5 What is a Façade ?The building envelope (typically 15 °to the building face)MaterialsTimberPlasticsGRPGlazingPolymeric compositesCement based productsWith and without insulation‘Green’It is frequently a kit of parts
7 Fire Spread in Building Envelopes Fires involving multi-storey buildingsare a risk to lifeproperty lossdisruption to commercial business ordomestic life if dwellings are involved.You TubeThis slide used to say rarely!!!!!!
8 Fire Spread in Building Envelopes Knowsley HeightsBasingstokeIrvinePaddington, London – 2003The Edge, Manchester – 2004Windsor Tower, Madrid – 2005Berlin 2005Hungary 2009Dijon France 2010ChechnyaUAEUSA
9 Fire Spread in Building Envelopes – Al Nahda Tower, Sharjah 28th April 2012 – Mermoz Roubaix, France 15th May 2012 – Polat Tower, Instanbul, Turkey, 17th July 2012 – Tamweel Tower, Dubai, 18th November 2012
10 Knowsley HeightsKnowsley Heights, Manchester (1991). A fire was started deliberately in the rubbish compound outside the 11-storey apartment block. The fire spread rapidly through a 90 mm gap between the building's rubberised, paint-covered concrete outer wall and a recently installed rain screen cladding (with limited combustibility). The fire spread all the way to the highest floor and seriously damaged the outer walls and windows of all the upper floors. This rapid fire spread was caused by the lack of fire barriers in the cavity gap, passing all 11 floors and providing a flue for hot gases to rise.
11 Knowsley Heights – 1991Knowsley Heights, Manchester (1991). A fire was started deliberately in the rubbish compound outside the 11-storey apartment block. The fire spread rapidly through a 90 mm gap between the building's rubberised, paint-covered concrete outer wall and a recently installed rain screen cladding (with limited combustibility). The fire spread all the way to the highest floor and seriously damaged the outer walls and windows of all the upper floors. This rapid fire spread was caused by the lack of fire barriers in the cavity gap, passing all 11 floors and providing a flue for hot gases to rise.
12 External Fire Spread – Irvine 1999 11th June 19995th Floor Flat14 Storey BlockIn the summer of 1999, a Parliamentary inquiry into the potential risk of fire spread in buildings via External Cladding was held by the Environment Sub-committee of the Environment Transport and Regional affairs committee.A fatal fire at a 13-storey block of flats, in Irvine, Ayrshire, in June 1999 spread from a fifth floor flat to the outside of the building and externally to the eight floors above. The upper floors were engulfed in flames within minutes. It was one of several fires in which the flames had spread externally up the building and into the upper floors with serious consequences.
13 External Fire Spread – Basingstoke 1992 Significant insurance loss.
15 External Fire SpreadFires allowed to develop may flash over and break out through windows.Flames spread up over or through the cladding.Flames can extend over 2m above window opening. Regardless of cladding materials.If fire re-enters building secondary fires may then develop
16 Mechanisms of External Fire Spread Combustible materialsCavities eitherPart of system.Created by delamination.Flames in cavities can extend 5 to 10 times original length regardless of materials present.
17 Experimental Programmes – Fire Spread 14 min15 min13 min
19 Building Regulation Guidance – Approved Document B
20 Building Regulations - Fire safety Functional Requirements B1 Means of Warning and EscapeB2 Internal Fire Spread (Linings)B3 Internal Fire Spread (Structure)B4 External Fire SpreadB5 Access and Facilities for the Fire ServiceAddress Life Safety Issues
21 Building Regulations (Fire Safety )– Guidance Approved Document B (ADB)Two Volumes
22 B2 B3 & B4 – Limiting fire spread B2 Internal Fire Spread (Linings)B3 Internal Fire Spread (Structure)CompartmentationLoadbearing elementsCavity barriersB4 External Fire SpreadExternal WallsRoofs
23 ADB - External Surfaces Approved Document B (ADB) considers:Building Use; schools, dwellings, industrial etcBuilding HeightsDistances to BoundariesFire Performance Characteristics of :Components and / orComplete systems for use over 18m
24 ADB - External Surfaces Diagram 40, restricts the combustibility of external walls of high buildings, to reduce the danger from fire spread up the external face of the building.
25 External Walls over 18m in Height A summary of Volume 2 Section 12 guidance based on components for Buildings Over 18mExternal surfaces comply with Diagram 40All insulation and filler materials should be A2-s3,d2 or betterAll cavity barriers and fire stopping guidance needs to be followedORTest the complete system to BS 8414
26 BS 8414: Part 1: 2002Test method for non-load bearing external cladding systems applied to the face of the buildingThis test method was developed to address systems installed to masonry structures.
27 Test Facility Level 2 Level 1 Minimum height of sample: 6 m above chamber openingground to full height on wingWidth:2.8 m main face1.5 m wingDepth:Part 1 - Maximum sample depth 200 mmLevel 1Level 22500
28 Location of Thermocouples at Level 2 Internal structure
29 Test PrinciplesThe duration of the fire load is 30 minutes. Test runs up to 60 minutes
30 Post Test Damage is recorded in the following areas: flame spread on surfaceflame spread in cavities or insulationarea of façade damaged or detachedPrimary Pass/Failure criteriaTime/temperature at Level 2, 600 deg C at 15 minutes
38 Modern Methods of Construction BS : 2005For systems where the masonry structure is no longer present.Same fire load and methodology at BS :2002Classification is in Annex B to BR135
39 Europe ETAG 004 – no large-scale fire test specified Many European states have similar tests for façade systems recognising the need to understand the system interactions.EOTA group now working developing a full scale test method.CEN mandate ???
41 LPS Schemes & Technical Approval Building Regulations and Approved Document B only address Life SafetyLPS approval provides on going certification and market support for products against both life safety and property protection performance criteria.
42 Loss Prevention schemes LPS 1581 Based on BS for masonry backed systemsLPS 1582 Based on BS for non-masonry backed systemsStandards and listings are free to download from: