2Contents 1. Who planted that there? … 10 questions 2. Water, water everywhere … 19 questions3. Transport in plants … 10 questions4. Plants need minerals too … 19 questions5. Energy flow … questions6. Farming … questions7. Decay … questions8. Recycling … 8 questions
3Chapter 1Who Planted That There?10 QuestionsBack to contents page
4Identify the parts of a plant cell Question 1Identify the parts of a plant cell?Cell wallCytoplasm?Cell membrane?Nucleus?Vacuole?Chloroplasts?
5Question 2 What is the role of chloroplasts? To absorb light energy for photosynthesis
6Where does photosynthesis mainly occur? Question 3Where does photosynthesis mainly occur?In the leaves
7Question 4 What 2 things are needed for photosynthesis? Water thought the rootsCarbon dioxide through leaf pores
8What is given out by photosynthesis? Oxygen through leaf pores Question 5What is given out by photosynthesis?Oxygen through leaf pores
9Locate the parts of a leaf Question 6??Locate the parts of a leaf?????????
10How are leaves adapted to photosynthesis? Question 7Broad, so large surface areaThin, so short distance for gases to travelContain chlorophyll to absorb lightHave a network of veins for support and transportStomata for gas exchangeHow are leaves adapted to photosynthesis?
11The exchange of gases in the stomata is by ? Question 8The exchange of gases in the stomata is by ?Diffusion
12Question 9How is the structure of a leaf palisade cell related to its function?It contains many chloroplasts
13Question 10How is the cellular structure of a leaf adapted for efficient photosynthesis?(Complete the sentence)1. Epidermis is thin and transparent . . .To allow more light to reach the palisade cells
14Question 10How is the cellular structure of a leaf adapted for efficient photosynthesis?2. Thin cuticle made of wax . . .To protect the leaf without blocking out light
15Question 10How is the cellular structure of a leaf adapted for efficient photosynthesis?3. Palisade cell layer at top of leaf. . .Contains most of the chloroplast, to absorb more light
164. Air spaces in the spongy layer. . . Question 10How is the cellular structure of a leaf adapted for efficient photosynthesis?4. Air spaces in the spongy layer. . .Allow carbon dioxide to diffuse between the stomata and photosynthesising cells, and increase the surface area
17Question 10How is the cellular structure of a leaf adapted for efficient photosynthesis?5. Palisade cells contain many chloroplasts. . .To absorb all the available light
18Water, Water Everywhere Chapter 2Water, Water Everywhere19 QuestionsBack to contents page
19Question 1 How does water move in and out of plant cells? Through the cell wall and membrane
20What is the role of the plant cell wall? Question 2What is the role of the plant cell wall?To provide support
21A lack of water can cause…? Question 3A lack of water can cause…?Plants to droop (wilt)
22Describe how water travels through a plant Question 4Absorption from soil through root hairsTransport through the plant to the leavesEvaporation from the leaves (transpiration)Describe how water travels through a plant
23Question 5 Healthy plants must do what? They must balance water loss with water uptake
24Question 6 What is osmosis? The movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from an area of high concentration ( ie. dilute solution) to an area of high concentration (ie. concentrated solution)What is osmosis?
26‘partially permeable’ Question 8A membrane that allows some small molecules to pass through but not larger moleculesExplain the term‘partially permeable’
27Question 9 What is essential for the support of plants? The inelastic wall and water
28What is so special about root hairs? Question 10By increasing the surface area, root hairs increase the ability of roots to take up water by osmosisWhat is so special about root hairs?
29Transpiration provides plants with water for…? Question 11CoolingPhotosynthesisSupport4. Movement of mineralsTranspiration provides plants with water for…?
30Question 12 How is a leaf adapted to reduce excessive water loss? Waxy cuticle2. Small number of stomata on upper surface
31Question 13An animal cell does not have a cell wall It will:Swell and burst (lysis) when too much water entersShrink, causing crenation, when too much water leavesDescribe the effects of water uptake and loss on animal cells
32Question 14How are plants supported by the turgor pressure within cells?By the wall pressure acting against inelastic cell wall
33Question 15 What is essential for the support of plants? The inelastic wall and water
35Question 17The shrinking of a plant cell due to loss of water, the cell membrane pulls away from the cell wallExplain the term‘plasmolysis’
36Question 18Plant cells which are full of water with their walls bowed out and pushing against neighbouring cells are turgidExplain the term‘turgid’
37Question 19Changes in guard cell turgidity to regulate stomatal apertures2. Number, distribution, position and size of stomataHow is the cellular structure of a leaf adapted to reduce water loss?
38Chapter 3Transport In Plants10 QuestionsBack to contents page
39Water and mineral uptake, anchorage Question 1What is the role of the …Stem:Support, transportLeaf:PhotosynthesisFlower:ReproductionRoot:Water and mineral uptake, anchorage
40Question 2Describe the arrangement of xylem and phloem in a dicotyledonous root, stem and leafVascular bundles
41What is the function of xylem? Question 3Transpiration, movement of water and minerals from the roots to the shoot and leavesWhat is the function of xylem?
42What is the function of phloem? Question 4Translocation, movement of food substances (sugars) up and down stems to growing and storing tissuesWhat is the function of phloem?
43Question 5 What do xylem and phloem form? Continuous systems in leaves, stems and roots
44Question 6Thick strengthened cellulose wall with a hollow lumen (dead cells)Describe the structure of xylem
45Describe the structure of phloem Columns of living cells Question 7Describe the structure of phloemColumns of living cells
46The evaporation and diffusion of water from inside leaves Question 8What is transpiration?The evaporation and diffusion of water from inside leaves
47Question 9 Transpiration rate is increased by…? Increase in light intensity2. Increase in temperature3. Increase in air movement4. Decrease in humidityTranspiration rate is increased by…?
48Question 10 Why does the rate of transpiration increase when … (Complete the sentence)1. There is an increase in light intensity?Because the stomata opens up. This allows more water to escape
49Question 10 Why does the rate of transpiration increase when … 2. There is an increase in temperature?Because as the temperature increases, the random movement of water molecules increases and more water escapes
50Question 10 Why does the rate of transpiration increase when … 3. There is an increase in air movement?Because wind causes more molecules near stomata to be removed. This increases evaporation and diffusion from inside the leaf
51Question 10 Why does the rate of transpiration increase when … 4. There is an decrease in humidity?Because in dry conditions there is a very low concentration of water molecules outside the leaf. This causes more diffusion of water from inside the leaf to the outside
52Plants Need Minerals Too Chapter 4Plants Need Minerals Too19 QuestionsBack to contents page
53Fertilisers contain mineral such as …? Question 1NitratesPhosphatesPotassium4. Magnesium compoundsFertilisers contain mineral such as …?
54Question 2 Poor plant growth may be caused by …? A lack of one or more minerals in the soil
55Dissolved minerals are absorbed by …? Question 3Dissolved minerals are absorbed by …?The roots from the soil
56Question 4 Why do plants require nitrates? For protein, which are needed for cell growth
57Why do plants require phosphates? For respiration and growth Question 5Why do plants require phosphates?For respiration and growth
58Question 6 Why do plants require potassium compounds? For respiration and photosynthesis
59Why do plants require magnesium compounds? Question 7Why do plants require magnesium compounds?For photosynthesis
60What would a lack of nitrate cause? Poor growth and yellow leaves Question 8What would a lack of nitrate cause?Poor growth and yellow leaves
61Question 9 What would a lack of phosphate cause? Poor root growth and discoloured leaves
62Question 10 What would a lack of potassium cause? Poor flower and fruit growth, and discoloured leaves
63What would a lack of magnesium cause? Question 11What would a lack of magnesium cause?Yellow leaves
64Question 12 Where are minerals usually present? In soil, in quite low concentration
65Why is nitrogen required? To make amino acids and proteins Question 13Why is nitrogen required?To make amino acids and proteins
66Why is phosphorus required? To make DNA and cell membranes Question 14Why is phosphorus required?To make DNA and cell membranes
67Question 15 Why is potassium required? To help enzymes (in photosynthesis and respiration)
68Why is magnesium required? Question 16Why is magnesium required?To make chlorophyll
69How are minerals taken up into root hair cells? Question 17How are minerals taken up into root hair cells?By active transport
70Describe active transport Question 18Active transport can move substances from low concentration to high concentrationDescribe active transport
71Active transport uses energy from …? Question 19Active transport uses energy from …?Respiration
72Chapter 5Energy Flow16 QuestionsBack to contents page
73An organism that makes organic material Question 1What does‘producer’mean?An organism that makes organic material
74Question 2 What does ‘consumer’ mean? Organisms in an ecosystem that use up organic matter produced by other organisms
75Question 3 Where does the energy in a food chain come from? It comes from plants absorbing sunlight
76What do plants produce when they photosynthesise? Question 4What do plants produce when they photosynthesise?Biomass
77Name three fuels that come from biomass Question 5Name three fuels that come from biomassWoodAlcoholBiogas
78What is a pyramid of numbers? Question 6A diagram to show the number of living organisms present at each trophic level in an ecosystemWhat is a pyramid of numbers?
