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CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Xavier Barcons.

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Presentation on theme: "CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Xavier Barcons."— Presentation transcript:

1 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Xavier Barcons

2 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Acknowledgements The XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC), especially Mike Watson, Christian Motch, Francisco Carrera, Axel Schwope and Mat Page among others The Lockman Hole team, especially Günther Hasinger and Andy Fabian The X-ray Astronomy group at my Institute (IFCA), the only (and best) one in Spain The Spanish National Space Programme (project ESP ) The whole XMM-Newton project for support and making things happen, including SOC, SSC, instrument teams, Users Group and more.

3 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Index What do X-rays tell us about the Universe? The XMM-Newton X-ray space observatory The XMM-Newton serendipitous X-ray survey The XMM catalogue Extragalactic Surveys Surveying the Galactic Plane The future of XMM-Newton surveys

4 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Physical processes that produce X-rays Plasmas (ionised gases) at temperatures of millions of degrees (bremsstrahlung and line emission) Very energetic electrons in strong magnetic fields (synchrotron radiation) Inverse Compton scattering on high energy electrons. Matter falling towards compact objects or black holes (accretion) Electron-positron pair cascades

5 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys N132D SNR Fe line OVII OVIII

6 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys SNRs and Pulsars The Crab nebula Chandra Pulsar

7 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys The magnetic field of isolated neutron stars First unambiguous detection of cyclotron absorption lines in the X-ray spectrum of an isolated neutron star: direct measurement of the magnetic field strength. B~8 x Gauss Bignami, Caraveo, De Luca & Mereghetti 2003 Cyclotron lines 1E1207.4–5209

8 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys The Galactic centre in X-rays

9 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Clusters of galaxies Coma Sérsic

10 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys (Chris Done, Univ of Durham) The X-ray view of Active Galactic Nuclei C. Done, Durham U

11 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys The X-ray spectrum of AGN nRadiation from the accretion disk, reprocessed by a corona of hot electrons nRefection (Fe line and Compton recoil) nAbsorption by surrounding material nSoft excess (direct radiation from the accretion disk)

12 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys The importance of absorption in AGN: the Cosmic X-ray background The spectral energy distribution peaks at ~30 keV Unified model: The right mixture of absorbed and unabsorbed AGN produces the spectrum of the Cosmic X-ray background Predictions: –The majority of X-rays in the Universe are produced in absorbed objects –Many absorbed quasars should be found Gilli et al 2000

13 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys The new X-ray observatories Chandra (NASA) July 1999 XMM-Newton (ESA) December 1999

14 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys How does an X-ray telescope work?

15 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys XMM-Newton Spatially resolved (15“) low- resolution spectroscopy (E/  E~20-50) Intermediate resolution dispersive spectrometry ( Ang, E/  E~ ) EPIC: (3) CCD spectroscopic imaging cameras keV (2) Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS): keV (1) Optical monitor (OM): Optical/UV imaging and grism spectroscopy.

16 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys A new window: Hard X-ray energies Sensitivity to hard X-ray energies (up to 12 keV with XMM-Newton) Rosat XMM/Chandra log N H = Absorbed sources can be seen!

17 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys The XMM-Newton serendipitous sky survey Every new XMM- Newton pointing (with EPIC in full window mode) discovers ~ serendipitous X- ray sources. About 30,000 new X- ray sources/year, with positional and X-ray spectral information

18 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys The XMM-Newton catalogue Compiled by the SSC All EPIC detected sources, flags and large amount of information Accessible through XSA, LUX, CDS 1XMM released April 2003 (30,000 sources) 2XMM released 2005 (100, ,000 sources)

19 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys 1XMM: Sky distribution

20 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys 1XMM: The X-ray population B1= keV B2= keV B3= keV B4= keV B5= keV HR1=(B2-B1)/(B2+B1) HR2=(B3-B2)/(B3+B2) HR3=(B4-B3)/(B4+B3)

21 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys 1XMM Hard sources Soft sources

22 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys The Survey Science Centre identification programme Core programme (~1000 sources/sample): –High b faint sample ( erg cm -2 s -1 ) –High b medium sample ( erg cm -2 s -1 ) –High b bright sample ( erg cm -2 s -1 ) –Galactic Plane Sample Imaging programme (u,g’,r’,i’,Z,H) Statistical identifications based on X- ray properties & imaging programme.

