Presentation on theme: "Achieving Sustainable Design with Automated Parking Don Monahan Vice President Walker Parking Consultants."— Presentation transcript:
Achieving Sustainable Design with Automated Parking Don Monahan Vice President Walker Parking Consultants
Presentation Outline Case study illustrating construction cost comparison for automated parking vs. a ramp- access, underground parking structure. LEED credits for an automated parking structure vs. a ramp-access parking structure. Building code issues with automated parking facilities.
Ramp-Access Design Isometric
Ramp-Access Design Level B1
Ramp-Access Design Level B2 & B3
Ramp-Access Design Level B4
Ramp-Access Design Car & Floor Area Tabulation LEVE L STALL S AREA (SQ. FT.) EFFICIENC Y (SF/STALL) B17534,150455 B29637,150387 B39637,150387 B47930,318384 TOTA L 346138,768401
Automated Parking – Level B1 90 High Bay Spaces Retrieval Lane Entry & Exit Ramp Waiting Area Stairs & Elevators L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9
Automated Parking Option - Level B2/B3 168 Spaces Per Level Retrieval Lane These spaces may need to be sacrificed depending on how the elevators and stairs can be supported above.
Automated Parking Car & Floor Area Tabulation LEVE L STALL S AREA (SQ. FT.) EFFICIENC Y (SF/STALL) B19034,150379 B216837,150221 B38819,448221 TOTA L 34690,748262 Comments: Added 80 stalls compared to ramp-access design (23% increase). Eliminated an entire basement level (30,318 sf less floor area or 22% decrease). Parking efficiency improved 36%.
Automated Parking Section System Height Required above lifts Required in retrieval aisle 1’ 6” Note: Depth below grade reduced by 13’-2”
Automated Parking Option
Automated Parking Capacity and Height System Level Structure Depth Vehicle Clearance Total Height Parking Spaces 13’ 0”7’ 0”10’ 0”90 29”6’ 8”7’ 5”168 39”5’ 6”6’ 3”168 Total4’ 6”19’ 2”23’ 8”426
Construction Cost Comparison Delete lowest basement level – 48,020 sf X $125 per sf = $6,002,500 Automated Parking System Cost – $19,500 per space X 426 sp = $8,307,000 Net Additional Cost = $2,304,500
Volume Comparison Leve l Area SF Height FT Volume CF B134,15010341,500 B237,15010371,500 B337,15010371,500 B430,31810303,180 Total1,387,680 Leve l Area SF Heigh t FT Volume CF B134,150 10’ 0” 341,500 B237,150 7’ 5” 275,529 B319,448 6’ 3” 121,550 B4000 Total738,579 (53%) Ramp-Access Garage Automated Garage
TaskLowHighAverage Loading.0169 Storage.1228.4408.2818 Retrieval.1228.4408.2818 Total.2625.8984.5804 Cost Per Car Parked @ ¢.11 cents/kWh ¢.028¢.098¢.064 Automated Parking Energy Use
Vehicle Emissions Comparison – CO2 Source: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association, Parking magazine, March 2009
Vehicle Emissions Comparison – NO2 Source: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association, Parking magazine, March 2009
Vehicle Emissions Comparison – CO Source: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association, Parking magazine, March 2009 –
Vehicle Emissions Comparison - VOC Source: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association, Parking magazine, March 2009
Energy Consumption Source: “The Garage of the Future must be Green” by Samuel I. Schwartz, National Parking Association, Parking magazine, March 2009
LEED V2.2 Analysis – Sustainable Site ItemDescriptionPoints Avail. Automated Garage Ramp Garage Prereq 1Construction Pollution Prevention111 Credit 1Avoid building on or near protected land111 Credit 2Two story development density110 Credit 3Remediate and build on Brownfield site100 Credit 4.1Public Transportation Access111 Credit 4.2Bicycle storage/changing rooms (5%)111 Credit 4.3Prefer. parking for fuel-efficient vehicles (5%)111 Credit 4.4Minimize capacity/preferential carpool parking111 Credit 5.1Protect or restore habitat100 Credit 5.2Maximize open space > garage footprint100 Credit 6.1Post stormwater ≤ Prior stormwater111 Credit 6.2Capture and treat stormwater111 Credit 7.1Cover 50% of parking spaces111 Credit 7.2Roofing Solar Reflectance Index ≥ 78111 Credit 8Light pollution reduction111 SubTotal141211
LEED V2.2 Analysis – Water Efficiency ItemDescriptionPoints Avail. Automated Garage Ramp Garage Credit 1.1Reduce irrigation by 50% from baseline111 Credit 1.2No potable water use or no irrigation for landscape111 Credit 2Reduce building sewage effluent by 50%100 Credit 3.1Reduce water use by 20% from baseline100 Credit 3.2Reduce water use by 30% from baseline100 SubTotal522
LEED V2.2 Analysis – Energy & Atmosphere ItemDescriptionPoints Avail. Automated Garage Ramp Garage Prereq 1Performance verification of building energy systems111 Prereq 2Energy systems ≤ ASHRAE 90.1-2004 limits111 Prereq 3Zero use of CFC-based refrigerants111 Credit 1Optimize Energy Performance <<< ASHRAE 90.110 6 Credit 2On-site renewable energy (i.e. solar or wind)333 Credit 3Enhanced commissioning of energy systems111 Credit 4Minimize ozone depletion & global warming111 Credit 5Measurement/verification plan to evaluating energy system performance 111 Credit 6Green Power (35% of electricity for 2 yrs)111 SubTotal20 16
