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B4 Revision GCSE Gateway Biology B 113 Questions.

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Presentation on theme: "B4 Revision GCSE Gateway Biology B 113 Questions."— Presentation transcript:

1 B4 Revision GCSE Gateway Biology B 113 Questions

2 Contents 1. Who planted that there? …10 questions 2. Water, water everywhere …19 questions 3. Transport in plants … 10 questions 4. Plants need minerals too …19 questions 5. Energy flow … 16 questions 6. Farming …22 questions 7. Decay … 9 questions 8. Recycling …8 questions

3 Who Planted That There? Chapter 1 10 Questions Back to contents page

4 Question 1 Identify the parts of a plant cell ? ? ? ? ? ? Cell wall Cytoplasm Cell membrane Nucleus Chloroplasts Vacuole

5 Question 2 What is the role of chloroplasts? To absorb light energy for photosynthesis

6 Question 3 Where does photosynthesis mainly occur? In the leaves

7 Question 4 What 2 things are needed for photosynthesis ? Water thought the roots Carbon dioxide through leaf pores

8 Question 5 What is given out by photosynthesis ? Oxygen through leaf pores

9 Question 6 Locate the parts of a leaf ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ?

10 Question 7 How are leaves adapted to photosynthesis ? 1.Broad, so large surface area 2.Thin, so short distance for gases to travel 3.Contain chlorophyll to absorb light 4.Have a network of veins for support and transport 5.Stomata for gas exchange

11 Question 8 The exchange of gases in the stomata is by ? Diffusion

12 Question 9 How is the structure of a leaf palisade cell related to its function? It contains many chloroplasts

13 Question 10 How is the cellular structure of a leaf adapted for efficient photosynthesis? (Complete the sentence) 1. Epidermis is thin and transparent... To allow more light to reach the palisade cells

14 Question 10 How is the cellular structure of a leaf adapted for efficient photosynthesis? 2. Thin cuticle made of wax... To protect the leaf without blocking out light

15 Question 10 How is the cellular structure of a leaf adapted for efficient photosynthesis? 3. Palisade cell layer at top of leaf... Contains most of the chloroplast, to absorb more light

16 Question 10 How is the cellular structure of a leaf adapted for efficient photosynthesis? 4. Air spaces in the spongy layer... Allow carbon dioxide to diffuse between the stomata and photosynthesising cells, and increase the surface area

17 Question 10 How is the cellular structure of a leaf adapted for efficient photosynthesis? 5. Palisade cells contain many chloroplasts... To absorb all the available light

18 Water, Water Everywhere Chapter 2 19 Questions Back to contents page

19 Question 1 How does water move in and out of plant cells? Through the cell wall and membrane

20 Question 2 What is the role of the plant cell wall? To provide support

21 Question 3 A lack of water can cause…? Plants to droop (wilt)

22 Question 4 Describe how water travels through a plant 1.Absorption from soil through root hairs 2.Transport through the plant to the leaves 3.Evaporation from the leaves (transpiration)

23 Question 5 Healthy plants must do what? They must balance water loss with water uptake

24 Question 6 What is osmosis? The movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from an area of high concentration ( ie. dilute solution) to an area of high concentration (ie. concentrated solution)

25 Question 7 Osmosis is a type of ? Diffusion

26 Question 8 Explain the term ‘partially permeable’ A membrane that allows some small molecules to pass through but not larger molecules

27 Question 9 What is essential for the support of plants? The inelastic wall and water

28 Question 10 What is so special about root hairs? By increasing the surface area, root hairs increase the ability of roots to take up water by osmosis

29 Question 11 Transpiration provides plants with water for…? 1. Cooling 2. Photosynthesis 3. Support 4. Movement of minerals

30 Question 12 How is a leaf adapted to reduce excessive water loss? 1. Waxy cuticle 2. Small number of stomata on upper surface

31 Question 13 Describe the effects of water uptake and loss on animal cells An animal cell does not have a cell wall It will: 1.Swell and burst (lysis) when too much water enters 2.Shrink, causing crenation, when too much water leaves

32 Question 14 How are plants supported by the turgor pressure within cells? By the wall pressure acting against inelastic cell wall

33 Question 15 What is essential for the support of plants? The inelastic wall and water

34 Question 16 Explain the term ‘flaccid’ floppy

35 Question 17 Explain the term ‘plasmolysis’ The shrinking of a plant cell due to loss of water, the cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall

36 Question 18 Explain the term ‘turgid’ Plant cells which are full of water with their walls bowed out and pushing against neighbouring cells are turgid

37 Question 19 How is the cellular structure of a leaf adapted to reduce water loss? 1.Changes in guard cell turgidity to regulate stomatal apertures 2. Number, distribution, position and size of stomata

38 Transport In Plants Chapter 3 10 Questions Back to contents page

39 Question 1 What is the role of the … Stem: Support, transport Leaf: Photosynthesis Flower: Reproduction Root: Water and mineral uptake, anchorage

40 Question 2 Describe the arrangement of xylem and phloem in a dicotyledonous root, stem and leaf Vascular bundles

41 Question 3 What is the function of xylem? Transpiration, movement of water and minerals from the roots to the shoot and leaves

42 Question 4 What is the function of phloem? Translocation, movement of food substances (sugars) up and down stems to growing and storing tissues

43 Question 5 What do xylem and phloem form? Continuous systems in leaves, stems and roots

44 Question 6 Describe the structure of xylem Thick strengthened cellulose wall with a hollow lumen (dead cells)

45 Question 7 Describe the structure of phloem Columns of living cells

46 Question 8 What is transpiration? The evaporation and diffusion of water from inside leaves

47 Question 9 Transpiration rate is increased by…? 1.Increase in light intensity 2. Increase in temperature 3. Increase in air movement 4. Decrease in humidity

48 Question 10 Why does the rate of transpiration increase when … (Complete the sentence) 1. There is an increase in light intensity? Because the stomata opens up. This allows more water to escape

49 Question 10 Why does the rate of transpiration increase when … 2. There is an increase in temperature? Because as the temperature increases, the random movement of water molecules increases and more water escapes

50 Question 10 Why does the rate of transpiration increase when … 3. There is an increase in air movement? Because wind causes more molecules near stomata to be removed. This increases evaporation and diffusion from inside the leaf

51 Question 10 Why does the rate of transpiration increase when … 4. There is an decrease in humidity? Because in dry conditions there is a very low concentration of water molecules outside the leaf. This causes more diffusion of water from inside the leaf to the outside

52 Plants Need Minerals Too Chapter 4 19 Questions Back to contents page

53 Question 1 Fertilisers contain mineral such as …? 1. Nitrates 2. Phosphates 3. Potassium 4. Magnesium compounds

54 Question 2 Poor plant growth may be caused by …? A lack of one or more minerals in the soil

55 Question 3 Dissolved minerals are absorbed by …? The roots from the soil

56 Question 4 Why do plants require nitrates? For protein, which are needed for cell growth

57 Question 5 Why do plants require phosphates? For respiration and growth

58 Question 6 Why do plants require potassium compounds? For respiration and photosynthesis

59 Question 7 Why do plants require magnesium compounds? For photosynthesis

60 Question 8 What would a lack of nitrate cause? Poor growth and yellow leaves

61 Question 9 What would a lack of phosphate cause? Poor root growth and discoloured leaves

62 Question 10 What would a lack of potassium cause? Poor flower and fruit growth, and discoloured leaves

63 Question 11 What would a lack of magnesium cause? Yellow leaves

64 Question 12 Where are minerals usually present? In soil, in quite low concentration

65 Question 13 Why is nitrogen required? To make amino acids and proteins

66 Question 14 Why is phosphorus required? To make DNA and cell membranes

67 Question 15 Why is potassium required? To help enzymes (in photosynthesis and respiration)

68 Question 16 Why is magnesium required? To make chlorophyll

69 Question 17 How are minerals taken up into root hair cells? By active transport

70 Question 18 Describe active transport Active transport can move substances from low concentration to high concentration

71 Question 19 Active transport uses energy from …? Respiration

72 Energy Flow Chapter 5 16 Questions Back to contents page

73 Question 1 What does ‘producer’ mean? An organism that makes organic material

74 Question 2 What does ‘consumer’ mean? Organisms in an ecosystem that use up organic matter produced by other organisms

75 Question 3 Where does the energy in a food chain come from? It comes from plants absorbing sunlight

76 Question 4 What do plants produce when they photosynthesise ? Biomass

77 Question 5 Name three fuels that come from biomass 1. Wood 2. Alcohol 3. Biogas

78 Question 6 What is a pyramid of numbers? A diagram to show the number of living organisms present at each trophic level in an ecosystem

