Presentation on theme: "Achieving Sustainable Design with Automated Parking"— Presentation transcript:
1Achieving Sustainable Design with Automated Parking Don MonahanVice PresidentWalker Parking Consultants
2Presentation OutlineCase study illustrating construction cost comparison for automated parking vs. a ramp-access, underground parking structure.LEED credits for an automated parking structure vs. a ramp-access parking structure.Building code issues with automated parking facilities.
8Ramp-Access Design Car & Floor Area Tabulation LEVELSTALLSAREA(SQ. FT.)EFFICIENCY(SF/STALL)B17534,150455B29637,150387B3B47930,318384TOTAL346138,768401
9Automated Parking – Level B1 Stairs & ElevatorsRetrieval LaneL1L2L3L4Waiting AreaEntry & ExitRampL5L6L7L8L9Retrieval Lane90 High Bay Spaces
10Automated Parking Option - Level B2/B3 These spaces may need to be sacrificed depending on how the elevators and stairs can be supported above.Retrieval LaneRetrieval Lane168 Spaces Per Level
11Automated Parking Car & Floor Area Tabulation LEVELSTALLSAREA(SQ. FT.)EFFICIENCY(SF/STALL)B19034,150379B216837,150221B38819,448TOTAL34690,748262Comments:Added 80 stalls compared to ramp-access design (23% increase).Eliminated an entire basement level (30,318 sf less floor area or 22% decrease).Parking efficiency improved 36%.
12Automated Parking Section Required above lifts1’ 6”Required in retrieval aisleSystem HeightNote: Depth below grade reduced by 13’-2”
15Construction Cost Comparison Delete lowest basement level48,020 sf X $125 per sf = $6,002,500Automated Parking System Cost$19,500 per space X 426 sp = $8,307,000Net Additional Cost = $2,304,500
16Volume Comparison Level Area SF Height FT Volume CF B1 34,150 10 Ramp-Access GarageAutomated GarageLevelAreaSFHeight FTVolumeCFB134,15010341,500B237,150371,500B3B430,318303,180Total1,387,680LevelAreaSFHeight FTVolumeCFB134,15010’ 0”341,500B237,1507’ 5”275,529B319,4486’ 3”121,550B4Total738,579(53%)
17Automated Parking Energy Use TaskLowHighAverageLoading.0169Storage.1228.4408.2818RetrievalTotal.2625.8984.5804Cost Per Car ¢.11 cents/kWh¢.028¢.098¢.064
18Vehicle Emissions Comparison – CO2 Source: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association, Parking magazine, March 2009
19Vehicle Emissions Comparison – NO2 Source: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association,Parking magazine, March 2009
20Vehicle Emissions Comparison – CO Source: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association,Parking magazine, March 2009
21Vehicle Emissions Comparison - VOC Source: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association,Parking magazine, March 2009
22Energy ConsumptionSource: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association,Parking magazine, March 2009
23LEED V2.2 Analysis – Sustainable Site ItemDescriptionPoints Avail.Automated GarageRamp GaragePrereq 1Construction Pollution Prevention1Credit 1Avoid building on or near protected landCredit 2Two story development densityCredit 3Remediate and build on Brownfield siteCredit 4.1Public Transportation AccessCredit 4.2Bicycle storage/changing rooms (5%)Credit 4.3Prefer. parking for fuel-efficient vehicles (5%)Credit 4.4Minimize capacity/preferential carpool parkingCredit 5.1Protect or restore habitatCredit 5.2Maximize open space > garage footprintCredit 6.1Post stormwater ≤ Prior stormwaterCredit 6.2Capture and treat stormwaterCredit 7.1Cover 50% of parking spacesCredit 7.2Roofing Solar Reflectance Index ≥ 78Credit 8Light pollution reductionSubTotal141211
24LEED V2.2 Analysis – Water Efficiency ItemDescriptionPoints Avail.Automated GarageRamp GarageCredit 1.1Reduce irrigation by 50% from baseline1Credit 1.2No potable water use or no irrigation for landscapeCredit 2Reduce building sewage effluent by 50%Credit 3.1Reduce water use by 20% from baselineCredit 3.2Reduce water use by 30% from baselineSubTotal52
25LEED V2.2 Analysis – Energy & Atmosphere ItemDescriptionPoints Avail.Automated GarageRamp GaragePrereq 1Performance verification of building energy systems1Prereq 2Energy systems ≤ ASHRAE limitsPrereq 3Zero use of CFC-based refrigerantsCredit 1Optimize Energy Performance <<< ASHRAE 90.1106Credit 2On-site renewable energy (i.e. solar or wind)3Credit 3Enhanced commissioning of energy systemsCredit 4Minimize ozone depletion & global warmingCredit 5Measurement/verification plan to evaluating energy system performanceCredit 6Green Power (35% of electricity for 2 yrs)SubTotal2016
