbread) –Beef sweetbreads are not palatable; the gland becomes tougher and dry as the animal grows older –Lamb sweetbreads are excellent but very small and not often seen on menus. –Sweetbreads should be cleaned, soaked, blanched, trimmed & pressed –Naturally tender, they are usually sautéed or braised
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-47 Organ Meats Glandular Brains: –Inexpensive but not readily available; very perishable –Veal and lamb brains are most commonly used –Brains are very rich; mostly made of fatty tissue –Should be soaked in cold water & cleaned of outer membrane –they are first poached in a white court-bouillon –Can be served poached, sliced, sautéed, pan-fried or deep-fried
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-48 Organ Meats Muscular Heart: –Available from beef, veal, pork & lamb; generally tough, especially from larger animals –Should be trimmed of connective tissues & arteries; can be soaked in cold water to remove excess blood –Usually braised (or stewed) to tenderize
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-49 Organ Meats Muscular Tongue : –Available from beef, veal, pork & lamb; generally tough, especially from larger animals –Should be trimmed of connective tissues & arteries; can be soaked in cold water to remove excess blood –Fresh, it is usually simmered or braised to tenderize –A popular sandwich item when cured (pickled/corned) or smoked
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-50 Organ Meats Muscular Tripe: –Tripe is the muscular lining of the stomach of beef: plain (blanket); from the first stomach honeycomb; from the second stomach bible or book; from the third stomach –Tripe is usually bleached (or scalded), but it can be found ‘cleaned’ or ‘green’ –Available fresh or pickled –Usually braised (or stewed) until tender
Gilbert Noussitou 201012-51 Organ Meats Muscular Oxtail: –The skinned tail of steer or heifer –Should be cleaned and blanched –Cooked by simmering, braising or stewed until tender –Contains a large amount of collagens which gives lots of body (gelatine) to the cooking liquids