79What is a pyramid of biomass? Question 7A diagram to show the masses of living organisms present at each trophic level in an ecosystemWhat is a pyramid of biomass?
80Question 8 How does energy from the sun flow through food chains? By photosynthesis and feeding
81Question 9Name two less useful forms that energy is transferred to at each stage in the food chainHeat from respiration2. Egestion
82Question 10 Name two methods of transferring energy from biomass Burning fast growing trees2. Fermenting biomass using bacteria or yeast
83Question 11 What does the word ‘trophic’ mean? The level at which an organism gets its food.Primary producers are level onePrimary consumers are level twoSecondary consumers are level threeWhat does the word‘trophic’mean?
84Question 12The shape of a pyramid of biomass shows that the energy level decreases with increasing trophic levelExplain how the efficiency of energy transfer explains the shape of pyramids of biomass
85Question 13As each trophic level ‘loses’ up to 90% of the available energy, the length of a food chain is limited to a small number of linksExplain how the efficiency of energy transfer the limited length of food chains
86What is the formula to calculate the efficiency of energy transfer ? Question 14Efficiency =Energy used for growth÷Energy suppliedWhat is the formula to calculate the efficiency of energy transfer ?
87Give three reasons for developing biofuels Question 15Give three reasons for developing biofuelsRenewable2. Reduces air pollution3. Energy self-reliance
88Discuss choice of use of biofuel 2. Feeding it to livestock Question 16Discuss choice of use of biofuelEating it2. Feeding it to livestock3. Using it as a fuel4. Growing the seeds
89Chapter 6Farming22 QuestionsBack to contents page
91Question 2What do herbicides do?Kill plants (weeds)
92Question 3 Give two examples of pesticides 1. Insecticides (to kill insects)2. Fungicides (to kill fungi)
93Question 41. Greenhouses2. Hydroponics3. Fish farms4. Battery hensSome farmers use special methods to increase their production of food such as …?
941. No artificial fertilisers Describe organic farming methods Question 51. No artificial fertilisers2. No herbicides3. No pesticidesDescribe organic farming methods
95By introducing a new predator or removing an old one Question 6Describe how pests can be controlled biologically by introducing predatorsBy introducing a new predator or removing an old one
96Describe intensive farming Question 7Trying to produce as much food as possible from the land, plants and animals availableDescribe intensive farming
97What is an advantage of intensive farming? Question 8What is an advantage of intensive farming?It is efficient
98Question 9 What are disadvantages of intensive farming? 1. It raises ethical dilemmas2. Pesticides may enter and accumulate in food chains3. Pesticides may harm organisms which are not pestsWhat are disadvantages of intensive farming?
99Describe how plants can be grown without soil (hydroponics) Question 10Describe how plants can be grown without soil (hydroponics)The plant roots are in specially treated water that contains the required amounts of fertiliser and oxygen
100Question 11 Describe possible uses of hydroponics 1. Glasshouse tomato 2. Plant growth in areas of barren soil
101Question 12 Describe organic farming techniques Use of animal manure and compost2. Crop rotation3. Use of nitrogen-fixing crops4. Weeding5. Varying seed planting timesDescribe organic farming techniques
102Explain an advantage of biological control No harmful chemicals used Question 13Explain an advantage of biological controlNo harmful chemicals used
103Question 14 Explain a disadvantage of biological control Takes a long time and often do not kill all the pests
104Question 15Some animal populations may increase because fewer are eaten while others may decrease because predators are short of food and have to eat something elseExplain how removing one organism from a food chain or web may affect other organisms
105Question 16How do intensive food production improve the efficiency of energy transfer by reducing energy transfer?Reduce energy transfer to competing plants2. Reduce energy transfer to pests3. Reduces heat loss from animals
106Because there are fewer weeds in crops Question 17Explain how intensive food production improves the efficiency of energy transfer …1. To competing plants?Because there are fewer weeds in crops
107Question 17Explain how intensive food production improves the efficiency of energy transfer …2. To pests?Because there are fewer pests to attack and east crops or cause disease in livestock
108Question 17Explain how intensive food production improves the efficiency of energy transfer …3. As heat?Because less heat is lost from animals kept in sheds and their movement is restricted
109How can pesticides accumulate in food chains? Question 18The pesticide in the organisms low down the food chain gets passed on to predators higher up in the chain, and they get a lethal doseHow can pesticides accumulate in food chains?