79 Question 7 What is a pyramid of biomass? A diagram to show the masses of living organisms present at each trophic level in an ecosystem

80 Question 8 How does energy from the sun flow through food chains? By photosynthesis and feeding

81 Question 9 Name two less useful forms that energy is transferred to at each stage in the food chain 1. Heat from respiration 2. Egestion

82 Question 10 Name two methods of transferring energy from biomass 1. Burning fast growing trees 2. Fermenting biomass using bacteria or yeast

83 Question 11 What does the word ‘trophic’ mean? The level at which an organism gets its food. Primary producers are level one Primary consumers are level two Secondary consumers are level three

84 Question 12 Explain how the efficiency of energy transfer explains the shape of pyramids of biomass The shape of a pyramid of biomass shows that the energy level decreases with increasing trophic level

85 Question 13 Explain how the efficiency of energy transfer the limited length of food chains As each trophic level ‘loses’ up to 90% of the available energy, the length of a food chain is limited to a small number of links

86 Question 14 What is the formula to calculate the efficiency of energy transfer ? Efficiency = Energy used for growth ÷ Energy supplied

87 Question 15 Give three reasons for developing biofuels 1. Renewable 2. Reduces air pollution 3. Energy self- reliance

88 Question 16 Discuss choice of use of biofuel 1. Eating it 2. Feeding it to livestock 3. Using it as a fuel 4. Growing the seeds

89 Farming Chapter 6 22 Questions Back to contents page

90 Question 1 What do pesticides do? Kill pests

91 Question 2 What do herbicides do? Kill plants (weeds)

92 Question 3 Give two examples of pesticides 1. Insecticides (to kill insects) 2. Fungicides (to kill fungi)

93 Question 4 Some farmers use special methods to increase their production of food such as …? 1. Greenhouses 2. Hydroponics 3. Fish farms 4. Battery hens

94 Question 5 Describe organic farming methods 1. No artificial fertilisers 2. No herbicides 3. No pesticides

95 Question 6 Describe how pests can be controlled biologically by introducing predators By introducing a new predator or removing an old one

96 Question 7 Describe intensive farming Trying to produce as much food as possible from the land, plants and animals available

97 Question 8 What is an advantage of intensive farming? It is efficient

98 Question 9 What are disadvantages of intensive farming? 1. It raises ethical dilemmas 2. Pesticides may enter and accumulate in food chains 3. Pesticides may harm organisms which are not pests

99 Question 10 Describe how plants can be grown without soil (hydroponics) The plant roots are in specially treated water that contains the required amounts of fertiliser and oxygen

100 Question 11 Describe possible uses of hydroponics 1. Glasshouse tomato 2. Plant growth in areas of barren soil

101 Question 12 Describe organic farming techniques 1.Use of animal manure and compost 2. Crop rotation 3. Use of nitrogen- fixing crops 4. Weeding 5. Varying seed planting times

102 Question 13 Explain an advantage of biological control No harmful chemicals used

103 Question 14 Explain a disadvantage of biological control Takes a long time and often do not kill all the pests

104 Question 15 Explain how removing one organism from a food chain or web may affect other organisms Some animal populations may increase because fewer are eaten while others may decrease because predators are short of food and have to eat something else

105 Question 16 How do intensive food production improve the efficiency of energy transfer by reducing energy transfer? 1. Reduce energy transfer to competing plants 2. Reduce energy transfer to pests 3. Reduces heat loss from animals

106 Question 17 Explain how intensive food production improves the efficiency of energy transfer … 1. To competing plants? Because there are fewer weeds in crops

107 Question 17 Explain how intensive food production improves the efficiency of energy transfer … 2. To pests? Because there are fewer pests to attack and east crops or cause disease in livestock

108 Question 17 Explain how intensive food production improves the efficiency of energy transfer … 3. As heat? Because less heat is lost from animals kept in sheds and their movement is restricted

109 Question 18 How can pesticides accumulate in food chains? The pesticide in the organisms low down the food chain gets passed on to predators higher up in the chain, and they get a lethal dose

110 Question 19 Describe two advantages of hydroponics 1. Better control of mineral levels 2. Better control of disease

111 Question 20 Describe two disadvantages of hydroponics 1. Lack of support for plants 2. Requires additional fertilisers

112 Question 21 Describe three advantages of organic farming methods 1. Expensive chemicals do not have to be bought 2. No chemical build pollution or build up in food chains 3. Some people think the products taste better

113 Question 22 Describe two disadvantages of organic farming methods 1. Biological control methods are slow and do not kill pests 2. Crop yields are reduced and cost of products are higher

114 Decay Chapter 7 9 Questions Back to contents page

115 Question 1 What four things are needed in the process of decay? 1. Presence of micro organisms 2. Temperature 3. Oxygen 4. Moisture

116 Question 2 How can materials be recycled? Materials can decay and can therefore be recycled

117 Question 3 Describe an experiment to show that decay is caused by decomposers (bacteria and fungi) 1.Two samples of soil are collected 2. One sample is heated but not burned 3. Both samples are weighed and then put in sealed flasks containing limewater 4. After two days the soil samples are re-weighed 5. Only the fresh soil sample loses mass 6. The limewater in the flask containing the fresh soil turns from clear to milky. 7. This shows that carbon dioxide is produced

118 Question 4 Name two things that micro organisms can be used for 1. Breaking down human waste (sewage) 2. Breaking down plant waste (compost)

119 Question 5 Name six food preservation techniques that reduce the rate of decay 1. Canning 2. Cooling 3. Freezing 4. Drying 5. Adding salt / sugar 6. Adding vinegar

120 Question 6 What do detritivores feed on and give examples? They feed on dead and decaying material (detritus), such as earthworms, maggots, woodlice, etc

121 Question 7 How do detritivores increase the rate of decay? They produce larger surface area

122 Question 8 Explain how the following food preservation method reduces the rate of decay … 1. Canning The food is heated to kill bacteria. The food is then put into cans and sealed while it is still hot. This forms a vacuum and prevents the entry of oxygen and bacteria

123 Question 8 Explain how the following food preservation method reduces the rate of decay … 2. Cooling The high temperature kills bacteria

124 Question 8 Explain how the following food preservation method reduces the rate of decay … 3. Freezing Freezing kills and slows down the growth of others. Freezing food stops bacteria from reproducing

125 Question 8 Explain how the following food preservation method reduces the rate of decay … 4. Drying Without water, bacteria and fungi cannot feed and grow

126 Question 8 Explain how the following food preservation method reduces the rate of decay … 5. Adding salt or sugar A high concentration of sugar or salt solution kills some bacteria and fungi and stops the growth of others. This is an example of osmosis

127 Question 8 Explain how the following food preservation method reduces the rate of decay … 6. Adding vinegar Vinegar is an acid. Very few bacteria can grow in acid conditions. Food such as pickled eggs and chutney are preserved in this way

128 Question 9 Explain the term ‘saprophyte’ An organism that breaks down dead organic matter

129 Recycling Chapter 8 8 Questions Back to contents page

130 Question 1 As plants and animals grow, what happens? They take in chemicals and incorporate elements from these into their bodies

131 Question 2 What happens when plants and animal die and decay? The elements are recycled. These elements include: Carbon 2. Nitrogen

132 Question 3 Explain how carbon is recycled in nature 1.Plants remove carbon dioxide from air by photosynthesis 2. Feeding passes carbon compounds along a food chain or web 3. Plants and animals release carbon dioxide into the air, as a product of respiration 4. Soil bacteria and fungi, acting as decomposers, release carbon dioxide into the air 5. Burning of fossil fuels (combustion) releases carbon dioxide

133 Question 4 Explain how nitrogen is recycled in nature 1.Plants take in nitrates from the soil to make protein for growth 2. Feeding passes nitrogen compounds along a food chain or web 3. Nitrogen compounds in dead plants and animal are broken down by decomposers into nitrates and returned to the soil

134 Question 5 What percentage of the air is nitrogen 78%

135 Question 6 Why can nitrogen not be used directly by animals or plants? It is too unreactive

136 Question 7 What do soil bacteria and fungi release and how? Soil bacteria and fungi, acting as decomposers, release carbon dioxide into the air by respiration

137 Question 8 Explain how carbon is recycled in the sea 1.Marine organisms make shells made of carbonates 2. Shells become limestone 3. Carbon returns to air as carbon dioxide during volcanic eruption or weathering

138 End Of B4 Revision Back to contents page


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