Presentation on theme: "FITS and TOLERANCES. Control Measurements of Finished Parts."— Presentation transcript:
FITS and TOLERANCES
Control Measurements of Finished Parts
Indicating the Desired Dimension
Indication of the Real Dimension of Parts Due to the inevitable inaccuracy of manufacturing methods, a part cannot be made precisely to a given dimension.
Indication of the Real Dimension of Parts
Selection of Waste Parts
Waste results when the manufacturing process cannot maintain size within prescribed limits.
Selection of Acceptable Parts
There is no such thing as an "exact size".
Important Terms – Single Part Nominal Size – general size, usually expressed in mms Actual Size – measured size of the finished part Limits – maximum and minimum sizes shown by tolerances (larger value is the upper limit and the smaller value is the lower limit) Tolerance – total allowable variance in dimensions (upper limit – lower limit) – object dimension could be as big as the upper limit or as small as the lower limit or anywhere in between.
Characteristics of Tolerances
Connection btw the characteristics: US = N + UD LS = N – LD T = US – LS =
The Possible Positions of the Tolerance Zone
The tolerance zone is above the zero (base) line
The tolerance zone is on the zero (base) line
The tolerance zone is under the zero (base) line
Possible positions of the tolerance zone in case of shafts Fundamental Deviation: is the deviation closest to the basic size. ISO standard uses tolerance position letters with lowercase letters for the shafts.
FYI: The ISO System of Limits and Fits (referred to as the ISO system) is covered in national standards throughout the world, as shown by the following list: Global ISO 286 USA ANSI B4.2 Japan JIS B0401 Germany DIN 7160//61 France NF E UK BSI 4500 Italy UNI 6388 Australia AS 1654
Possible positions of the tolerance zone in the case of holes Fundamental Deviation: is the deviation closest to the basic size. ISO standard uses tolerance position letters with capital letters for the holes.
Schematic representation of the placement of the tolerance interval
A tűrésnagyság szabványos értékei
IT: International Tolerance
Example: A shaft of nominal diameter 25 mm is going to be manufactured. IT grade is required to be IT7. Determine the tolerance on the shaft.
Fits Between Mating Parts
ILLUSTRATION OF DEFINITIONS
Fits Between Mating Parts Fit: degree of tightness between two parts. Fit types: –Clearance Fit – tolerance of mating parts always leaves a space –Interference Fit – tolerance of mating parts always results in interference –Transition Fit – sometimes interferes, sometimes clears
Clearance Fit The mating parts have such upper and lower limits that a clearance always results when the mating parts are assembled.
Clearance Fit (e.g.: H7/f6)
Clearance Fit (pl. H7/f6)
Transition Fit Either a clearance or an interference may result depending on the exact value of the dimensions of the machined shaft and hole within the specified tolerance zones.
Transition Fit (e.g.: H7/j6)
Interference Fit The mating parts have such limits that the lowest shaft diameter is larger than the largest hole diameter..
Interference Fit (e.g. H7/p6)
Basic Systems for Fit Specification In order to standardize dimensioning of fits, two basic systems are used: 1)Basic Hole System: Minimum hole diameter is taken as the basis. Lower deviation for the hole is equal to zero. D max is prescribed according to the specified tolerance. 2)Basic Shaft System: Maximum shaft diameter is taken as the basis. Upper deviation for the Shaft is equal to zero. d min is prescribed according to the specified tolerance.
Basic Hole System Toleranced dimensions are commonly determined using the basic hole system in which the minimum hole size is taken as the basic size.
Fits in Basic Hole System
Basic Shaft System In this system, the maximum shaft is taken as the basic size and is used only in specific circumstances.
Fits in Basic Shaft System
Two ways of indicating tolerances on technical drawings Questions? Limits of a dimension or the tolerance values are specified directly with the dimension.
Indicating tolerances The dimension is given by: a shape symbol, nominal size, a letter indicating the position of the tolerance zone in relation to zero line, a number indicating the width of the tolerance zone. (quality of production?)
Specifying Fits in Technical Drawings
DIMENSIONING OF TOLERANCES - RULES The upper deviation should be written above the lower deviation value irrespective of whether it is a shaft or a hole. Both deviations are expressed to the same number of decimal places, except in the cases where the deviation in one direction is nil.
Example For a nominal diameter of 25 mm and for a fit specification of H7/j5 determine the following: Type of the tolerancing system Tolerance on the hole Tolerance on the shaft Upper and lower limits of the hole (D max, D min ) Upper and lower limits of the shaft (d max, d min ) Type of the fit
Key a) H7/j5 Basic Hole System b) D = 25 mm, from the given table: nominal size H7 j5 + - c)