110Question 19 1. Better control of mineral levels 2. Better control of diseaseDescribe two advantages of hydroponics
111Question 20 1. Lack of support for plants 2. Requires additional fertilisersDescribe two disadvantages of hydroponics
112Question 21 Describe three advantages of organic farming methods 1. Expensive chemicals do not have to be bought2. No chemical build pollution or build up in food chains3. Some people think the products taste betterDescribe three advantages of organic farming methods
113Question 22 Describe two disadvantages of organic farming methods 1. Biological control methods are slow and do not kill pests2. Crop yields are reduced and cost of products are higher
115Question 1 What four things are needed in the process of decay? 1. Presence of micro organisms2. Temperature3. Oxygen4. MoistureWhat four things are needed in the process of decay?
116Question 2 How can materials be recycled? Materials can decay and can therefore be recycled
117Question 3Two samples of soil are collected2. One sample is heated but not burned3. Both samples are weighed and then put in sealed flasks containing limewater4. After two days the soil samples are re-weighed5. Only the fresh soil sample loses mass6. The limewater in the flask containing the fresh soil turns from clear to milky.7. This shows that carbon dioxide is producedDescribe an experiment to show that decay is caused by decomposers (bacteria and fungi)
118Question 4 Name two things that micro organisms can be used for 1. Breaking down human waste (sewage)2. Breaking down plant waste (compost)Name two things that micro organisms can be used for
119Name six food preservation techniques that reduce the rate of decay Question 51. Canning2. Cooling3. Freezing4. Drying5. Adding salt / sugar6. Adding vinegarName six food preservation techniques that reduce the rate of decay
120What do detritivores feed on and give examples? Question 6What do detritivores feed on and give examples?They feed on dead and decaying material (detritus), such as earthworms, maggots, woodlice, etc
121Question 7 How do detritivores increase the rate of decay? They produce larger surface area
122Question 8Explain how the following food preservation method reduces the rate of decay …1. CanningThe food is heated to kill bacteria. The food is then put into cans and sealed while it is still hot. This forms a vacuum and prevents the entry of oxygen and bacteria
123The high temperature kills bacteria Question 8Explain how the following food preservation method reduces the rate of decay …2. CoolingThe high temperature kills bacteria
124Question 8Explain how the following food preservation method reduces the rate of decay …3. FreezingFreezing kills and slows down the growth of others. Freezing food stops bacteria from reproducing
125Without water, bacteria and fungi cannot feed and grow Question 8Explain how the following food preservation method reduces the rate of decay …4. DryingWithout water, bacteria and fungi cannot feed and grow
126This is an example of osmosis Question 8Explain how the following food preservation method reduces the rate of decay …5. Adding salt or sugarA high concentration of sugar or salt solution kills some bacteria and fungi and stops the growth of others.This is an example of osmosis
127Question 8Explain how the following food preservation method reduces the rate of decay …6. Adding vinegarVinegar is an acid. Very few bacteria can grow in acid conditions.Food such as pickled eggs and chutney are preserved in this way
128An organism that breaks down dead organic matter Question 9Explain the term‘saprophyte’An organism that breaks down dead organic matter
129Chapter 8Recycling8 QuestionsBack to contents page
130As plants and animals grow, what happens? Question 1As plants and animals grow, what happens?They take in chemicals and incorporate elements from these into their bodies
131Question 2 What happens when plants and animal die and decay? The elements are recycled. These elements include:Carbon2. Nitrogen
132Question 3 Explain how carbon is recycled in nature Plants remove carbon dioxide from air by photosynthesis2. Feeding passes carbon compounds along a food chain or web3. Plants and animals release carbon dioxide into the air, as a product of respiration4. Soil bacteria and fungi, acting as decomposers, release carbon dioxide into the air5. Burning of fossil fuels (combustion) releases carbon dioxideExplain how carbon is recycled in nature
133Question 4 Explain how nitrogen is recycled in nature Plants take in nitrates from the soil to make protein for growth2. Feeding passes nitrogen compounds along a food chain or web3. Nitrogen compounds in dead plants and animal are broken down by decomposers into nitrates and returned to the soilExplain how nitrogen is recycled in nature
134What percentage of the air is nitrogen Question 5What percentage of the air is nitrogen78%
135Why can nitrogen not be used directly by animals or plants? Question 6Why can nitrogen not be used directly by animals or plants?It is too unreactive
136What do soil bacteria and fungi release and how? Question 7What do soil bacteria and fungi release and how?Soil bacteria and fungi, acting as decomposers, release carbon dioxide into the air by respiration
137Question 8 Explain how carbon is recycled in the sea Marine organisms make shells made of carbonates2. Shells become limestone3. Carbon returns to air as carbon dioxide during volcanic eruption or weatheringExplain how carbon is recycled in the sea