LEED V2.2 Analysis – Materials & Resources ItemDescriptionPoints Avail. Automated Garage Ramp Garage Prereq 1Storage & collection of recyclables111 Credit 1.175% existing building structure re-use100 Credit 1.2100% of existing building structure re-use100 Credit 1.3Maintain 50% of interior Non-structural elements100 Credit 2.1Recycle or salvage 50% of demolition debris111 Credit 2.2Recycle or salvage 75% of demolition debris111 Credit 3.1Re-use 5% of material value with salvaged demolition debris 100 Credit 3.2Re-use 10% of material value with salvaged demolition debris 100 Credit 4.1Use recycled content ≥ 10% of material value111 Credit 4.2Use recycled content ≥ 20% of material value100 Credit 5.1Manufacture 10% of materials within 500 miles111 Credit 5.2Manufacture 20% of materials within 500 miles111 Credit 6Use 10% more materials than 5.1 extracted, recovered or harvested within 500 miles 100 Credit 7Certified wood ≥ 2.5% of value of all materials100 SubTotal1466
LEED V2.2 Analysis – Indoor Environment ItemDescriptionPoints Avail. Automated Garage Ramp Garage Prereq 1Meet ASHRAE 62.1-2004 indoor air ventilation reqmts100 Prereq 2Minimize environmental tobacco smoke exposure111 Credit 1Monitor ventilation system performance110 Credit 2Provide additional outdoor air ventilation110 Credit 3.1Implement indoor air quality plan during construction110 Credit 3.2Implement indoor air quality plan before occupancy110 Credit 4.1All adhesives and sealants shall comply with SCAQMD111 Credit 4.2Do not exceed VOC limits by SCAQMD for paint & coatinngs111 Credit 4.3All carpet should be Carpet & Rug Institutes green label100 Credit 4.4Wood products shall contain no added urea-formaldehyde resins100 Credit 5Minimize exposure to hazardous particulates & chemicals110 Credit 6.1Provide lighting system controllability by users110 Credit 6.2Provide thermal comfort controllability by users110 Credit 7.1HVAC systems & building envelope per ASHRAE 55-2004110 Credit 7.2Implement a thermal comfort survey within 6 to 18 months110 Credit 8.1Provide daylight & views to 75% of occupied areas100 Credit 8.2Provide daylight & views to 90% of occupied areas100 SubTotal15123
LEED V2.2 Analysis – Design Innovation ItemDescriptionPoints Avail. Automated Garage Ramp Garage Credit 1.1Low mercury lighting*111 Credit 1.2Management plan for car pooling/bus transit*101 Credit 1.3Hybrid Zipcar on site for employee use*100 Credit 1.4Use non-hydraulic, energy-efficient elevators*111 Credit 1.xInstall snow melting system/eliminate de-icers*100 Credit 2Use LEED Accredited professional111 SubTotal634 Project Totals695542 * - Previously accepted Innovation in Design Credits
LEED Certification Levels Certified26-32 points Silver33-38 points Gold39-51 points Platinum52-69 points Conventional Garage = LEED Gold Automated Garage = LEED Platinum Note: Stand-alone parking garages cannot be LEED certified, however, they can contribute points toward any occupied space on the same site.
Building Code Issues for Automated Parking Facilities Use & Occupancy Classification Access Fire Protection Ventilation
Use & Occupancy Classification Group S-2 Occupancy Classification for low hazard (non- combustible) storage. Section 406.2 of International Building Code (IBC) applies to storage of motor vehicles. Doesn’t adequately address the special case of automated rack storage of automobiles in an unoccupied storage vault. Section 413 of IBC indicates high-piled stock or rack storage in any occupancy group shall comply with Chapter 23 of the International Fire Code (IFC). Storage of motor vehicles is classified as a Class I commodity.
Access Section 406.3.8 of IBC indicates “Where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there shall not be less than two 36-inch wide exit stairways”. Chapter 23 of IFC requires a minimum of one access door in each 100 lineal feet of the exterior wall that faces the fire department access road. 24-inch wide aisles required for fire department access (i.e. ladders and catwalks).
Fire Protection High piled storage area greater than 2500 sf requires automatic fire extinguishing system. Maximum pile dimension equals 100 feet (between aisles). Maximum storage height equals 40 feet. Maximum pile volume equals 400,000 cubic feet. Type of construction: TABLE 503 (partial). ALLOWABLE HEIGHT AND BUILDING AREAS Group Type of Construction Fire Rating Type 1A- Three Hour Type 1B- Two Hour Type IIA- One Hour Type IIB- Non-rated S-2StoriesUnlimited1154 Allowable AreaUnlimited79,00039,00026,000
Ventilation Smoke venting at ceiling required. No ventilation of vehicle emissions required. Ventilation rate of 0.05 cfm per sf of floor area required (1/15 of airflow required for dispersing vehicle emissions).
Summary Automated Parking Garages provide equivalent capacity to a conventional, ramp-access garage in approximately half the volume. Automated Parking Garages pollute far less than conventional, ramp-access garages. Automated Parking Garages provide more LEED certification points than conventional, ramp-access garages. Automated Parking Garages should be designed as high- piled, rack storage facilities in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 23 of the IFC for Class I commodities.