26LEED V2.2 Analysis – Materials & Resources ItemDescriptionPoints Avail.Automated GarageRamp GaragePrereq 1Storage & collection of recyclables1Credit 1.175% existing building structure re-useCredit 1.2100% of existing building structure re-useCredit 1.3Maintain 50% of interior Non-structural elementsCredit 2.1Recycle or salvage 50% of demolition debrisCredit 2.2Recycle or salvage 75% of demolition debrisCredit 3.1Re-use 5% of material value with salvaged demolition debrisCredit 3.2Re-use 10% of material value with salvaged demolition debrisCredit 4.1Use recycled content ≥ 10% of material valueCredit 4.2Use recycled content ≥ 20% of material valueCredit 5.1Manufacture 10% of materials within 500 milesCredit 5.2Manufacture 20% of materials within 500 milesCredit 6Use 10% more materials than 5.1 extracted, recovered or harvested within 500 milesCredit 7Certified wood ≥ 2.5% of value of all materialsSubTotal146
27LEED V2.2 Analysis – Indoor Environment ItemDescriptionPoints Avail.Automated GarageRamp GaragePrereq 1Meet ASHRAE indoor air ventilation reqmts1Prereq 2Minimize environmental tobacco smoke exposureCredit 1Monitor ventilation system performanceCredit 2Provide additional outdoor air ventilationCredit 3.1Implement indoor air quality plan during constructionCredit 3.2Implement indoor air quality plan before occupancyCredit 4.1All adhesives and sealants shall comply with SCAQMDCredit 4.2Do not exceed VOC limits by SCAQMD for paint & coatinngsCredit 4.3All carpet should be Carpet & Rug Institutes green labelCredit 4.4Wood products shall contain no added urea-formaldehyde resinsCredit 5Minimize exposure to hazardous particulates & chemicalsCredit 6.1Provide lighting system controllability by usersCredit 6.2Provide thermal comfort controllability by usersCredit 7.1HVAC systems & building envelope per ASHRAECredit 7.2Implement a thermal comfort survey within 6 to 18 monthsCredit 8.1Provide daylight & views to 75% of occupied areasCredit 8.2Provide daylight & views to 90% of occupied areasSubTotal15123
28LEED V2.2 Analysis – Design Innovation ItemDescriptionPoints Avail.Automated GarageRamp GarageCredit 1.1Low mercury lighting*1Credit 1.2Management plan for car pooling/bus transit*Credit 1.3Hybrid Zipcar on site for employee use*Credit 1.4Use non-hydraulic, energy-efficient elevators*Credit 1.xInstall snow melting system/eliminate de-icers*Credit 2Use LEED Accredited professionalSubTotal634Project Totals695542* - Previously accepted Innovation in Design Credits
29LEED Certification Levels Certified pointsSilver pointsGold pointsPlatinum pointsConventional Garage = LEED GoldAutomated Garage = LEED PlatinumNote: Stand-alone parking garages cannot be LEED certified, however, they can contribute points toward any occupied space on the same site.
30Building Code Issues for Automated Parking Facilities Use & Occupancy ClassificationAccessFire ProtectionVentilation
31Use & Occupancy Classification Group S-2 Occupancy Classification for low hazard (non-combustible) storage.Section of International Building Code (IBC) applies to storage of motor vehicles. Doesn’t adequately address the special case of automated rack storage of automobiles in an unoccupied storage vault.Section 413 of IBC indicates high-piled stock or rack storage in any occupancy group shall comply with Chapter 23 of the International Fire Code (IFC).Storage of motor vehicles is classified as a Class I commodity.
32AccessSection of IBC indicates “Where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there shall not be less than two 36-inch wide exit stairways”.Chapter 23 of IFC requires a minimum of one access door in each 100 lineal feet of the exterior wall that faces the fire department access road.24-inch wide aisles required for fire department access (i.e. ladders and catwalks).
33Fire ProtectionHigh piled storage area greater than 2500 sf requires automatic fire extinguishing system.Maximum pile dimension equals 100 feet (between aisles).Maximum storage height equals 40 feet.Maximum pile volume equals 400,000 cubic feet.Type of construction:TABLE 503 (partial). ALLOWABLE HEIGHT AND BUILDING AREASGroupType of ConstructionFire RatingType 1A-Three HourType 1B-Two HourType IIA-One HourType IIB-Non-ratedS-2StoriesUnlimited1154Allowable Area79,00039,00026,000
34Ventilation Smoke venting at ceiling required. No ventilation of vehicle emissions required.Ventilation rate of 0.05 cfm per sf of floor area required (1/15 of airflow required for dispersing vehicle emissions).
35International Parking Institute Annual Conference, Denver, CO May 19, 2009SummaryAutomated Parking Garages provide equivalent capacity to a conventional, ramp-access garage in approximately half the volume.Automated Parking Garages pollute far less than conventional, ramp-access garages.Automated Parking Garages provide more LEED certification points than conventional, ramp-access garages.Automated Parking Garages should be designed as high-piled, rack storage facilities in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 23 of the IFC for Class I commodities.