23 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys dMe Star QSO z=0.565 Sy 2 z=0.238 NGC 4291 z= QSO z=2.649 Sy 1 z=0.330

24 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys The XMM-Newton Medium Sensitivity Survey

25 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys The XMM-Newton Medium Sensitivity Survey (XMS) 25 XMM fields XID: keV S XID >2  cgs Ω=3.5 deg sources 200 identified (67%) Barcons et al 2002 Carrera et al 2005

26 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Identification strategy Deep (~23 mag ) optical/NIR imaging of full EPIC field of view (La Palma, ESO) Search for candidate counterparts Optical spectroscopy (fibre+long slit) –AXIS (An XMM-Newton International Survey) international programme at La Palma (April April 2002) –Calar Alto, 3.5m telescope with MOSCA ( )

27 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys XMS spectroscopic identifications Search for candidate counterparts i’-band sources within either: 5  (statistical) or 5 arcsec 95% of the X-ray sources have a potential optical candidate counterpart In > 75% of these cases, the candidate counterpart is unique

28 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys XMS: Luminosity vs. redshift NGC4291

29 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys XMS: Optical colours Early-type galaxies QSOs NGC sources have all both g.r, r-i colours: 60 UnID, 168 ID

30 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys XMS: f XID /f opt vs. HR2 NGC4291 Star/AGN separation

31 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys “Empty” sources and EROs Fiore et al 2003 Most of these sources are Extremely Red Objects (EROs) with R-K>5

32 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Extremely Red Objects and obscured AGNs Brusa, Comastri et al (2004)

33 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys The deepest XMM-Newton observation in the Lockman Hole Distant galaxy cluster (z=1.2) Rotating supermassive Black Holes Absorption in AGN

34 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Lockman Hole 800 ks XMM-Newton observation Average line profile calls for BH rotation Average rest-frame spectra show relativistic Fe-lines type-1 AGN EW~500eV Streblyanskaya et al., 2004 type-2 AGN EW~400eV

35 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Elements formed at z>1.3! Abundance independent of z Best X-ray spectrum of a z>1 cluster kT~5 keV XMM 800 ks Determination of Fe abundance and redshift in a very distant cluster Hashimoto et al 2004

36 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Photoelectric absorption Medium Survey (XMS) S lim ( keV)~ erg cm -2 s -1 10% of type 1 AGN are absorbed (with N H <=10 22 cm -2 ) 40% of type 2 AGN are absorbed Mateos et al (2004) Deep Survey (Lockman Hole) S lim ( keV)~ erg cm -2 s -1 15% (<30% at 3  ) of type 1 AGN are absorbed (with N H <10 22 cm -2 ) 80% (>50% at 3  ) of type 2 AGN are absorbed. But 5/28 are unabsorbed Mateos et al (2005)

37 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Type 1 AGN (moderately) absorbed in X-rays S keV = 7.2 x erg cm -2 s -1 z=0.872 N H =2.8  cm -2 Broad-Line AGN L 2-10 =3.2  erg s -1 WHT/ISIS XMM XMMU J

38 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys A type 1.9 AGN with no absorption Barcons, Carrera & Ceballos 2003 H , z= Seyfert 1.8/1.9 H  /H  >27 Expected absorption: >10 22 cm -2 XMM-Newton: Disk + reprocessing Absorption<10 20 cm -2

39 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys X-ray/optical mismatches: variability? Simultaneous XMM-Newton and 3.5m/CAHA spectroscopy of Mkn 993; z= (Changing type Seyfert) 3.5m/TWIN XMM Optical: Seyfert 1.8 Balmer decrement=9 (N H ~ cm -2 ) X-ray: weak absorption (N H ~ cm -2 ) Optical spectral type intrinsic to BLR, not due to absorption

40 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys ESO 602-G031 (Sy 1.8) MRK 702 (Sy 1.9) UGC (Sy 1.8) soft component z= z=0.0250z= No or very low intrinsic absorption !!! More type AGN with no X-ray absorption Lehmann et al 04

41 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Type 2 AGN without absorption (Lockman Hole deep survey) Type 2 AGN (narrow lines only) z=0.711  =1.8 N H =0 Mateos et al 2005

42 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Type-2 Radio-Quiet QSOs AAT/2dF (Mat Page) N H ~ cm -2 z=2.978 (Ly , CIV, CIII]) X-ray flux (2-10 keV) = erg cm -2 s -1 Intrinsic X-ray luminosity = erg s -1 XMM

43 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Optically dull, X-ray luminous galaxies z=0.044 L X =10 42 erg/s TNG Subaru  =1.7 N H = cm -2 XMM Severgnini et al (2003)

44 CAHA, 5 Feb 2005XMM-Newton Surveys Optically dull, X-ray luminous galaxies (“Fiore 3”) R=18, z=0.15 Early type galaxy Flux (2-10 keV)= erg cm -2 s -1 Comastri et al 2002


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